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DoesFreedom of Speech Give People the Right to Use Hate Speech?

Freedomof speech articulates the right to free expression, opinion or ideasin reaction to an event or situation without fear of persecution(Haskins and Quisenberry 93-106). Freedom of speech is well craftedin the constitution of a country. Hate speech connotes speech that isintended to offend, threaten or insult other people and can be basedon color, religion, gender or nationality. While freedom of speech isprotected by the constitution, hate speech is dispelled andpunishable by law (Yong 390). If not properly regulated and monitoredfreedom of speech can slowly give birth to hate speech, and instancesof hate speech are orchestrated by violence and incitements. In theevent of hate speech one can be charged in a court of law forincitement or initiation of violence or other related actions orbehaviors. Thus, it is imperative to take caution whenever exercisingfreedom of speech.

Inthe case of Gitlowv New York(1925), the court ruled that there are some categories of speech thatare left out of freedom of speech and one of the main categories isthe hate speech (Yong 400). The law permits a given level ofcriticism of the government and advocating for unpopular ideas andactions in the society. Perhaps this explains why the police and thesecurity agencies do not interfere in cases of peacefuldemonstrations. However, in the event that violence occurs, thepolice have the mandate to quell the violence and charging violentdemonstrators simply because the law allows them to do so. Thus, thelaw is very clear when it comes to freedom of speech and hate speech.At the same time, the government is not supposed to hush its citizenswithout following the due process of the law. The law allows peopleto exercise freedom of speech as long as they do not infringe on therights of other people.

Humanbeings are unique and always deserve to be treated highly. Thus,interaction between people must be respected and held within theprovisions of the law. The fact that freedom of speech is providedfor in the constitution, it does not license one to make hate speecha tool of interpersonal attacks. The right to freedom of speechextends to some unpopular ideas and statements that may be offensive,disturbing and shocking to some people. Nevertheless, different humanright groups have signed treaties that compel governments to prohibithate speech (Haskins and Quisenberry 100). Under international laws,one of the major forms of hate speech recognized is incitement togenocide. One of the major applications of the law was evidenced inAfrica when the Kenyan President and the Vice President were tried inthe International Criminal Court for inciting violence in the 2007election. Another case was trials conducted to charge individualsinvolved in incitement during the Nazi regime. In the case the courtsruled that incitement was punishable under law as a form of hatespeech. In conclusion, people have a right to freedom of speech onlyto a given limit and as long as they do not infringe on the rights ofother people. Thus hate speech is punishable under law and freedom ofspeech should not be a gateway to orchestrate hate speech. Hatespeech can be depicted as the genesis of genocides, violence andextensive abuse of human rights: the right to protection, the rightto safety, and the right to education as evidenced in warringnations.


Haskins,William A. and Neil Quisenberry. &quotEffects of Freedom of SpeechAttitudes and Communication Styles on Physical Violence, Hate Speech,Marijuana Use and Alcohol Intoxication among UniversityStudents&quot.&nbspTheInternational Journal of the Humanities: Annual Review&nbsp4.3(2007): 93-106. Web.

Yong,Caleb. &quotDoes Freedom Of Speech Include Hate Speech?”&nbspResPublica&nbsp17.4(2011): 385-403. Web.

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Thenarration covers the story of God’s sovereignty, goodness, andfaithfulness to Mary Rowland. The sovereignty of God is the center ofthe narrative. As well, his faithfulness to his promises is wellshown. This is a story of the captivity and restoration of Mrs. MaryRowlandson. She uses the story to convince those people who want tobe blessed by God to follow him in faith. The story is written byRowland herself and passed on to all of humanity to benefit from it.She has intended to make the narrative a special inspiration to thosewho are close to her, especially her friends and family, who can readand be amazed at the work of the Lord. Rowlandsonexhibits great personality with undying strength to overcome theworst situations in her life through her strong devotion to God’sgrace.

Shewitnesses the burning of houses and worst dehumanizing acts of theIndians who equipped themselves with guns attacked their hometown inLancaster, Massachusetts (Rowlandson 1). She could spy on oneparticular neighbor who begged for his life, but she knew that theIndians would not think twice about killing him. This was atraumatizing experience for Rowlandson. Moreover, when the attackersreached her house, they shot at the house and at those who tried tofight them back. The ordeal ended with Rowland being captured by theIndians.

Thestory unfolds as Rowlandson and her captors face several challengesincluding the attack by the British army. God works in his own uniqueway by keeping Rowlandson in all this state of quagmire, until she isfinally released to travel back to the abandoned Lancaster, then toConcord, and finally to Boston. She sets up a new household in Bostonand continued to live there after having been reunited with herchildren, her sister, and husband.

Onthe other hand, her gender could have been of great twist to thisnarrative as everything unfolded on the grounds that she is a womanand she could not survive the killings by the Indians in her village.Her hopes and strong believe in God has hugely contributed to thesuccess story that she narrates. Thestrong faith exhibited helped her overcome a number of temptingmoments. She has shown a true reflection of what faith can achieve inthe life of a real believer.


Rowlandson,Mary.&nbspTheNarrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson.n.d, Accessed 17November 2016.

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GravityPayments Minimum Wage Policy

Acritical aspect of the management of any form of business is theconcern of remuneration. All these capped under one roof, everycompany pursues best approaches to payment structure in order tomaintain the best human capital, that is, its team of technocrats. Acompany also uses payments to attract more people from outside forthe realization of an outstanding performance in the organization.The process of setting a minimum wage would be comprehensive, complexand consultative in order to settle on the best rate that wouldachieve the objective of the organization at large. This is becausesetting a minimum wage at any level would ignite different reactionsfrom the employees.

WhenCEO Dan Price decided to crack the whip on setting the company’sminimum wage for the Gravity Payments Company at $70,000, he hadsplendid intentions to an extent of slashing his own salary by 90%.Prince, as an entrepreneur from childhood, made this decision afterassessing the market rates and a possible pay that would make one tolive at least some decent life.

Thepursuit of this minimum wage standard by Price was essentially tolevel the payment structure of Gravity Payments in order to eliminatecommon scenarios of possible extreme payment figures either on thelower side or the upper side but finding a relatively accommodativepay level that majority would find resonance with. Nevertheless, thisaction never found a soft spot on some of the company’s employeesto even an extent of making Price to doubt whether he made the bestdecision.

Thenews about Price’s decision became the talk of the day from printto social media, with leading magazines and newspaper framing thewhole scenario in their own unique way. Several of such news spelleddoom for Gravity Payments claiming that minimum wage policy Pricebrought forth to be key reason behind such predicaments in thecompany. For instance, Gravity payments lost clients and some two keyemployees of the company.

Asinformation about Price’ minimum wage decision reached differentagents in that business arena, the company lost some businesspartners due to claims of a possible anticipation fee increase whileothers failed to sign contracts with the company. A number of clientswere resigned, which resulted to the company going ahead on a hiringspree.

Generally,the decision to cap payments into some minimum standards would resultin outcomes that would have been good or even bad for the company orthe economy at large (Waltman29).This phenomenon has faced challenges and praise at equal measure fromdifferent players within the industry globally. Personallyimplementing a minimum wage policy would be one thing I would notundertake. The concerns around the minimum wage policy debates arelarge and need a critical perspective in order to settle to anaccommodative minimum wage standard. These encapsulate the differencein qualification among the employees of an organization and theirexpectation of rewards from the part they contribute to the growth,performance and success of the organization. Moreover, marketconditions and general industry trends would greatly causeturbulences on any minimum wage set by a company.

Themotive to set minimum wage, in many occasions, is championed byindividuals who have got the best interest of the company at heart.The structuring of such a policy is what would face many crests andtroughs in any particular industry (Kaufman301).Therefore, a consultative assessment should have been carried amongall the stakeholders in order to ensure that all critical aspects areincorporated in such a policy in order to make the best decision forthe success of that organization.


Kaufman,Bruce E. &quotInstitutional economics and the minimum wage:broadening the theoretical and policy debate.&quot&nbspIndustrial&amp Labor Relations Review&nbsp63.3(2010): 427-453.

Waltman,Jerold L.&nbspThepolitics of the minimum wage.University of Illinois Press, 2011.

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Problemsthat Asian Americans Face and their Causes

Americais referred to as the land of opportunities. Due to this, the nationhas experienced very high levels of immigration of people from allcorners of the world. The liberties and opportunities that Americaprovided its inhabitants, especially after the Second World Warfueled immigration to America (Kim149).People from Asia were not left behind as large numbers traveled toAmerica. Some of these people came due to education, employmentopportunities and even to escape from oppressive governments. Most ofthem came from Philippines, China, Japan and Vietnam. Individualswho migrate to other countries normally find life a bit challengingbefore they adapt (Kim152).For instance, Asian Americans are susceptible to face race motivatedharassment and violence, work and education barriers.

Tobegin with, racism in America has considerably reduced as compared tothe levels experienced a few decades ago. Previously, it was mostlyprojected towards African Americans, but eventually befell even tothose of Asian origin (Kim156).This was caused by stereotyping of Asian people as terrorists. The9/11 changed how the people perceived people from Asia. The attackwas caused by an Al-Qaida group, which most of its members were fromAsia. Subsequently, it was found out that some countries from Asiasupported terror attacks and the USA retaliated. This followed thebutchering of people by these terror groups and suicide bombings. Asa consequence, the USA increased their security measures for peoplefrom Asia as these countries’ citizens have often been activelyinvolved in terror attacks(Kim 157).

Atcitizenry level, there was fear and people from these regions werestereotyped as terrorists. For instance, there was Asian Americanchild who made a clock and took it to school, the teacher mistakenlyconfused it for a bomb and was arrested(Fantz et al).This shows how people from Asian community are susceptible toharassment and stereotyping. Subsequently, law enforcers are alsoresponsible for some of these deeds. Police officers frequentlysubject them to more scrutiny as compared to other people (Chun etal. 920). Due to the present rise in terrorism, law enforcementagencies and immigration departments have systematically subjectedAsian American to harassment due to the labels that people from Asiahave been given(Kim 140).This form of racial harassment is due to the theories fed by peoplethat Asians are responsible for terrorism.

Moreover,Asian Americans face discrimination in workplaces. This has beenattributed to the fact that due to racism, it is difficult for themto get jobs. Thus, when they do, it is always under unfavorableconditions. In some instances, the salaries they get are lowercompared to what White Americans receive for the same jobs undersimilar conditions. Ladies frequently find themselves being sexuallyharassed and discriminated by their egocentric male co-workers andbosses(Chun et al.921). Moreover, the inability for these people to speak Englishfluently has also contributed to their problems in workplaces as theycannot socially interact with other members since they feel thattheir English is awful(Kiang et al.1000).

Furthermore,lack of proficiency in English has made it difficult for them toaccess good education facilities as compared to other Americans. Therate of high school drop out by Asian Americans is a bit higher ascompared to other American citizens. Fewer Asians in America proceedand complete university education (Kianget al. 997).The Asian Americans face these challenges as a result of differentcultural values and practices from those practiced in the USA. Forinstance, in many Asian countries, the primary language is notEnglish, but their indigenous ones. As a result, the people fromthese countries have difficulties speaking English and adapting tothe USA environment.

Additionally,the strained relationships have been caused by economic stagnationand slowdown. This slowdown has led to the mass layoff of manyworkers due to the restructuring of companies. When white Americansare laid off, they tend to think that Asian Americans have taken thejobs that are entitled to them (Kim 145). This, in turn, becomes aserious issue, which leads to a backlash against the Asian Americans.

Importanceof Addressing these Issues

First,Americans of Asian origin play a crucial role in the economy. Theirnumbers amount to tens of millions and hence, have significance inthe local economy. Some have been currently absorbed in theworkforce, and they assist the country in the generation of grossdomestic product through manufacturing various goods and services.Moreover, they receive their wages and spend them on goods andservices promoting businesses. They also pay taxes, which generaterevenue to the country and are used to build social amenities andfinance the budget(Ong et al.188).

