Staff Education Worksheet

StaffEducation Worksheet

  1. Describe how you determined the staff’s learning needs (e.g., what needs to be taught).

Asa professional, I am aware of the fact that assessing the learningneeds of my target group is an essential part of the educationalprocess. Since I had already made the decision to provide educationto the nurses about pneumothorax, the needs assessment was centeredon the abnormal presence of fluids (either gas or air) in the fissurebetween the chest wall and the lungs. In this regard, the needsassessment emanated from the failure of nurses to adequately set upfor emergency needle aspiration. Secondly, I was informed that theneonatal ICU occasionally got pneumothorax infants that needed chesttube placement. Therefore, I saw the need to educate the nurses onpneumothorax in case they were to come across babies suffering fromthe condition. Third, I saw the need to teach pneumothorax because arecently conducted survey for chest tube drainage systems emphasizedthe need for nurses to be proficient in the medical procedure ofinfant chest tube placement. Finally, there was the need to teach thenurses pneumothorax because it was a topic of interest at the skillsfair in NICU.

  1. Describe how you identified the appropriate teaching methods (e.g., how to teach) to use and why.

Theteaching methods I used to educate the nurses were implemented in thebackdrop of Malcom Knowles’ conception of adult learning. In thecourse of his work, Knowles identified the elementary characteristicsof an adult learner. Knowles observes that adult learners haveaccumulated lifetime experiences and knowledge, are practical,autonomous, goal oriented, and relevancy learners (Lieb, 2012). Justlike all the other learners, Knowles points out that adult learnersneed to be shown the respect they deserve (Lieb, 2012). In additionto Knowles’ conception of adult learning, I also used one of themost widely accepted theories, which is the Visual AuditoryKinesthetic (VAK) learning style. As I was thinking about how tocourteously educate the nurses, the article by Lieb (2012) made meunderstand that there are three types of learners: Visual, Auditory,and Kinesthetic. It is at this moment that I settled on using powerpoint presentations on pneumothorax to educate the nurses.

Iselected power point presentations because I knew they would allow meto effectively reach out to all the three categories of learners. Thevisuals in the pneumothorax presentations helped the visual learnersgrab the concepts while the auditory part of the presentationsassisted the auditory learners hear my lecture and learn from it. Toeffectively reach out to the kinesthetic group of learners, I madeuse of resources that were readily available to make laboratorydemonstrations. In this regard, I used atrium (water seal drainagesystem), pigtail (used this instead of the chest tube catheter), andneedle aspiration kit for both first and return demonstrations. On mygroup of learners, I chose to employ a combination of the services ofpower point presentations and lab demonstrations as my teachingmethods, resting on Knowles’ theory of adult learning throughwhich I treated my learners with utmost regard. Knowles’ and VAK’smodels assisted me identify these teaching methods that enabled allthe three categories of learning nurses absorb the medical conceptsof pneumothorax from my lectures.

  1. Describe the objectives (e.g., goals) you established for obtaining or providing nurse-specified learning needs.

Throughoutmy learning, I came to understand that identifying goals is the firststep in planning guides for the instructional and assessmentprocesses of any course. According to Lieb (2012), this can serve asan instrument for determining and providing reliable information onthe levels to which learners achieve the envisioned resolutions ofthe course. Therefore, I set SMART objectives for obtaining orproviding nurse specified needs, which are explained herein:


Imade the specific objective that nurses had to be able to demonstrateadequate proficiency in setting and acting as assistants in emergencyneedle aspiration and chest tube replacement.


Aftercompletion of the education process, all the nurses in my unitverbally demonstrated the depth of theoretical information they hadacquired from my lectures. Moreover, all the nurses in my instructiveunit demonstrated adequate absorption of the practical concepts ofpneumothorax after completion of the education process.


Afterthe education process was complete, I did not notice any knowledge orskills deficiency on the neonatal nurses. This is because of all thenurses displayed satisfactory levels of skills in emergency needleaspiration and chest tube replacement.