Secondly,addressing these issues will lead to the creation of national harmonyand unity. Racism creates division, which can be witnessed afterdeclaring Donald Trump as the winner of ballot 2016. Unity of thepeople is very crucial for success in any country. The subjecting ofAsian American to these forms of prejudice due to their race willlikely lead to a divided nation. Thus, resolving these issues willlead to a united American nation whereby people live in harmony,economic prosperity, and respect for human rights. On the other hand,resolving it would result in a rise in the number of immigrants,which might have negative effects on wage rate in the long run.

Shortand Long Term Solutions

Varioussolutions can be put forward to solve these issues. One short-termmeasure may be the economic empowerment of the poor members of thesecommunities so as to enable them to compete favorably with theirwhite counterparts. This measure will be short term because it mightnot be sustainable due to change of governments, political andeconomic pressure. A long-term solution that can be utilized islegislation. Congress should be encouraged to pass immigrationlegislation so that these people can be accommodated with dignity asthey start their lives in America (Ong. et al. 188).

Thelegislation may go further to assist in the integration of thesepeople with other Americans by discouraging discrimination andimposing punitive punishments for those found guilty of engaging inthese practices. Moreover, there is a need to become conversant withissues that affect Asian Americans by interacting with them in theirneighborhoods, schools, sporting activities and conducting researchon their lives.


AsianAmericans are crucial in the American nation. Their contribution tonation building is enormous and must be guarded. The problems thatthey suffer due to ineffective legislation and observance of humanrights and equity for all, should be addressed adequately. Americashould strive to be the example as it has always been to othersmaller nations by treating all people equally.


Chun,Jennifer Jihye et al. &quotIntersectionality as a social movement strategy: Asian immigrant women advocates.&quot&nbspSigns&nbsp38.4(2013): 917-940.

Fantz,Ashley, et al. &quotTeen Ahmed Mohamed Brings Clock to School, GetsArrested .com.&quot CNN,16&nbspSept.&nbsp2015, 12&nbspSept.&nbsp2016.

Kim,J. &quotAsian American racial identity development theory.&quot&nbspNewperspectives on racial identity development&nbsp(2012):138-160.

Kianget al. &quotPlacing Asian American child development withinhistorical context.&quot&nbspChildDevelopment&nbsp87.4(2016): 995-1013

Ong,Anthony D., et al. &quotRacial micro aggressions and dailywell-being among Asian Americans.&quot&nbspJournalof Counseling Psychology&nbsp60.2(2013): 188.

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Comparisonof Symbolism inDeathof a Naturalist andStones in His Pockets

Symbolismis the style of art which involves the use of an object or a word torepresent an abstract idea. Symbolism as a style is widely employedin different genres of literature where it plays a significant rolein ensuring that the artist’s ideas are properly presented in amanner that the artist intended. The books are of two differentgenres where one is a collection of poems whereas the other is acomedy. Thetwo books Deathof a Naturalist andStones in His Pockets containsome form of symbolism of elements such as water, air, and earth.

Earthhas been used symbolically in both books to bring out differentmeanings. In Stonesin His Pockets,the writer uses earth to bring out the concept of death. At variousscenes of the play, death is seen to be connected with the earth. Atone instance, the character named Sean Harkin uses stones to help himdrown as a way of committing suicide after being thrown out andhumiliated by Caroline. Harkin is also buried below the earth afterhis death. One the other hand, Deathof a Naturalistuses the symbolism of earth to depict life. The poet shows how thefrogs transform from their earlier form where they existed as eggs inthe slimy frogspawn to their mature state where they exist on theearth. The writer of Deathof a Naturalist, unlikethe one of Stonesin His Pockets,uses the earth to bring out the symbolic meaning of life. Bothauthors also use earth as a symbol of change or transformationwherein Stonesin His Pockets thecharacter transforms from the existing state to the state of death,while in Deathof a Naturalist earthis used to depict change from the embryonic state to the state of theliving. The two authors use earth

Waterhas also been used symbolically in the two books. In Deathof a Naturalist,water has been employed by the author to depict the beginning oflife. It is in the water that the frogs lay their eggs, the eggshatch, and the tadpoles start their life. The book also portrayswater as the protector of life as the young ones of the frogs liveand mature in the pond in a secure way. The speaker in the poemshares of how at one time the water was filled with frog sprawl andstench, then tadpoles appear at a particular stage, and later he isfaced by fully grown frogs that stare at him in a manner thatsuggests anger. On the other hand, the author of Stonesin His Pockets useswater symbolically to depict the end of life. Harking ends his lifein the water through a suicidal act. In this context, water has beenportrayed as a tool that is used to end life and therefore, dangerousto life. In the book also, water has been used symbolically as aninstrument for ending the conflict, although in an inappropriatemanner. Water has also been used symbolically in the book Deathof a Naturalistto depict the innocence of the speaker in matters concerning nature.

Thebook also creates a clear picture of how the water looked like, whichis symbolic in a manner that it shows that life can still thrive inan environment that may seem unpleasant. With its unpleasantness, thewater manages to be the home of the frogs, a situation that isdifferent in the play Stonesin His Pockets wherelife fails to thrive but is lost despite the fact that the water hadnot been tainted with the thick slobber or the rotten flax. The waterin Deathof a Naturalist isa symbol of fertility. The speaker finds frog eggs in largeconcentrations at the pond and also describes that the mammy frog hadlaid them in hundreds. He also describes that it is at the pond, thefrogs mate and this, therefore, gives the evidence of the writer’suse of the pond water as a symbol of fertility. At the same time, theauthor of the play Stonesin His Pocketsused water as a symbol of purification. Harkin decided to purifyhimself from the shame of being humiliated by Caroline.

Theauthors of the two books also use the element of air in a symbolicmanner. Air, just like water has been used to symbolize life. InDeathof a Naturalist,the “bellied frogs,” as described by the speaker, were breathingheavily, taking in loads of air which makes their loose necks topulse like sails. This shows that the frogs were alive due to the airthat they inhaled. On the other hand, the writer of Stonesin His Pocketsalso employs the symbolic use of air to depict its importance insupporting life. He describes that the character who had died afterdrowning was in a state in which he could not have access to air, andtherefore, died leading to the end of life. The air was also used inthe poem Deathof a Naturalistto symbolize anger. The author uses the movement of air through thecavities of the frogs to symbolically bring to the fore the angerthat the frogs had towards the speaker in the poem. The concentrationof the frogs’ sounds in the air that surrounds the pond was alsoemployed skillfully by the writer to emphasize on the mood of theplace, especially the attitude of the frogs. The symbolic use of theelement of air is also seen in the poem where the tadpoles catchtheir first breath. In this context, the element is used to depictthe beginning of life.

Asshown above, both Deathof a Naturalist andStonesin His Hand containsymbolism of elements such as air, earth, and water. The symbolic useof these elements varies in the two books. At some point, however,the circumstances or events that are symbolized by the elements carrysimilar meanings. The earth, for example, has been used symbolicallyin both texts to represent life or connections to life. Water hasalso been used widely in both literature texts to present the conceptof life. In Deathof a Naturalist,water acts as an essential support for the life of young frogs.Conversely, in Stonesin His Hand, waterserves as a tool that Harking uses to commit suicide. The element ofair has been employed in the books to portray life, and also to bringout the emotion of anger.

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Ethicsdescribe those moral principles that govern the behaviors of a personor a group. An ethical theory may also refer to moral psychology. Itis a study that aims at rendering an action either right or wrong.Since most actions are contextual and are subjects of differentscenarios, various theories have been formed to suit each of thegiven situations and contexts. Some of these approaches includeethical egoism, utilitarianism theory, deontology theory, and virtuecare and virtue ethics among many others. The paper will evaluateutilitarianism and deontological ethics theories, discuss theirstrengths and weaknesses and provide argument on the better theoryamong the two.

Utilitarianismethical theory

Thetheory argues that an action can be considered either right or wrongby looking at its outcomes. This methodisseen as justbecause it does not relate to other forms of actions with the doer’sinterests and contexts. However, it matches a wrong did with a gainor pleasure,and a wrong did with regret, pain,and discomfort. The gains and the pains from the deed can bequantified using criteria such as duration, certainty (this is theapplied in uncertain conditions), intensity and also nearness andfarness. Thismeansthat there are actions whose gains and pains take more time thanothers. They are more probabilistic than for others, are more intensethan for others and also take the timeto realize the increases and soreness than others (Sandler,Ronald, 2010).

Thereare two types of Utilitarianism, Act Utilitarianism,and Rule Utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism matches deeds with theiroutcomes directly without considering the moral principles. Anexample of act-Utilitarianismin real life is that if one does not pursue education, he will live amiserablelife. Not seeking education is directly matched with amiserablelife. In rule utilitarianism, human rights and heuristics are putintoconsideration when matching actions with their consequences.

Strengthsof Utilitarianism theory

Themerits of the utilitarianism approach include:

  1. Promotes happiness among people.

  2. Useful in decision making and actions must have reasons and purposes.

  3. Rule utilitarianism put human rights into consideration making it fair.

Weaknessesof Utilitarianism theory

Utilitarianismhas various factors that act as setbacks in its general setting. Theyinclude:

  1. We cannot use this approach to predict the future since not all bad actions lead to pain.

  2. Not everyone is in a position to decide on what is right and bad when using act-Utilitarianism.

  3. The approach is not useful in situations where risks are involved in investment because the consequences are negative by default.

Deontologicalethics theory

ImmanuelKent introduced the theory in 18th Century. The approach relatesduties of a person with human morality. It meansthat an action can be either considered rightor wrongby checking at the characteristics of the activityand relating it to the moral standards. If the featuresof the given action are in line with the desirable moral humanmorals, then it is considered safeelse, if the featuresof the given action violate the set moral human standards, then theworkisseen as wrongin that setting.

Thereare various types of Deontological made for different settingsincluding divine command theory for religions, natural right theoryfor natural justice, contractarian theory for workers and those in acontract and pluralistic theory for deciding duties inworksetting (Alexander,Larry, and Michael Moore, 2007).

Deontologicaltheory, unlike utilitarianism, does not relate an action with itoutcomes to find either its goodness or badness. Deontological iscontextually fair since different settings have different set moralstandards. It also favors differences in cultures forvarious groupsof people.

Despitethe two theories having different inferencing approach, they have asimilarity where the rightness has priority over the wrong. Whiledeveloping this method,Immanuel Kent urged the actors to:

  1. Act in a way that the artist would want the action to be a working law that can be followed by everybody in any condition.

  2. Act to consider humanity as mean and results.

  3. Actors to work as if they were lawmakers in hypothetical regimes.

Strengthsof Deontological theory

Thedeontologicaltheory has advantages that make it useful in its applications invarious moral fields. They include

  1. Human rights and moral ethics are the pillars for rendering an action either good or bad.

  2. Context rules are fundamental in promoting moral in different settings.

  3. A prediction which is characterized by trial and error is not encouraged in this theory.

Weaknessesof Deontological theory

Despitethe approach’s merits the theory has demeritsthattend to affect its applications in the different organizations. Thesetbacks include

  1. May fail to work where there are conflicting moral duties.

  2. It makes morality to base upon avoidance of undesirable actions rather than building good morals.

  3. May lead to a moral fanaticism and ignore other aspects of humanity which are equally important.


Insummary, both theories are excellent, but the deontological theory isthe best.Theaspect isbecause it considers differences in contexts in its making. Thesettings have different rules,and there does not exist a standard course of action that can makeone fit in both settings at the same time. Both theories promote gooddeeds, however, in utilitarianism, formulation of standards to rendera deed either good or bad is left to the personapplying it.Theissue maypromote self-interest and bias. In Deontological theory, the rulesbaseonthe contexts laws, the holy books and also the natural laws. Thesemake Deontological theory better than utilitarianism theory ofethics.


Alexander,Larry, and Michael Moore. &quotDeontological Ethics.&quot (2007).Print.

Sandler,Ronald. &quotEthical theory and the problem of inconsequential’s:Why Environmental Ethicists Should Be Virtue-Oriented Ethicists.&quotJournalof Agricultural and Environmental Ethics23.1-2 (2010): 167-183. Print.

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Effectof Tourism on Society

Overthe last two decades, tourism has gained momentum and in 2015 tourismrevenues reached over $2000 billion. As compared to other industrieslike the manufacturing sector, it can be argued that the tourismindustry has a higher capacity to enhance the distribution of wealthand promotion of a country’s development. At the same time, thetourism sector is said to offer a higher multiplier effect andguarantee a higher generation of consumption rates. However,according to Archer (704), there are a series of negative effectsassociated with the development of tourism activities in an economy.The research paper focuses on the presentation of a series ofnegative and positive impact of tourism in the society. In order tohave a clear analysis of the impact of tourism it is prudent toclassify the effects into three segments: economic, socio-culturaland environmental effects. Tourism correlates to both natural andmanmade activities. Natural activities include the freely availableresources like landscapes, flora and fauna, and the climate. Themanmade activities include social and cultural beliefs of the peopleand the economic related factors. A clear distinction between the twoenvironments is crucial in the research paper as it aids thehighlight and discussion of the impact of tourism to the society.

EconomicImpact of Tourism

Inhis research Archer (705) argues that studies conducted in the pastthree decades mainly focused on the economic impact of tourism. Theresearcher goes further to portends that the singular researchperspective was catalyzed by the easier quantification of economicgrowth and the fact that there was optimism regarding to the impactof tourism in economic development (707). There is no doubt thattourism has immensely impacted economic growth in the society.Employment opportunities, per capita and the gross domestic producthave immensely grown economies that rely on tourism. However, it isimportant to point out that tourism is mainly reliant on naturallyoccurring resources that are unique and freely accessible. Thus, itis easier to cloud the negative economic consequences that arise fromincreased tourist activities. As much as it may seem that thebenefits overshadow the costs, it is essential to clarify that thereare a number of negative implications of tourism in the society.There are three perspectives that can be used to illuminate theeconomic impact of tourism: tourists, local community and thegovernment. While the tourists pay to view the available resources inan economy, the local community benefits from the payments and thegovernment taxes the payments to boost the overall economy. However,the community must contend with negative implications of tourism atthe end of the day. This means that the community is most prone amongthe three stakeholders. A fourth perspective can be introduced tohelp illustrate the impact of tourism in the society: investors.Unlike the community that must bear the burden, investors are onlyinterested with the financial gains that accrue from tourism. Gosar(339) argues that investors tend to exhibit high levels of immunitywhen it comes to the costs of tourism.

Tourismis a major booster to economic growth in countries with limitedgrowth opportunities. In such countries fishing and farming are themain income generating activities and it is worthwhile to complementthe activities with tourism. People from such economies spur economicdevelopment through farming, fishing and tourism. At the same time,focusing on tourism paves way for growth in agricultural developmentas such countries are able to develop their transport systems(Seetanah 291-308). The introduction of the tourism activities in aneconomy with limited opportunities may lead to a greater impact onthe wellbeing of the people in the society. However, tourism is oftenconfined to certain areas that include the coastal regions and partsof a country with game reserves or national parks. The implicationsto people living around such tourist sites is that they have accessto better jobs and incentives as opposed to people living in therural areas. Improper distribution of resources will lead tohostility between people living in the rural areas and those in thecoastal towns where tourism has a huge impact. Wells (65) depictsthat in order for the people to enjoy equitable distribution ofresources it is important for local governments to institute properplanning and development.

Enhancedtransport systems in tourism dependent nations are indivisible in thesense that they can be used by farmers and business people in thedistribution of their products and services. Thus, based on thispremise it can be argued that tourism is an essential factor inenhancing social well being (Wells 64-65). The fact that a marketexist it does not guarantee that there is development in the longrun. Thus, tourism does not guarantee that there will be a positiveeconomic change in the society. From a superficial level tourism canbe said to have a positive impact in the society, however, this maynot be true because of the increased issues of terrorism andhuman-animal conflicts. Su (2723-2726) postulates that there is noguarantee that tourism leads to economic development because tourismrelated activities tend to benefit only a few of the people in thesociety. While investors reap millions of dollars from tourismrelated activities, the poor are only used as tools based on the lowwages and poor working conditions. It is within this premise that theresearchers points out that local governments should be in the forefront in ensuring that even the poor benefit from increased tourismactivities (Wearing 616-618).

Ruralareas tend to face the highest discrimination in relation to coastalareas which are the primary focus for tourists. Rural regions aresynonymous with less educated people, poor resource distribution andfailed infrastructure. The combination of the factors immenselyimpacts the performance of the people in terms of investments andaccess to opportunities. Thus, from their perspective it isworthwhile to depict that tourism has no impact in their development.Tourism creates employment, however, tourism based jobs are seasonalwith low wages and limited opportunities. As compared to otherindustries like the manufacturing sector, tourism requires employeeswith limited specializations and this explains the low wages in thesector (Jee, Kim and Lee 3777-3784). The economic priority of thesociety is to maximize on revenues while reducing the incurred costs.


Thereis a strong relationship between tourism and the interaction ofcultures, behaviors and values of people (Das and Dirienzo 285). Whentourists visit a new geographical region they experience new culturesand traditions. At the same time, they expose the communities theyvisit to their own cultures and values. In fact, some coastal townshave developed due to cultural integration which is evidenced by thebuildings built, the songs played and the meals served in the region(297). Tourism is considered as a framework through which touristsand the hosts can learn through each other owing to directinteractions. Further, tourism requires host communities to exhibithigh levels of responsiveness and learn to provide quality servicesin a bid to foster a healthy relationship. Similarly, interactionsbetween tourists and the local communities lead to the generation ofnew ideas and values (Doran and Larsen 1023). At the same time, theinteractions enhance motivations for both economic and socialprogress. Moreover, tourism can revitalize the cultural life of thelocal community and it is within the premise of the interactions thatart and traditions are shared. According to Doxley, the attitude ofthe local communities crosses four major stages: euphoria, apathy,discomfort, and antagonism (1032).

Theeuphoria stage denotes an instance where tourists are freely allowedto access and view community resources without any specific form ofplanning and control. In the apathy stage the tourists are consideredby a community and the relationship between the two parties becomesformal and commercial. Discomfort stage explains the level wheresaturation is reached and the community starts to change itsattitudes towards the tourists. In this stage it is crucial fordecision makers to establish reliable infrastructure instead oflimiting growth. The fourth stage is the antagonism stage in whichthe locals tend to exhibit irritation towards the tourists and theentire tourism activities. The local authorities should remedy theissues exhibited in this stage by increasing promotional processes.The promotions will be instituted to clean community images. Further,there is a link between culture and tourism. Webster argues thatconsumerism forms a large segment of tourism in the society. Theresearcher defines consumerism as an instance where there is anincrease in demand and consumption of products and services (Websterand Ivanov 137-140). In their research Simpson et al. (253)illustrate that consumerism has a huge implication to the society andthis is true when it comes to the issue of products and servicesproduction and delivery in the market (Simpson and Bretherton235-246).

Lyonset al. (319-326) argue that consumerism leads to the destruction ofculture and impacts the society and the environment. The authors gofurther to depict that consumerism leads to traffic congestion andlong queues at tourist attraction sites. For example, the invasion ofthe San Marco Basilica tourist attraction site led to the damage ofthe frescoes due to condensations originating from the breath oftourists visiting the sites. Another example is the case of MasaiMara in Kenya which is one of the leading game reserves. Touristsvisiting the game reserve often drive off the designated paths intograzing fields and this has led to massive destruction of the oncegreen fields. Globalization has also been associated with negativesocio-cultural impact on the local communities, indigenous values,traditions and lifestyles. According to Su (2276) cities in the worldare not authentic, but instead they are disinfected and Mcdonaldized.The researcher goes further to argue that diversity gives way toefficiency, growth of the global culture and the development of thelocal culture. Through tourism activities a small village that maynot be known can leverage on the existing beautiful scenery, lack ofcongestion and tranquility to spur its growth (Momeni). Unfortunatelythe exposure of rural towns to tourism activities leads to erosion ofthe local traditions and values. The existing cultures are replacedby foreign cultures. Further, land in the rural areas is majorlyowned and purchased by the rich who in turn endeavor to transform theareas into shopping centers. The end implication is that the initialresources that attracted tourists are gradually replaced and erodedby tourist development.

Todayfishermen work in supermarkets while tourists experiencing fishing onauthentic boats. The situation has led to rapture in the initialstructure of events. Contributing to an overhaul of the events is thegrowing number of tourists expected in an economy annually and theadoption of new technology. Moreover the need for an authentic andreliable system has tarnished the traditions of communities. Forexample, the Keechak dance associated to the Hindu community in Baliwas shortened in a bid to be performed for foreign tourists. From atheoretical perspective there may be a feeling of being cheated fromthe tourists. However, the criticisms may not suffice as one needs aclear understanding of the cultural background or the localperspective to come to a conclusion. Large stores and shoppingcenters in urban areas can be depicted as a response to consumerism.Spaces in rural and urban areas have been converted into touristattraction sites (Das and Dirienzo 283).

Theimpact of the conversion is that the local community is deprived ofthe limited resources. In these controlled environments there is noroom for poverty, begging and other activities that may be termed asa bother to the tourists. The end result is that the local communityis shoved aside and not likely to benefit from the proceeds collectedin the end of the day. According to Oh and Kim (665-670), tourismcannot be fully blamed for the loss of cultural identity in themodern globalized society. The research portends that globalizationor McDonalidisation may not be caused by tourism. The role oftechnology in harnessing a paradigm shift in cultural beliefs andvalues cannot be forfeited. However, the researchers agree thattourism has immensely led to the transformation of the society. Ascompared to the past century, the coastal towns and rural areas didnot register high levels of immoral issues like prostitution, childtrafficking, drug use and crime issues that have cropped up due toincreased tourism activities (Shackley 133-141).


Ascompared to the economic perspective, environment impact is the mostevident and has become a major theme in a wide range of studiesconducted between the 90s and the present period. In order toaccurately argue that tourism has an impact on the environment it isprudent to consider the large number of actors involved in thetourism activities. The main players in the industry include thelocal authorities, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations,the local communities and the tourists the common denominator of theparties involved is that they are all human beings (Okazaki, Andreuand Campo 10). Thus, when illustrating the relationship betweentourism and environmental depletion or conservation it is prudent toillustrate that the interaction between the two can also be depictedas an interaction between natural resources and the people. Further,in order to evaluate the impact of tourism on the environment it isimportant to consider the price attached to nature, the culturalfactors, and the ethical relationship of the people. The environmentis the fundamental factor in the experience of the tourists. The mainaim of tourists is to get attractive natural resources and experienceunique cultures and practices. Unfortunately, the development oftourism leads to creation of wastes and to some degree requiresmassive construction of infrastructure that can lead to degradationof the environment.

Pabeland Pearce (357-364) claim that the relationship between theenvironment and tourism has crossed four major stages: coexistence,conflict, idealism and realism. Coexistence denotes a stage wheretourism activities are said to have minimal impact on theenvironment. at the conflict stage there is mass tourism anddestruction of the environment. The idealism stage connotes aninstance where there is mutual coexistence or symbiosis by thedevelopment of green tourism programs. The last stage is the realismstage where different techniques are employed in the development ofboth the tourism activities and environmental protection (Semin340-349). At this stage there is a need to strike a balance betweenthe needs of the tourists and the locals as well as the is very difficult to point out with certainty that the environmenttourism has an impact on the environment because:

  • There is no clarity on the role of tourism on environmental degradation

  • Visibility on the impact of tourism on the environment is questionable

  • There is lack of a measuring yardstick on the direct and indirect impact of tourism on the environment.