Idetermined the relevance of the skills and knowledge the neonatalnurses had absorbed when they assisted the doctors to perform athoracentesisor thoracotomyon time to start treatment and prevent complications.


Theeducation process was completed in June 2015. Nonetheless, I beganthe process of checking for proficiency in setting the atrium (chesttube drainage system) and assisting for chest tube replacement fromJanuary 2016. These skills were tested each month since the onset ofthe evaluation process.

  1. Describe how you evaluated the effectiveness (e.g., outcomes) of learning after the education was provided.

Toevaluate the effectiveness of learning after education, Iadministered pretest and posttest analyses to assess the level of thenurse’s theoretical achievement. Under my scrutiny, each and everynurse demonstrated how to set up the chest tube draining system, theplacement of the pigtail, and how to assist for emergency needleaspiration. When I compared the results of the test scores, I noticedthat the posttest scores were much higher than the pretest scores.This was a clear indication that the nurses had performed better onreturn demonstrations implying that their degree of proficiency wasrefining. I was particularly exhilarated with the outcomes of thetests because through them, I established that my education processwas effective.

Patient/FamilyEducation Worksheet

  1. Provide a short description of the case study related to the patient/family education you provided.

A32 week gestational infant was admitted to NICU, suffering from acuterespiratory distress. Once the infant was admitted, it was placed onPEEP 6, bubble CPAP, and 22% FIO2. On the fifth day, it was weaned toroom air. The baby endured room air without signs of apnea,desaturation, and bradycardia. The infant fed well and was evenweaned off IV fluid. According to Hanlon (2014), the bubble CPAPdelivery system is comprised of a humidified source of gas, aninterface that links the CPAP circuit to the infant’s airway viathe short nasal prongs, and a tube submerged in a bottle ofsterilized water. As the gas leaves the tubes, Hanlon (2014) observesthat it creates bubbles that generate small airway pressureoscillations. When these pressure oscillations reach an infant’slung cavity, the outcome is a considerably improved process of gasexchange as well as functioning of the lungs (Hanlon, 2014).

Themother of the infant was a 21 year old girl that had just earned herhigh school diploma. The baby in question was her first born. Duringthe period of hospitalization, the mother often visited her baby. Themost shocking thing is that even if she was the mother of the baby,the girl was very hesitant to touch her bundle of joy let alone laya finger on it. I intervened by explaining the significance ofholding, touching, and carrying her baby. In this regard, I clarifiedabout the concepts of the kangaroo care, its importance, and how shewould perform it. Since pictures are worth a thousand words, I evenshowed the young mother pictures of parents holding their babies inkangaroo care skin-to-skin.Baker-Rush (2016) defines kangaroo care as a technique in which theclothing of an infant are removed (with exception of the diaper),allowing their face, arms, body, and legs have direct skin contactwith their mother’s bare torso or chest. Kangaroo care underlinesthe uniqueness of love and care of motherhood (Baker-Rush, 2016).

Inaddition to the pictures, I also gave the first time mother brochuresfrom the unit, as well as online patient material containinginformation on kangaroo care. According to Engelke and Schub (2016),kangaroo care provides very many benefits, which include (but notlimited to): normalization of oxygen levels, stabilization of vitalsigns, more rapid weight gain in low birth weight babies and normalgrowth in length and head circumferences, decreases crying, increasesmother’s breast milk production and longer durations of breathing,increases mother’s confidence about caring for the baby, increasesdurations of quiet sleep, improves state of relaxation, and enablesearlier discharge for hospitalized infants. To say the least, themother clearly understood the significance of kangaroo care, and sheagreed to conform to the tenets of kangaroo care. For a moment, Iassisted the mother perform kangaroo care on her baby, after which Isecured the tubing’s for the bubble CPAP. The mother wasexhilarated to give kangaroo care to her beloved baby, which left mewondering why she was afraid to do so in the first place. Inaccordance to Hanlon (2014), a mother’s tender touch and care areindispensable for a growing child.