Ragavan,Subramonian and Sharif (403-411) hold that tourism has a positiveimpact on the environment. the authors argue that tourism has led tothe development of conservations and protection of natural resourcesthrough the establishment of national parks and game reserves.Further tourism is said to have a huge appreciation of nature andthis explains why tourists flood various designated tourist locationsaround an economy. There is a direct link between tourism andenvironmental protection and tourism is viewed as a betteralternative to the manufacturing industries when it comes toenvironmental protection. However, Sebele (136-146) argues thattourism has led to emergence of negative effects to the environment.Tourism is said to impose pressure on the limited resources in aneconomy. High tension on the resources owing to the large number oftourists leads to environmental degradation. The high pressure can bemeasured in terms of the number of tourists relative to the maximumcapacity of the environment, large number of luxury centers andnumerous parks. Some of the major impacts of tourism on theenvironment include:

  • Disruption of the flora and fauna

  • Pollution

  • Soil erosion and degradation

  • Exhaustion of the existing resources

  • Traffic congestions

Thereis no doubt that the impact of tourism on the environment is massiveespecially when not addressed before they escalate. Unfortunately thepeople who bear the costs are the local people. Environmentaldegradation is only felt after a period of time.


Tourismhas both positive and negative impacts on the society. Theconsequences of tourism are influenced by the ability and capacity ofthe community to handle and accept changes that arise. As discussedthe impact of tourism is threefold: economic, socio-cultural andenvironment. for some communities in an economy, tourism can sufficeas the only source of income generation and this is especially truein societies located in dry regions. In such regions the onlyalternative to tourism is farming or fishing. People are able togenerate income by working in tourism related activities. However,the problem that accrues from reliance on income generated fromtourism is that there is no proper resource distribution processes.Coastal regions and rural areas with tourist sites are likely to takemore of the income generated as opposed to other regions thus,creating inequality.

Tourismis viewed as a means of enhancing interaction between differentcultures. At the same time, tourism acts as a platform to share ideasand foster development of new cultures and intermingling of diversepeople. Through sharing people are able to develop more reliable andefficient systems as opposed to continually relying on ancient meansin enhancing their activities, however, exchange of ideas tend tocloud the cultural traditions and values. While tourism hasfacilitated the creation of conservation agencies, national parks andgame reserves, tourism is also blamed for the rise in pollution inthe once silent rural areas. The large number of tourists floodingcoastal regions has led to immense development and leading to thecollapse of the initial cultures and traditions. However, in a bid toprevent the unpleasant negative implications of tourism, there is aneed to plan and control the activities appropriately. The localauthorities must partner with the local communities to ensure thattourism becomes a success. A closer analysis at the implication oftourism on the society, it can be concluded that the challenges oftourism as an industry do not outweigh the benefits. Tourism shouldbe viewed as an economic, social and environmental development drivenprocess as much as the right policies and regulations are imposed.


Archer,Brian. &quotEconomic Impact Analysis&quot.&nbspAnnalsof Tourism Research&nbsp23.3(2014): 704-707. Web.

Das,Jayoti and Cassandra E. Dirienzo. &quotTourism Competitiveness AndThe Role Of Fractionalization”.International Journal of Tourism Research&nbsp14.3(2011): 285-297. Web.

Doran,Rouven and Svein Larsen. &quotAre We All Environmental Tourists Now?The Role Of Biases In Social Comparison Across And Within Tourists,And Their Implications&quot.&nbspJournalof Sustainable Tourism&nbsp22.7(2013): 1023-1036. Web.

Gosar,Anton. &quotInternational Tourism and Its Impact on the SlovenianSociety and Landscape&quot.GeoJournal&nbsp30.3(2012): 339-348. Web.

Jee,Bong-Gu, Tae-Gu Kim, and Gye-Hee Lee. &quotRelationship among Levelof Performance of Tourism, Perception of Effects, And Level ofImportance of Tourism Industry&quot.&nbspJournalof the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society&nbsp12.8(2011): 3777-3784. Web.

Lyons,Kevin D. et al. &quotProfessional Development Barriers And BenefitsIn A Tourism Knowledge Economy&quot.&nbspInternationalJournal of Tourism Research&nbsp18.4(2015): 319-326. Web.

Momeni,Mehdi. &quotThe Role Of Tourists’ Offices In The Tourists’Attraction And Their Contentment: Case Study Of Isfahan, Iran&quot.&nbspAsianSocial Science&nbsp11.13(2015): n. pag. Web.

Monnin,Junjira. &quotDesigning Multifunction Fabric For Tourists&quot.&nbspProcedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences&nbsp197(2015): 1436-1442. Web.

Oh,Chi-Ok and Hyounggon Kim. &quotStakeholder Differences In EconomicBenefits Of Heritage Tourism Development&quot.&nbspTourismEconomics&nbsp22.3(2016): 665-670. Web.

Okazaki,Shintaro, Luisa Andreu, and Sara Campo. &quotKnowledge Sharing AmongTourists Via Social Media: A Comparison Between Facebook And Tripadvisor&quot.&nbspInternationalJournal of Tourism Research&nbsp(2016):n. pag. Web.

Pabel,Anja and Philip L. Pearce. &quotHighlighting The Benefits Of TourismHumor: The Views Of Tourists&quot.&nbspTourismManagement Perspectives&nbsp16(2015): 357-364. Web.

Ragavan,Neethiahnanthan Ari, Hema Subramonian, and Saeed Pahlevan Sharif.&quotTourists’ Perceptions Of Destination Travel Attributes: AnApplication To International Tourists To Kuala Lumpur&quot.Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences&nbsp144(2014): 403-411. Web.

Sebele,Lesego S. &quotCommunity-Based Tourism Ventures, Benefits AndChallenges: Khama Rhino Sanctuary Trust, Central District,Botswana&quot.&nbspTourismManagement&nbsp31.1(2010): 136-146. Web.

Seetanah,B. &quotAssessing the Dynamic Economic Impact of Tourism for IslandEconomies&quot.&nbspAnnalsof Tourism Research&nbsp38.1(2011): 291-308. Web.

Semin,.&quotStudy Of Tourists` Rights In Iran With Emphasis On UrbanTourist Rights&quot.&nbspJournalof Social Sciences&nbsp6.3(2010): 340-349. Web.

Shackley,Myra. &quotCosts And Benefits: The Impact Of Cathedral Tourism InEngland&quot.&nbspJournalof Heritage Tourism&nbsp1.2(2006): 133-141. Web.

Simpson,Ken and Phil Bretherton. &quotThe Impact Of Community Attachment OnHost Society Attitudes And Behaviors Towards Visitors&quot.&nbspTourismand Hospitality Planning &amp Development&nbsp6.3(2009): 235-246. Web.

Su,Xiao Yan. &quotTourism in China: A Study of Its Impact on Economy,Culture and Society&quot.&nbspAMM275-277(2013): 2723-2726. Web.

Wearing,Stephen. &quotPro-Poor Tourism: Who Benefits? Perspectives OnTourism And Poverty Reduction&quot.&nbspAnnalsof Tourism Research&nbsp35.2(2008): 616-618. Web.

Webster,Craig and Stanislav Ivanov. &quotTransforming Competitiveness IntoEconomic Benefits: Does Tourism Stimulate Economic Growth In MoreCompetitive Destinations?&quot.&nbspTourismManagement40(2014): 137-140. Web.

Wells,R.J.G. &quotThe Impact of Tourism on the Environment&quot.&nbspTourismManagement&nbsp3.1(2012): 64-65. Web.

Student`s Name

Student’s Last Name 2



Analysisof an Art piece at the Mingei International Museum in San Diego

Duringthe visit to the art gallery at the Mingei International Museum, apiece made of hardwood and stoneware with black satin glaze drew myattention. The art piece was Vase,c. 1997that dated back to 1997 had dimensions of 36.5 × 21 × 11.5 inchesand was a collection by Michelle Look and Tor Gronborg. The art piececreates a feeling of unity. The artist seemed to have creatively usedhis space to create a feeling of unity in his piece. The concept ofunity is displayed by the two pillars that support the fish at thetop of the vase.

Thepiece depicts an association between a living creature and anon-living. The artwork shows what looks like a pot having twosupports on the sides and a fish held on the top of the supports. Itcould be depicting the smoking or steaming process of a fish. Thepurpose of the piece was to represent an activity of a particularcommunity. The artist used the various aspects and elements of art todevelop the piece in a manner that will meet its purpose.

Descriptions,Materials, and Techniques

Thepiece depicts the creativity of a traditional porter. He or sheemployed the use of natural and artificial forms to bring out his orher ideas. The piece is made of what looks like a chimney, which hascylindrical and cubical forms, and two identical supports, which holda fish at the top end, having a natural form. The materials used forthe creation of the sculpture were stoneware and hardwood. Differenttechniques were employed in the creation of the piece as shown by theforms. The artist employed the carving technique to create the stoneand hardwood sculpture. Most pieces of sculpture, moldings, andcarvings are created through the use of different techniques assuggested by Kraut (15). The materials and techniques were creativelyutilized in the creation of this stunning piece. The artist succeededin bringing out the form and shapes that he or she wanted to present.

Thestone and hardwood seem to be the material of choice for the artistin presenting his or her art piece in a manner that would suit itspurpose. By looking at the various parts of the art piece, it isclear that the artist was comfortable in using the materials sincethe piece is perfectly presented. The incisions and excisions at thebase of the piece, as supported by George (52), demonstrate greatperfection in work. The fish at the top part of the piece has aclose-to-real appearance, which is mainly contributed by thematerials used and the prowess of the artist in manipulating thematerials in a skillful manner.

Theartist’s choice of materials and techniques enables him or her todevelop an excellent piece, which portrays a skillful use of space inthe presentation of the artist’s meaning. The outcome of an artworkdepends on the artist’s ability to use a particular media in thepresentation of his or her work. Elements such texture would changeif the artist decided to change the type of media as suggested bySchodek (n. p).

Responseto the questions about the piece

Bothart and craft are considered to be works that depict creativity. Inart, the work mainly draws the viewer’s emotions. Works of artcreate a particular feeling to its audience, and it is also apresentation of the artist’s expression of emotions (Friefield 43).On the other hand, craft is that type of work that is tangible, andits creation may not be aimed at evoking any emotions (Brown 12).Also, with crafts, one can easily replicate it creating specificforms of the piece, which is impossible in art. In most cases, worksof art are substantially attached to the artist as they present hisfeelings, imaginations, or a certain experience in their lifetime,whereas crafts are mostly made for commercial purposes, and theauthenticity of the resulting piece is greatly dictated by theartist’s experience rather than talent.

Iwas obliged to choose the piece due to its nature and the variousaspects that it contained. It perfectly shows the artist’sinordinate ability to creatively use and manipulate space in thecreation of an outstanding piece. Another attractive thing was theartist’s ability to use two different materials (stone andhardwood) in an unnoticeable manner.


Thepiece is displayed at the Mingei International Museum. It isdisplayed in an open space in the museum building it is a freestanding piece mounted on a pedestal. The place where it is locatedhas sufficient lighting, making the whole piece visible withoutstraining and enable the viewer to note the very subtle texture inthe piece, and all the aspects presented in it.

Thecolor of the nearest walls is white therefore creating a highcontrast making the visibility of the piece clear even byphotographing. The surrounding space makes the piece moredomineering, making it very noticeable. The space occupied by thepiece makes it more outstanding compared to other pieces thatneighbor it. Space plays a significant role in determining howconspicuous an art piece can be (Mccutcheon 74). The neighboringpieces are less noticeable compared to this piece and have littleeffects on its attractiveness to the viewers.


Toconclude, the Vase,c. 1997created from hardwood and stoneware was an impressive piece. Theartist carefully and creatively employed the use of different aspectsand elements of art to meet his or her purpose. The art piecedisplays the creative use of material to depict a proper use oftexture, space, form, and other elements of art.


Brown,Matthew E. Elementsof Art.Place of Publication Not Identified: CreateSpace, 2012. Print.

Friefield,Karen. ArtAnalysis: Probing beneath the Image.New York: Pearson, 2011. Print.

George,Herbert. TheElements of Sculpture A Viewer`s Guide.Berlin: Phaidon, 2014. Print.

Kraut,Robert. &quotArt and Art-Attempts.&quot Analysis(2015): n. pag. Web. 10 Nov. 2016.

Mccutcheon,Erin L. &quotIncorporates: The Art of Ana Mendieta.&quot Elements1.1 (2012): n. pag. Web. 11 Nov. 2016.

Schodek,Daniel L. Structurein Sculpture.Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2011. Print.

Student`s Name


Povertyand marginalization

Americais regarded by the rest of the world as a safe haven. Most people ofthe world want to travel to America to settle there or just visit toenjoy the lauded American serene. No one ever thinks this greatcountry has a share of her challenges and troubles. The commonpresumption is that jobs are readily available in America and everysector of its economy is imbued with job opportunities.Unfortunately, those living in poverty and marginalization in Americawould not tell the same story. Their idea of America would be nothingcloser to a land of opportunities. It is vital to understand thatpoverty affects the members of all races. It is not just a challengeof a particular sect within the American society (Saatcioglu andCanan 122-132).

Theimages I have presented create the concept of poverty andmarginalization distinctly. Poverty affects the old and childrenalike, women and men, whites and people of color alike. Poverty eatsinto the nerves of the economic development of those affected. Itsimpact is felt in many sectors: housing, education, employment,transport, trade and many more. Primarily, the poverty in Americaincludes a lack of basic necessities and security. It is not apparentas it may be in other parts of the world where there is blatantstarvation (Saatcioglu and Canan 122-132).

Thecauses of poverty in America are many, but I identified five, namely,poor economy, drug use, lack of affordable housing, medical expensesand lack of education. From the images, especially, in the second,fourth, fifth and tenth pictures, it is evident that housing is anissue most affecting those living in poverty. In the fifth picture insequence, I included it to portray the rot in the society. The womanphotographed seems to sleep behind a well-built apartment (Chaskin237-267). While she languishes in poor conditions of shelter besidesthat building the people inside live totally in different bettercircumstances. The ninth picture, showing school children in aplaying field reflects how much poverty has also affected theeducation sector. The conditions of learning as portrayed in thephoto are deplorable. Also, an important feature to note is thatthose students are black (Geronimus et al. 199-224).

Inthe eighth picture, the two black men seem dejected by theirsituation. In the background are taxi vehicles, which are apparentlypacked. It identifies the employment problem. Moreover, the firstimage represents the state of unemployment. The men in the picturehave folded shirts, a sign that they are workers but the look ontheir faces show that they have either lost their jobs or got none.The arrangement of the images in that sequence reveals my thought onthe nature of the facts of poverty in America. It expresses the realstate of affairs. I am straightforward in my representation of thepoverty situation in America. I do not want to mince words andplaster the real situation of some American citizens. I am concernedthat the situation is as real as it seems in the images.

Itis also important to indicate that as depicted in the tenth picture,the government and the private sector are working towards helpingthose living in poverty. In that photo, the people are in a line tobe admitted into a housing facility. I would like to mention that mystrongest image is the fifth picture. It appeals to my senses andemotions, evoking my sympathy towards the woman standing in thepicture. It relates the divide between the rich and the poor in thissociety. Even though one person affords to live in a well-structuredand tranquil environment the next person survives in heart wrenchingconditions. This photo appears in the middle of my presentation toshow the acme of poverty in the American society (Chaskin 237-267).


Chaskin,Robert J. &quotIntegration and exclusion urban poverty, publichousing reform, and the dynamics of neighborhood restructuring.&quotTheANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science647.1 (2013): 237-267.

Geronimus,Arline T., et al. &quotRace-ethnicity, poverty, urban stressors, andtelomere length in a Detroit community-based sample.&quot Journalof health and social behavior56.2 (2015): 199-224.

Saatcioglu,Bige, and Canan Corus. &quotPoverty and Intersectionality aMultidimensional Look into the Lives of the Impoverished.&quotJournalof Macromarketing34.2 (2014): 122-132.

Student`s Name




Ethicsdescribe those moral principles that govern the behaviors of a personor a group. An ethical theory may also refer to moral psychology. Itis a study that aims at rendering an action either right or wrong.Since most actions are contextual and are subjects of differentscenarios, various theories have been formed to suit each of thegiven situations and contexts. Some of these approaches includeethical egoism, utilitarianism theory, deontology theory, and virtuecare and virtue ethics among many others. The paper will evaluateutilitarianism and deontological ethics theories, discuss theirstrengths and weaknesses and provide argument on the better theoryamong the two.

Utilitarianismethical theory

Thetheory argues that an action can be considered either right or wrongby looking at its outcomes. This methodisseen as justbecause it does not relate to other forms of actions with the doer’sinterests and contexts. However, it matches a wrong did with a gainor pleasure,and a wrong did with regret, pain,and discomfort. The gains and the pains from the deed can bequantified using criteria such as duration, certainty (this is theapplied in uncertain conditions), intensity and also nearness andfarness. Thismeansthat there are actions whose gains and pains take more time thanothers. They are more probabilistic than for others, are more intensethan for others and also take the timeto realize the increases and soreness than others (Sandler,Ronald, 2010).

Thereare two types of Utilitarianism, Act Utilitarianism,and Rule Utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism matches deeds with theiroutcomes directly without considering the moral principles. Anexample of act-Utilitarianismin real life is that if one does not pursue education, he will live amiserablelife. Not seeking education is directly matched with amiserablelife. In rule utilitarianism, human rights and heuristics are putintoconsideration when matching actions with their consequences.

Strengthsof Utilitarianism theory

Themerits of the utilitarianism approach include:

  1. Promotes happiness among people.

  2. Useful in decision making and actions must have reasons and purposes.

  3. Rule utilitarianism put human rights into consideration making it fair.

Weaknessesof Utilitarianism theory

Utilitarianismhas various factors that act as setbacks in its general setting. Theyinclude:

  1. We cannot use this approach to predict the future since not all bad actions lead to pain.

  2. Not everyone is in a position to decide on what is right and bad when using act-Utilitarianism.

  3. The approach is not useful in situations where risks are involved in investment because the consequences are negative by default.

Deontologicalethics theory

ImmanuelKent introduced the theory in 18th Century. The approach relatesduties of a person with human morality. It meansthat an action can be either considered rightor wrongby checking at the characteristics of the activityand relating it to the moral standards. If the featuresof the given action are in line with the desirable moral humanmorals, then it is considered safeelse, if the featuresof the given action violate the set moral human standards, then theworkisseen as wrongin that setting.

Thereare various types of Deontological made for different settingsincluding divine command theory for religions, natural right theoryfor natural justice, contractarian theory for workers and those in acontract and pluralistic theory for deciding duties inworksetting (Alexander,Larry, and Michael Moore, 2007).

Deontologicaltheory, unlike utilitarianism, does not relate an action with itoutcomes to find either its goodness or badness. Deontological iscontextually fair since different settings have different set moralstandards. It also favors differences in cultures forvarious groupsof people.

Despitethe two theories having different inferencing approach, they have asimilarity where the rightness has priority over the wrong. Whiledeveloping this method,Immanuel Kent urged the actors to:

  1. Act in a way that the artist would want the action to be a working law that can be followed by everybody in any condition.

  2. Act to consider humanity as mean and results.

  3. Actors to work as if they were lawmakers in hypothetical regimes.

Strengthsof Deontological theory

Thedeontologicaltheory has advantages that make it useful in its applications invarious moral fields. They include

  1. Human rights and moral ethics are the pillars for rendering an action either good or bad.

  2. Context rules are fundamental in promoting moral in different settings.

  3. A prediction which is characterized by trial and error is not encouraged in this theory.

Weaknessesof Deontological theory

Despitethe approach’s merits the theory has demeritsthattend to affect its applications in the different organizations. Thesetbacks include

  1. May fail to work where there are conflicting moral duties.

  2. It makes morality to base upon avoidance of undesirable actions rather than building good morals.

  3. May lead to a moral fanaticism and ignore other aspects of humanity which are equally important.


Insummary, both theories are excellent, but the deontological theory isthe best.Theaspect isbecause it considers differences in contexts in its making. Thesettings have different rules,and there does not exist a standard course of action that can makeone fit in both settings at the same time. Both theories promote gooddeeds, however, in utilitarianism, formulation of standards to rendera deed either good or bad is left to the personapplying it.Theissue maypromote self-interest and bias. In Deontological theory, the rulesbaseonthe contexts laws, the holy books and also the natural laws. Thesemake Deontological theory better than utilitarianism theory ofethics.


Alexander,Larry, and Michael Moore. &quotDeontological Ethics.&quot (2007).Print.

Sandler,Ronald. &quotEthical theory and the problem of inconsequential’s:Why Environmental Ethicists Should Be Virtue-Oriented Ethicists.&quotJournalof Agricultural and Environmental Ethics23.1-2 (2010): 167-183. Print.

Student`s Name

Overthe past years, there has been a steady increase in the number ofimmigrants in the U.S.A. from different parts of the world. Peoplemove to America because it is a land of opportunities and everybodyhas freedom and equal chances to access these privileges (Kikta).America as a superpower nation is a successful and diverse nation, anengine of liberty and prosperity and has embraced people of differenteconomic class, races, and religions to be settlers. Today,as we have an estimated 12 million illegal immigrants living in theU.S., most of them in the workforce, an immigration reform isimprescindible.

Immigrants’contribution to the U.S. economy and immigration reforms

Illegalimmigration into the U.S. has been there for many years. Issues ofillegal immigrants were even used as a campaign strategy by theincoming president, Donald Trump as he said he is going to deportthem (CNN). The numbers have steadily increased, and now there arealmost over 11 million illegal immigrants (CNN). Despite this, thereare immigrants who have blended well into the society as they abideby the laws, pay taxes, work, educate their children, and some areeven serving in our military frontlines. They have become part of thenation. Moreover, the illegal immigrants have also participated inbuilding the nation and deporting them will bring a great economicdownfall in the country’s economy.

Illegaland legal immigrants have made a lot of contribution to the U.S.economy. To safeguard their input on our national economy, there is aneed for a comprehensive immigration reform that will work in thefavor of Americans because we need their workforce. The undocumentedimmigrants in the U.S. are an untapped workforce that is waiting toflourish therefore, they should be given a legal status so as tounleash their potentials. Giving them a legal status will help themto find better education and employment and as a result, they willspend more on goods and services from the U.S. businesses, which willin turn help to foster the economy.

Inhistory, immigrants have made great advances than American Natives intechnological, industrial and business transformation. For a longtime, entrepreneurship has been deeply engrained in America and thepioneering immigrants such as Alexander Graham Bell and Nikolas Teslawere attracted by this and it continues to attract most foreigners tosettle in America (Kikta).

Americahas proven itself as a conducive environment for every kind ofopportunity as it fosters creativity and innovations coupled with itspeople who are open-minded and self-governing. Most immigrants fleefrom their nations for several reasons ranging from the search forjob opportunities, running away from hostile environment, poverty,and education to a family reunion, but the most important is thatthey have helped the nation by contributing to the growth ofAmerica’s workforce.

Therehave been different debates concerning issues of immigrants in theU.S. Some claim that they do not pay taxes they are a drain on theeconomy or have taken our jobs. Additionally, some people whoadvocate for deportation of over 11 million illegal immigrants arguethat they are takers as they have accessed public benefits more thanthose who are legally American citizens (CNN).

Onthe contrary, both legal and illegal immigrants have helped inrevitalizing the economy as they have engaged in different businessesthat require fewer skills, especially in agricultural sectorscompeting with high school dropouts, while other jobs that needadvanced skill are dominated by natives.

Withtime, immigrants have bolstered the workforce in Los-Angeles, NewYork, Chicago and Huston because they have large numbers ofimmigrants, and these states have become economic powerhouses as theyaccount for approximately one-fifth of the country’s gross domesticproduct(America Immigration Council).

Employers’laws on immigrant employment

Dueto the freedom and opportunities in America, many have been enteringthe nation to work without proper documentation as a result, we haveover 2 million illegal immigrants in the workforce (AmericaImmigration Council).America, despite their claims that it is a country of immigrants, italso has laws that should be followed to the letter, especially byemployers. In 2009, President Obama, when asked about immigrationand its reforms stated that “laws must be binding: rules must befollowed words must mean something,”(America Immigration Council).