  1. Describe how you assessed the patient’s learning needs (e.g., what needed to be taught).

Accordingto the Harris Health System (2014) article, medical professionalsshould perform assessments in EPIC for the parents that areexperiencing first encounters of motherhood. From the article, Ilearned that part of assessing a patient’s learning needs involvesknowing her cognitive and physical functionality, physical and mentallimitations, language preference, cultural and spiritual beliefs,learning readiness, barriers to learning, and learning preference.Additionally, Smith (2016) observes that the assessment of apatient’s learning needs involves gathering pertinent informationfrom a patient’s medical records, and interviewing the patient (aswell as family members where necessary) in order to identify all thelearning needs with special regard to their overall health status,state of disease, medical treatment, and to determine how and whatthe patient prefers to learn.

Followingthese guidelines, I engaged the new mother in a series of discussionswhere I assessed her basic level of knowledge and what she needed tolearn from a healthcare perspective. I asked the first time motherquestions like normal neonatal care and premature baby care indetails. From the assessment, I arrived at the conclusion that sheneeded more teaching in neonatal baby care and care for the prematurebaby. Following more discussions with the mother, I discovered thatshe also needed to know more about breast feeding, immunization,discharge instructions, and kangaroo care. It is through theseone-on-one discussions that I observed the mother’s behavior ofavoiding skin-to-skincontact with her baby. Having discovered that the mother was notadept at kangaroo care, I assisted her by advising her on theimportance of learning how to do exactly that. I was very happy whenthe young mother grasped the kangaroo care concept within no time.

  1. Describe how and what teaching methods (e.g., how you teach) you determined for this patient/family and why.

Accordingto Smith (2016), a nurse should interview a patient and familymembers (if appropriate), so as to decipher what education thepatient has already received, the patient’s preferred style oflearning, and what educational resources are suitable for a patient.As a healthcare team member, it was important for me to useappropriate teaching methods in accordance to the educationalbackground and language skills of my patient’s family. In thisregard, the face-to-face instructions, brochures from the unit,pictures of parents performing kangaroo care, demonstration andreturn demonstration proved to be effective teaching methods forteaching the new mother everything concerning the execution ofkangaroo care. I am saying that they were effective simply becausethe mother demonstrated enough skills in performing kangaroo careafter education. Additionally, I provided the mother with hard copiesof the learning materials through which she can refresh her kangaroocare skills anytime she wants to do so. She asked me a lot ofquestions, which I was honored to clarify. Eventually, the mother wasable to get rid of all her anxiety concerns and performed thekangaroo care with ease. The young mother got more confidence inholding her baby skin-to-skin while doing the kangaroo care.

  1. Describe how you evaluated the effectiveness (e.g., outcomes) of your teaching.

Iam confident to say that my teaching methods were very supportive andeffective because I succeeded in teaching the young mother about theimportance of kangaroo care. Before education, the mother was veryreluctant to touch her baby, but after learning, she was voluntarilyready to give kangaroo care. I managed to gauge the effectiveness ofmy teaching by way of the mother’s readiness, willingness, andhappiness regarding her giving of kangaroo care to her baby. WheneverI asked her questions to determine what she had learned concerningkangaroo care, the mother could answer all of them. Endorsing theeffectiveness of my teaching, the neonatal team also reported thatthe mother would skillfully and carefully give kangaroo care. What’smore, the nurses let me know that during each visit, the mother wasalways ready to do kangaroo care which she successfully performedwithout assistance. Evidently, all these actions prove theeffectiveness of my teaching since the mother is now proficient inindependently giving kangaroo care to her newborn.

5.Describe how you addressed specific learning needs forpatients/families with low literacy or are either young or older(elderly), depending on your patient population. Describe allapplicable learning needs for your practice setting.