Astime passes, many senior workers in the U.S. will soon retire, andfew skilled young workforces will replace them. Recently, there is asteady increase in the number of education attainment, and manyparents have embraced family planning, and as a result, there is adecrease in birth rates. Thus, there is a low workforce to meet thedemands of the less skilled workers, which will greatly affect theAmerica’s business. To meet these demands, there is a need forAmericans to come up with immigration reforms that will ensure thatthere is enough workforce, create jobs and help to strengthen theeconomy.

Asimmigrants continue to flock the nations, there is a need for everyemployer to be conversant with the rules governing immigrant workers.Employees may think that immigrant workers have no rights and mayexploit them, but on the contrary, they do. The Obama’sadministration has tried to make the employment eligibility clearerfor the employers and has made it simpler for them to abide by thelaws (White House 25).

Theemployers can now confirm document’s authenticity easier andquicker before they employ any worker especially immigrants usingE-verify system. The Department of Homeland Security, to ensure thatemployers abide by the law, has also provided a guideline in the form1-9 so as to help them safeguard their employees’ rights (WhiteHouse 9).

Moreover,in 2009 worksite enforcement strategy was launched, it was majorlydesigned to penalize employers who hire illegal workers such asundocumented immigrants and traffickers among others. As a result, itis necessary according to law that all employers seek to understandthe eligibility of all applicants first before they start working intheir organization (White House 25).


Inhis campaign strategy, Donald Trump, now the incoming president ofthe U.S. said that he would deport all the undocumented Americansback to their countries (CNN). This stirred a lot of emotions. Manyhave been engulfed by fear as they wait what he will do once he issworn into office next year. Moreover, most Americans are obliviousof the menaces that may result from the deportation of the illegalimmigrants and have a consequence they make contributions from aone-sided perspective. To make America a place for immigrants as itclaims to be, it should embrace them and give them a conducive placeto develop and grow this will, in turn, revitalize the country’seconomy. Furthermore, the laws governing the employers who hireimmigrants should also be enforced and followed to the letter becausesome illegal immigrants may suffer in silence in fear of exposingtheir nationality illegibility.


AmericaImmigration Council. &quotImmigration Reform and JobGrowth.&quot&nbspAmericanImmigration Council,20&nbspJan.&nbsp2011,

CNN.&quotDonald Trump Immigration Plan: The,17&nbspAug.&nbsp2015,

Kikta,Roman.&nbspWorld’sLargest Professional Network | LinkedIn,24&nbspSept.&nbsp2014,


Student`s Name


Veganor Carnivore

TheVegan or Carnivore is a lifestyle the manner of life that ispracticed by humans in their endurance for survival. Both lifestylesare believed to sustain life, and their proponents have cause toadopt their practice as the reasonable opportunity to live (Fontanaand Partridge 106). It is important to note the similarities anddifferences, exposing the reader to the facts of both practices.Also, it is worthy of documentation that both lifestyles have ahistorical background and that it hugely has an influence on theadoption of these practices. The paper delves into these details toinform the reader about the two lifestyles.

Veganisminvolves a vegetarian diet that records an exclusion of meat and thebyproducts and every other animal-derived ingredient. A vegan,therefore, is a person embroiled in the practice of veganism. A veganrecords living entirely in plant products. The diet includes grains,legumes, beans, vegetables and fruits and the variety derived from acombination of them. It is significant to observe that people make achoice to be vegan based on health, ethical or environmental reasons.The advocates of a vegan diet argue that veganism promotes asubstantially humane and caring world. They propose a peacefulcoexistence amongst the inhabitants of the natural world, reasoningthat every life has an inherent influence on the existence of theworld. Vegans purposely argue on the ethical aspect that spilling theblood of an animal destroys its life, causing it to an eternaldamnation. On the other hand, the vegans implore that the use ofplants for food gives rise to another life that thrives upon theplant used (Dinu et al. 50).

Thevegan diet is recorded to supply the dietary elements that supportlife and that the proponents believe to offer a minimally riskylifestyle. Research asserts that the plant-based diet exposes itsusers to a less conflicted life with few risks of disease anddisorders, supplying nutrients in their simplest form readilyabsorbable by the body. Studies further indicate that the vegan dietpromotes an efficient human metabolism, recording a less arduousprocess that will not weigh down on the body organs responsible formetabolism. The vegetarian concept of feeding serves the lifestylewith the reason to embrace a practice, aiming at using plants, whichoffers medicinal value to the body. It is in the same vein thatproponents of this lifestyle vouch for its application as modest(Dinu et al. 10).

Itis important to note that with proper planning and understanding thecomposition of a healthy diet, vegan nutrition offers all thenutrients the body requires. Otherwise, a person could lack vitalnutrients the body needs like vitamin B12, calcium, and iron. Forhealthy and strong bones and teeth, calcium is necessary. The Vegandiet could be sourced from pulses, dried fruit like prunes, driedapricots and figs and brown and white bread. Further, it is importantto inform that a person will protect their heart from attack throughdepending on the vegan diet, considerately avoiding food high insaturated fat, and watch their salt intake (Dinu et al. 20). Notably,vegans believe that the human digestive system was designed for avegan diet and that the adaptation to this lifestyle promotes thenatural state of life.

Also,it is critical to developing the comparison with a carnivorous diet.The carnivorous diet includes strictly meat for food. In most cases,the people who are inclined to feeding exclusively on flesh live inareas mostly associated with animal rearing. Historically, somecommunities have lived on meat, and their adaptation only encouragesthem to maintain the practice (Burkert et al. 110). The communitiesin the Arctic live on meat throughout their entire life. Research hasunraveled the nutritional status of those who live in such culturesand found that they live healthily as their counterparts who arevegans. However, other studies resolve that a carnivorous diet isfraught by numerous ills that subject humanity to unnecessary diseaseand untimely death. These studies prove that flesh consumption is thecause of the deadly human calamities such as cancer. However, theadvocates for this type of diet rely on the abundant nutritionalprovidence of these foods to remain firm in their practice (Burkertet al. 211).

Bersamin(269) in a study records that Native Alaskans on a more traditionaldiet, eating more animal protein and animal fat, had lower levels oftriglyceride on average 25 points lower that their westernizedneighbors. In essence, the study provides that those who are flesheaters traditionally have adapted to such feeding so that theycomparatively live healthy lives as the vegetarians. Bersamin (259)also indicates that some Arctic people in the study did have somecholesterol accumulation in their arteries however, it was observedto be insignificant and mostly witnessed in those who were eating acombination of traditional and modern foods. Research also providesthat blood pressure and obesity is not a common occurrence amongstthose who follow the carnivorous diet (Bersamin et al. 263).

Inconclusion, the practices provide a choice. Based on the requirementsof a particular individual, one is attracted to a specific dietconsiderate of the health, ethical and environmental factorsinvolved. It is, therefore, significant to document that nutrition isa vital aspect of the human life.


Bersamin,Andrea, et al. &quotEnculturation, perceived stress, and physicalactivity: implications for metabolic risk among the Yup`ik–TheCenter for Alaska Native Health Research Study.&quot Ethnicity&amp health19.3 (2014): 255-269.

Burkert,Nathalie T., et al. &quotNutrition and health–the associationbetween eating behavior and various health parameters: a matchedsample study.&quot PloSone9.2 (2014): e88-278.

Dinu,Monica, et al. &quotVegetarian, vegan diets and multiple healthoutcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observationalstudies.&quot Criticalreviews in food science and nutritionjust-accepted (2016): 00-00.

Fontana,Luigi and Linda Partridge. &quotPromoting Health And LongevityThrough Diet: From Model Organisms To Humans&quot. Cell161.1 (2015): 106-118. Web.

Student`s Name




Viewsof Loyalty in TheWinter`s Tale

Theissue of loyalty is essential to the main plot of the play. Numerouscharacters try to safeguard loyalty, but end up doing the opposite(Shakespeare&amp Pitcher 20).Thereare various views of loyalty in TheWinter`s Tale,which were doubted at several points. These include loyalty inmarriage, which could be seen between Leontes and Hermione, loyaltyin friendship experienced between Polixenes and Leontes, and loyaltyto family evident between Polixenes, and his son, Florizell.

Loyaltyin marriage is seen when Leontes,the King of Sicilia,perceived that Hermione,his wife, hadanaffair with Polixenes, the King of Bohemia. Polixenes had visitedLeontes’ court and felt it was time to leave. Leontes did not wanthim to go, and neither was he able to convince him to stay. However,Hermione’spersuasion made Polixenesagree to stay.This came as a blow to Leontes who suspected Polixenesofhaving a romantic affection with his wife. He got convinced of theaffair to the extent that he ordered for the poisoning of Polixenesby Camillo. Nonetheless, Camillo fled to Bohemia with Polixenes forsafety. Their escape confirmed to Leontes that Polixenes was guiltyand his wife was disloyal. He went ahead to suggest that Polixeneswas the one responsible for Hermione’s pregnancy proving furtherthe issue of loyalty in marriage (Bevington 27). Despite insistingthat she was innocent and loyal, Leontes threw her in jail. Aftergiving birth, he termed his daughter a bastard and suggested sheshould be thrown on fire with her mother as a punishment fordisloyalty in marriage. Consequently, Leontes tried to accuseHermione publicly for cheating on him. Nevertheless, Delphos’Oracle was issued, and it proclaimed the innocence of Polixenes andHermione, but Leontes disregarded it and believed the two wereguilty. His hardheadedness led to the death of his son, Mamillius,which caused Hermione to faint and die(Shakespeare&amp Pitcher 50).These misfortunes made Leontes admit his mistake of perceiving hiswife of being disloyal and even planned to bury both of them.Therefore, loyalty in marriage was focused upon in TheWinter`s Taleas Hermione upheld it, but Leontes viewed her as disloyal.

Loyaltyin friendship is experienced between Polixenes and Leontes. They werechildhood friends, but their separation for many yearsmadeLeontes have the desire of having Polixenes stay longer to renewtheir relationship. This did not turn out as expected because Leontesproved to be disloyal by commanding Polixenes’ poisoning for thefeeling that he was having an affair with his wife. Loyalty infriendship is also evident because only loyal friends can trycatching up despite long years of separation. This is despite theirroyalty as kings, which can make one forget about friends for havingeverything at their disposal(Shakespeare&amp Pitcher 100).Friends should be loyal and talk to each other pertaining disturbingsituations instead of making fabricated conclusions. The falseaccusation by Leontes against Polixenes is a form of disloyalty to aloyal friend.

Loyaltyto family is apparent in the play through the actions of Leontes andFlorizell.Leontes advocatedfor the significance of loyalty in marriage by organizing for thedeaths of Hermione andPerdita,her daughter.Conversely, this proved disloyalty to his family despite advocatingfor loyalty in marriage (Bevington 27).Leontes proved disloyal to his wife for betraying her with obsessivejealousy. As a husband, he should have spoken to her about his trustissues concerning her relationship with Polixenesinstead of making conclusions without her consent. The abandonmentand final upbringing of Perdita&nbspbya shepherd despite being from a royal lineage is a fringe on loyaltyto family(Shakespeare&amp Pitcher 120).Leontes was not caring enough to uphold the unity of his family, butfocused on petty conclusions that dismantled it. Additionally,loyalty to family failed to uphold when Florizellran away from home after his father stopped him from marryingPerdita.

Conclusively,TheWinter`s Tale hasvarious views on loyalty. Many characters like Hermione, Polixenes,and Florizell maintain their loyalty. Hermione is loyal in hermarriage, but her husband, Leontes, accuses her of having anextramarital affair with Polixenes. Polixenes upholds loyalty infriendship by agreeing to stay longer at Leontes’ court. However,Leontes feels he is disloyal, and claims he has an affair with hiswife. On the other hand, Florizellfails to be loyal to his family for opting to run away when hisfather told him not to marry Perdita.


Bevington,David M. The Necessary Shakespeare. 5th Ed. New York: Pearson,2016. Print.

Shakespeare,William and John Pitcher. The winter’s Tale. 5th ed. London:Arden Shakespeare, 2010. Print.

Student`s Name

Arehuman beings to Blame for Environmental degradation?

Environmentalsustainability can be defined as “a situation where all activitiestaking place in an environment can be comfortably accommodatedwithout reducing the capacity to live well, now and withoutcompromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs,”(Hill and Tim 1). Over many years, there have been hot debates on theissues of environment sustainability and its impacts. Some peoplebelieve that the environment is degrading naturally, but on thecontrary, man’s activities are to blame hence, there is a need tosustain it due to the threats that are facing it. Thus, man is toblame for the environment unsustainability due to overexploitation ofavailable resources as they engage every day in activities thatcontribute to its degradation despite warnings from environmentalistsand ecologists.

Environmentalistshave come up with different strategies on how to use the earth’sresources sustainably, but still, there are threatening levels of itsdegradation. According to a report from the MillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDGs)by UN, most countries both developing and developed are not yet inthe path for environmental sustainability because progress varies incountries, geographical regions and targets (OECD 2).

Tobegin with, over the past decades, human population has increasedsteadily and have involved in many activities that have affected theenvironment. Oblivious of their actions, to accommodate the growingpopulation, man has cleared forests, changed water channels,inhabited conservation areas and has gone to the extremes ofreclaiming land in water bodies to satisfy their needs. Due to highpopulation, the world has experienced unprecedented growth in farmingactivities, needs for power and the technological revolution thathave exerted pressure on both renewable and non-renewable resources(Mason npag). Most of these activities help to improve the quality ofman’s life, but on the other hand, they have marked the end ofsustainable living.

Theunsustainable use of non-renewable resources by human beings has ledto their depletion because they cannot be reintroduced to theenvironment therefore, people should use the renewable resourcesinstead of using the non-renewable ones. Additionally,environmentalists advice that people should “go green” byembracing the use of alternative sources of energy rather than usingfossil fuels (Patterson npag). The wind, tidal and solar powers arethe best alternatives that can be used as sources of energy becausethey cause no effect to the environment or to the atmosphere.

Theglobal demand for natural resources is still increasing, and it hasin some cases gone beyond the level that the environment canreplenish itself. Mahatma Gandhi said that the “earth has enough tosatisfy man’s need, but not every man’s greed,” which is true,since the demands for resource use have increased and despite thecomforts we have, man still yearns for more (Patterson npag qtd ingreenliving). According to the UN, as the population continues toincrease, more people are expected to live in regions with waterscarcity, and with a decline of more terrestrial biodiversity, whichwill, in turn, lead to loss of essential ecosystems (OECD 2).

Therefore,to ensure environment sustainability, the United Nations (UN) came upwith Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is one of the beststrategies to ensure a safe planet for all human beings and all otherliving and non-living things on earth (OECD 1). Ecotourism has alsomade great strides by making sure that tourists enjoy their visits todifferent destinations without overdevelopment that may change theenvironment (Hill and Tim 3).

Manydeveloping countries struggle to access clean water, food, andenergy, which have been made harder by different environmental issuesthat have been caused by human beings such as unabated climate changeand loss of biodiversity. Furthermore, environmental degradation hasaffected human health and their living standards due to the sloweconomic growth in countries. Thus, it is necessary that theprotection of the environment is reconciled with development andsustainable resource management this will ensure that resources areused sustainably to foster the economy while making sure that humanwellbeing is guaranteed now and in the future (OECD 3).

Accordingto studies, most natural resources are not equally distributed, andsome places are lucky to have them in plenty than others hence, theyshould be used generously with others sustainably (Mason npag). Mostcountries have tried their best to increase resources, but thestrategies used have been termed as expensive and take a lot of timeto develop, therefore, there is a need to use the existing resourcesefficiently to prevent them from being used quickly. This will ensurethat there is no imbalance in the environment.

Despitemany efforts by governments to ensure the environmental protection bycoming up with laws to regulate carbon emissions to the atmosphere,human beings have been guided by their self-interest and a smallpercentage have been able to implement them. Scientists say that wecannot stop some of the effects caused due to environmentaldegradation such as thinning of the ozone layer, but still, we can domuch by creating awareness and embracing sustainability.

Moreover,studies indicate that by 2050, there will be enormous amounts ofdangerous gas emissions into the air from transportation andindustries, which will in turn increase numbers of premature deathsthat are linked to airborne diseases (OECD 3). Additionally, failureto ensure environment sustainability will lead to the increase inglobal greenhouse gas emissions, which will increase temperatures,and the occurrence of natural disasters such as floods, landslides,tropical cyclones, and heat waves among others.


Thus,human activities are to blame for environmental degradation becausethey have altered the environment in one way or another, and as aresult, they have made the planet vulnerable to many disasters andtragedies such as global warming, melting permafrost, and increase insea levels, desertification, loss of biodiversity and climate change.Other factors that have led to environmental destruction due to humanactivities includes, poor waste disposal, pollution of air, water,and soil and urban sprawl, all these factors increases globalwarming, climate change, acid rain, health issues among others.

Therefore,to ensure environment sustainability, we should wisely use ourresources by embracing alternative methods to generate energy,recycling, treating waste water before releasing into water bodies,planting trees, reducing gas emission into the atmosphere,alternative transport such as using bicycles and walking. Even withgreat advances in the recycling of waste products, there is too muchwaste is still generated by human beings that the environment cannotcope with. Thus, it is everybody’s responsibility to make aconscious effort towards a sustainable living by reducing personalcarbon footprints, food miles, and waste and protecting biodiversity.


Hill,Jennifer, and Tim Gale, editors.&nbspEcotourismand Environmental Sustainability: Principles and Practice.Ashgate Publishing Limited,&nbsp2012.

Mason,Mathew. &quotWhat Is Sustainability and Why Is It Important? | |,Environmental Science Organization,&nbsp2016,

Organizationfor Economic co-operation and Development (OECD). &quotCIP’sContribution to the Global Agenda: Economic Development SocialInclusion Environmental Sustainability.&quot&nbspOECDand post-2015 reflection,&nbsp2013.

Patterson,Susan. &quotHow Do Humans Affect the Environment?&quot&nbspLoveToKnow,

Student`s Name




Discoveringwhat your main skill and talent can be tricky if you are excellent invarious areas. However, if I deeply examine myself, I would say thatI have been endowed with great leadership skills since I was young.My desire has always been around solving issues and providingsolutions and directions to people. I must say this talent or skillcan be attributed to various life experiences that I have gonethrough where I had to make decisions that not only concerned me, butalso most of my friends. Examining my past life, I realize I haveinfluenced a lot of people, especially those I have closelyinteracted with from the elementary school, high school, and evencollege.

Oneof the characteristics that I have and which usually people love isthat I am a caring listener. As a result, people usually find it easyto come and share issues, which bother them with me. I can honestlysay at the beginning of all this I just used to listen without sayinganything, but as I matured, I started to give my views about theirstories, advising them in positive light taking in considerationtheir emotions. I wondered why people confined in me, and I realizedI had a great heart that accommodated them. In the process, I becamefriends with many people, and I noticed that we almost face similarproblems only in a different dimension.

Istarted an initiative “be your brother and sister’s keeper,”which was well welcomed by many as we had already formed a group thatbonded. If one of our classmates was ill, we would visit him/her withgifts as we wished him well. This initiative attracted a lot ofattention and appreciation from students, teachers, and parents. As aconsequence, I was invited to various leadership workshops andentrusted with other responsibilities that made me enhance mydecision making and governance skills. Furthermore, to strengthen myleadership skills, I read various books and became interested inlives of various leaders and how they handled various situations,which I apply in my life.


WhenI look back at my life, I see a lot of challenges that I went throughto be where I am today, and I give credit to my God without hismercy and love, I would be nothing. I come from a humble backgroundand the experience that my parents went through always influenced howthey advised me. I understand that their concerns for me weregenuine, but most of the careers that they wanted me to pursue werenot any close to what I loved. However, I understood my parents, andbecause of my great love for them, I did not want to disappoint them,but waited until it was the right time for me to tell them I loved topursue a particular path of career and not one of those that theythought were good for me.

Topursue my dream career, I decided to join the Chinese University, butI failed the entrance test. I was disappointed that I missed a chanceto my dream University. As a consequence, I was demoralized, and myparents forced me to pursue law as my major. I tried to adapt to thenew school, but I faced a lot of challenges. I started to seek foropportunities where I would pursue a career that was related toeconomics. And where would my dream come true except the “land ofopportunities?”

Thus,I decided to leave for the USA after applying for student visa,despite much opposition from my parents. I found a community collegewhere I felt that my dream would eventually come true as they offeredthe course that my heart wished to pursue. I decided that I would usesome cash that I had saved from an online store that I used to workfor as the upkeep and fee for my studies while in the US. Though, myparents were not supportive when they saw I was persistent, they cameto my assistance and sourced for additional funds for me to pursue mydream. Indeed I am happy and I can say I have overcome.

Student`s Name

Student’s Last Name 2



Reviewof Winner Take All Politics

Americanauthors Hacker Jacob and Paul Pierson are adamant that the cause ofthe current economic situation where the rich continue to get richereven as the gap between them and the middle class in societycontinues to grow is a result of Winner-take-allpolitics.In other words, the real malefactor in the economic difficulties andgrowing inequalities is the nature of current politics. According tothe authors, it is misguiding to observe issues of globalization,international business and or technological advances as the reasonsbehind the growing sense of economic inequalities among the people(5). In actuality, Hacker and Pierson, observe the sense ofinequality between the majority (middle and low-class people) and theminority (the rich or powerful groups) as not only a problem but alsoa crime (11).

Assuch, the authors insinuate a need of establishing some politicalfixesfor purposes of establishing economic inequalities. Overall, thedesired outcome or position of the economy is one wherein wealth isequitably distributed across the larger income ladder. To demonstratehow serious the situation is, Hackerand Pierson are keen to indicate that the richest or top 1% of peoplein the United States regarding income have had their share of incomerise from 8% in 1974 up to 18% in the year 2007 (15). As a fix, therich, who represent big businesses, ought to adhere to thetraditional regulations of business practices in the country.They should focus on drawing their workforce from the domesticmarket. Another fix is that theconventional progressive tax policies should be followed for purposesof ensuring fair distribution of economic recompenses across theincome ladder. Precisely the taxes for the wealthy should be raised.Also,the policymaking organs of the country need to consider the interestsof the majority as a primary fixfactor for the situation,a renewal of the nation’s politics, and economics. What is more isthat regulatoryrestrictions on the country’s financial markets need to be morestringent tocurb freeing up of stock options by company executives (44 65).

Thereis also a sense of political barriers of highlyfragmented political institutions in the United States.According to the authors, this brings about a lot of difficultieswhen it comes to matters of significant policy reforms (53). Forinstance, the middle class continues to be taxed more as the rich aretaxed lesser with time. From this point of view, one cannot declineto note that implementation of political fixes is a matter that isdeeply spatialized, considering that “17 percent of households in2004 had zero or negative net worth” (33). Deregulation ofprogressive tax policies has also posed as a political barrier to theaforementioned fixes.Additionally, nomeaningful groups offer organized capacity to the majority as votersthat can monitor government policies thataim to control capacities of entrenched elites that form the 1%.Additionally, those with policymaking powers continue to lowerand even eliminate some regulatory restrictions on the country’sfinancial markets.


Hacker,Jacob S., and Paul Pierson.&nbspWinner-take-allpolitics.Tantor Media Incorporated, 2011.

Student`s Name


AsGilda Radner said, “motherhood is the biggest gamble in the world.It is the glorious life-force. It`s huge and scary an act ofinfinite wisdom.”(Goodreads). Motherhood is the act of nurturing achild throughout life, helping them navigate it, overcome challenges,and being present in their development. It is not necessarilyprovided by the birth mother but by anyone who cares for a baby to bethere for them (Dow 182). Motherhood is described in the aspects ofwhat makes a mother abusive, the duties of a mother, and the evolvedrole of single motherhood.