5.1Low literacy

Accordingto Bryant (2012), low literacy refers to the incapability of a personto access, comprehend, and use health-centered services andinformation to make suitable health care decisions. In my capacity asa medical professional, part of my job is being culturally competentin addition to understanding the family dynamics of my patients. Tothis effect, I had to determine the level of the mother’s basiceducation as well as health literacy because undeniably, it is easierto coach a patient coming from a family with a good basic educationon matters concerning their health literacy. On the contrary,families with low literacy levels are difficult to educate (Bryant,2012). As a professional, I am aware that I should portray patiencewith families with low literacy levels because they might experiencedifficulties expressing and demonstrating what I teach them in mylectures. This does not mean that this group of learners is doomed.Gradually, families with low literacy get to understand and act as itis expected of them.

Whendealing with the mother who unfortunately had a low literacy level, Iknew that I had to teach her using small and simple words few thingsat a time. I knew that complex medical terms would create problemsbecause of her low literacy, so I habitually avoided using medicalterms as much as I could whenever I found myself teaching her andall families that were not sufficiently literate. Since I wanted myteaching to be effective, I always tried to give ideas on two orthree topics in a manner that I would not confuse my patient.Sometimes, the patient used slangs that were very difficult tounderstand, but I patiently tried to understand what it is they wereexpressing. Whenever I experienced an extreme communication barrier,I would use the services of an interpreter. From time to time, Iwould reassess the level of understanding of what I was teaching sothat I would know which topics or points to emphasize on, so as toensure maximum absorption of the concepts I taught in ourdiscussions.

5.2Young (child)

Accordingto the Harris Health System (2014) article, health care educationshould be provided to mothers aged between 11 and 18 if they are notaware about the health care needs of their babies and their health.This is particularly so because young mothers are a group that isidentified as “vulnerable” on the basis of their extensive healthcare learning needs (Engike, 2016). In this regard, young mothersshould be given information contingent on their stage of developmentand readiness to learn new health care concepts (Engike, 2016).Depending on the developmental stage of a young mother, learning andmotivational activities should be tailored to suit the health careneeds of each patient and developmental stage.

Asa medical professional, I can use different methods to educate youngmothers, including a variety of computerized learning programs,DVDs/videos, face-to-face instruction, written materials, ortelephone conversations when teaching young mothers and theirfamilies. In order to ensure that the teaching process is effective,Engike (2016) notes that medical professionals have to avoid theusage of technical medical terms when computing instructionalmaterials for first time mothers. In addition to using simplewording, step-by-step teaching is also helpful because it will help ayoung mother to grasp the medical concepts of an education process(Engike, 2016). A gradual process of learning is helpful because itwill not overwhelm a young mother, making it easier for them tounderstand and recollect the basic medical concepts absorbed. As aprofessional, I tailor made all the instructional materialscontingent on the developmental level of the young mother in a mannerthat I did not cause confusion in her thought processes. I alsoengaged a step-by-step learning tier that enabled my patient grab theconcepts of kangaroo care swiftly.


Baker-Rush,M. (2016, July). Reducing stress in infants: Kangaroo care.InternationalJournal of Childbirth Education,31(3).Retrieved November 9, 2016.

Bryant,A. (2012, September). Development of guidelines for the selection ofappropriate reading materials for clients with low health literacy.TheJournal of Chi Eta Phi Sorority.Retrieved November 9, 2016.

Engeike,Z., &amp Schub, T. (2016, April). Parent/Family teaching: Providingeducation about kangaroo care. Retrieved November 9, 2016, fromhttp://www. Cinahl Information

Engeike,Z. (2016, March). Nursing Practice and skill. Retrieved November 9,2016, from http://www. Cinahl Information

Hanlon,P. (2014, May). Bubble CPAP: Cost-effective, efficient, and safe.Retrieved November 9, 2016, from

HarrisHealth System. (2014). EPIC. Retrieved November 9, 2016,

Lieb,S. (2012, February). Principles of Adult Learning. CarrieEkey, Literacy Coaches Training.Retrieved November 9, 2016.

Smith,N. (2016, June). Nursing Practice and Skill. Retrieved November 9,2016, from http://www. Cinahl Information