Whileall people are someone`s child, many are mothers. If someone had amother who was abusive or neglectful, it would affect them for theirentire lives. This abuse would stem from the woman’s personalchildhood, mental instability, self-centeredness, personality, orabuse. If children from such a mother are unfortunate and not obtainthe help, they may struggle in life trying to learn what love is. Iffortunate, they may find the love and care in a grandmother, eldersister, or even someone else`s mother. There is no perfect human, andno mother will be able to make the correct choices for her childevery time. Understanding and forgiveness of a child to a lessperfect parent is essential for a healthy relationship (Barthassat10).

Thejobs of motherhood vary by culture and family. The primary duties ofa mother are to provide nourishment and safety to her child, andthese include love, comfort, safety, and making impossible decisionsto be sure that a child is well cared for beyond the basics of food,clothing, and shelter. A mother is often the cord holding a familytogether she offers support not only to the baby but also to otherfamily members. A mother knows their children best and can determinewhat is best for them (Elliot, et al.).

Mothershave to be patient people and accommodate their child at the pace ofwhich they grow. One child may be toilet trained at three years whileanother at two. The risk of parenting is also placed on mothers,sometimes parents are told to place their baby on their bellies sothat they may not choke, while at the same time they are told thatbabies should be placed on their back due to research on suddeninfant syndrome. A mother has to assess these risks and decide whatto do even though it may pose a danger to a child (Elliot, et al.).

Mothersare always present in their child`s lives she helps them understandthe world, make choices and guide them when they seem lost. When achild is faced with a moral challenge, it is up to the mother toadvise the child on the ethical issues in life and help him make theright choice. A mother’s love does not change no matter the crimeor wrong that a child has done, a child may drift into crime or goagainst his parent’s wishes the mother will always stand by herchild. With the faith that her child will one day change, a motheralways provides hope to her child that there is always room forchange (Elliot, et al.).

Whena child is loved, the mother’s heart swells and becomes subject tomany experiences. There comes a time when the mother has to say no tothings that a child wants, and setting limits for the child`s safetyeven though he/she may be angry. It is up to mothers to make themunderstand that the no is ultimately for their good (Elliot, et al.).

Whenchildren age, mothers begin to show signs of assistance, this shiftin the relationship is often difficult even for the lovingly raisedchild. For the neglected child, this dependency can be tormenting. Ifthe mother was nurturing, the children do not owe her constant care.What she deserves is respect if she has earned it. Even if theirparenting wasn’t exemplary, children still ought to respect herplace in the society (Barthassat10).

Motherhoodtakes on a new role, in the present society. Traditional beliefs areput to the test because many mothers are now single and they havetaken a bigger role in their children`s lives. They have to providesupport and care, and in addition to that, they also provide incomefor their household. A mother can harm her child`s life if she doesnot take her parenting seriously. If a child is not provided theessential habits and morals he needs, he may not grow into his fullpotential. A mother is the most important person to a child becauseshe sets the bars on which a child sets out to achieve (Golombok, etal. 410).

Mothershave to be versatile they have to adapt to different children`sresponse to orders and make them grow into upright people in thesociety. One child may respond well to positive reinforcement, andanother may respond only to ultimatums and time outs. It is up to amother to find this out and accommodate them (Golombok, et al. 410).

Motherhoodis not a definite science but a trial and error process, where eachchild brings its challenges and opportunities. If a parent is notgood at providing care it may affect a child`s personality in thelong run, even though the rise in one-parent families has mademotherhood harder.


Barthassat,Joelle. &quotPositive and Negative Effects of Parental Conflicts onChildren’s Condition and Behaviour.&quot Journal of EuropeanPsychology Students, vol.&nbsp5, no.&nbsp1, 29&nbspJan.&nbsp2014,pp.&nbsp10-18,

Dow,Dawn&nbspM. &quotIntegrated Motherhood: Beyond Hegemonic Ideologiesof Motherhood.&quot Journal of Marriage and Family,vol.&nbsp78, no.&nbsp1, 30&nbspOct.&nbsp2015, pp.&nbsp180-196,doi:10.1111/jomf.12264.

Elliot,Sinikka, et al. &quotBeing a Good Mom Low-Income, Black SingleMothers Negotiate Intensive Mothering.&quot Journal of FamilyIssues, 27&nbspMay&nbsp2013, doi:10.1177/0192513X13490279.

Golombok,Susan, et al. &quotSingle Mothers by Choice: Mother–ChildRelationships and Children’s Psychological Adjustment.&quotJournal of Family Psychology, vol.&nbsp30,no.&nbsp4,&nbspJune&nbsp2016, pp.&nbsp409-418,doi:10.1037/fam0000188.

Goodreads.&quotGilda Radner Quotes (Author of It`s Always Something).&quotShare Book Recommendations With Your Friends, Join Book Clubs,Answer Trivia,,

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Last Name 2

Thetheme of injustice in &quotOedipus the King.&quot

“Oedipusthe King” is a literal work by Sophocles and is highlycharacterized by various episodes of injustice. The play characters,settings all contribute to the general theme of injustice in thesociety. The play is about Oedipus who after being born, the oracleprophesied that he would kill him father King Lauis and marry hismother. As a result, the King ordered his mother, Jocasta to killhim. Oedipus, however, survives and towards the end of the play, theprophecy is fulfilled because it gets known that he had killed hisfather and indeed married the queen who was also his mother. Oneevident theme in the play is injustices experienced by children andwomen, and this makes Oedipus the King a tragic story.

Themeof injustice

Inthis play, Jocasta experiences injustice when her husband commandsher to kill her newly born son. Additionally, the fact that she knewthat she would get married to her son greatly disturbed her to theextent that when she learned that this had happened, she decided tocommit suicide. It is evident that all these events were beyond hercontrol and one can argue that the gods were unfair to her.(Yeboah,Asuamah, and Ahenkora 3).

Thechildren in the play, Antigone and Ismene are the fateful daughtersof Oedipus and thus suffer for crimes that they did not commit.According to the prophet, these children were the product of incestand thus an abomination to the people of Thebes. It is evident thatfrom the reader’s perspective, Antigone and Ismene were victims ofinjustice because they did not choose to be born in such a family.After the death of their parents, one can also argue that Antigoneand Ismene experienced injustice in that they were deprived thecomfort which they used to enjoy in the palace. Antigone and Ismenehad to live with the knowledge that they were orphan and product of acursed marriage.

Anothermain character who experience injustice is Oedipus. Even as a child,his destiny was already predetermined and it was evident that he hadno control over his fate (Rao,Sirish, Wolf and Sophocles 3).Oedipus was abandoned by his parents and had to live with adoptiveparents. Oedipus unwittingly kills a man at the crossroads withoutrealizing it was his biological father and the king. Oedipus thenascends to the throne and marries Jocasta: the previous king’s wifeand his mother. His actions cause a curse on the land and afterconsultation with the blind prophet Teiresias he learns the truth(Pommaux,Yvan and Kutner 6).The story ends in tragedy with Oedipus gouging out his eyes and hismother, currently his wife hanging herself. From the story, it isclear that Oedipus is a man surrounded by tragedy. His life issurrounded by unfortunate events that began the time he was anadopted, and he fulfills the prophecy once told by an old man that hewould kill his father and marry his mother. Oedipus’ unfortunateevents indicate he is a tragic hero as bad things keep happening tohim.

Fromthe story, one can say that the children and women in Thebes sufferedfor a crime which they did not commit. From the play, readers areinformed that a plague had hit the city and the most affected werewomen and children. It is these misfortunes that befall the city thatforces the inhabitants to force their King (Oedipus) to investigatethe killer of King Lauis. This eventually results in tragedy whenOedipus realizes that the man who he had killed in the crossroads washis father and also King Lauis. In a fair society, it is expectedthat an individual should be held accountable for his or hermistakes. However, in the play, &quotOedipus the King&quot ever oneis forced to suffer for sins that they did not commit.

Oedipusalso suffers injustice because apart from being that his fate wasalready predetermined, Sophocles states that he was a good King whoshowed concern for his subjects. When the plague had befallen thecity, and no one was willing to come out, he relaxed the penalties tosave his people. (Sophocles 804). This indicated that he had nointention of killing the king and as a result. However, irrespectiveof his intentions when Oedipus discovered his wrong doings, he torehis eyes out and banished himself from the community as a punishment.


Inconclusion, “Oedipus the King&quot is characterized with injusticeand this leads to tragedy in the play. Some of the people whoexperience injustice include Oedipus, Jocasta and Antigoneand Ismene. Women and children living in Thebes also experienceinjustice.Sophocles partially attributes injustice in Thebes to the will of thegods. He asserts gods with more power than human beings limitingtheir ability to reason or even model their future. Characters inOedipus the King&quot were not given free will to determine theirfate, and as a result, they suffer because they are not in a positionto change their future.


Adade-Yeboah,Asuamah, and Kwaku Ahenkora. &quotThe tragic hero of theneo-classical revival.&quot (2016).

Pommaux,Yvan, Richard Kutner. Oedipus:Tragic Hero.2016. Print.

Rao,Sirish, Gita Wolf, and Sophocles. Sophocles’Oedipus the King.Los Angeles, Calif: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2004. Print

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Whatis a Hero?

Ahero is a person who possesses admirable qualities such as courage,patience, selflessness as well as devotion and has made outstandingachievement in the society. Heroism result from a person’sself-drive and not the desire to seek fame or redeem image,therefore, this implies that not everyone can be considered a heroeven if they participate in heroic acts, they must first possess thecharacter of a hero. Besides, theirdeeds must go beyond the expectation of everyone, and they should beready to make sacrifices that would lead to the prosperity of thegeneral public.

Ourheroes may vary from one individual to another depending on ouropinion. People regard others as their hero based on the informationthat has about them, their experience with them as well as theiractions. I have encountered several heroes throughout my life, whoinspire me to transform our society. The individuals that I considerto be my heroes have made remarkable accomplishments in various fieldsuch as leadership, education, and business.

Inleadership,I regard President Barrack Obama and the late Nelson Mandela as myheroes. President Obama went against all the odds to become the firstBlack-American President rising from a political activist to asenator and finally to become the president, this was a remarkableachievement that inspires me to pursue my ambitions and remainsteadfast in accomplishing my desires no matter how insurmountablethey may appear to be. In his presidency, he has made a lot ofchanges that have improved the well-being of the US citizens. Forinstance, his government has formulated policies that led to theexpansion of the economy. Also, the Obamacare legislation hasimproved access to health care services. Also, Obama is not asradical as his predecessors and has embraced the peaceful approach ofhandling the international crisis hence being labeled as a ‘weakPresident’ by his critics. Obama has written history as one of theNobel peace prize laureates due to his exemplary leadership andservitude to the people.

Onthe other hand, Mandela made a significant impact in advocating forequality of all races in South Africa and contributed in ending theoppressive apartheid rule. I got an opportunity to visit South Africabefore his death and interacted with him where I discovered theleadership character that he possesses. His activism led to hisimprisonment for over 25 years where he was subjected to harshtreatment. However, he never revenged on his jailers after leavingthe prison but rather exhibited statesmanship by seeking to uniteeveryone and inspiring people to live in harmony.

Myhero in the field of education is my university professor of Ethicalstudies. His wealth of knowledge on ethics and experience has been ofgreat value to me since it has shaped my character. He imparted to meessential skills thus improving my social relation with people andchanging the way at which I view the society, through him I havelearned the importance of ethics in the society. The professor hasalso been instrumental in ensuring that the university producesprofessionals who are dynamic and can fit in any work environment.

Inthe world of business, my hero is Bill Gate, the founder ofMicrosoft. He is ranked as the richest person in the world, yet he isso humble. Most of the revenue that his company generates goes tocharity consequently improving the lives of the underprivilegedpopulation by facilitating their access to technological education,basic needs, and Medicare. Being philanthropic and supporting thepoor has not stopped him from being listed as the wealthiest person,through him we get to learn the importance of giving.

Itis important for societies to have heroes since they are a source ofinspiration to the members of the community. They are required touphold a high level of standards and set an example to others whoemulate them. We need a hero at some point in our life this isbecause they help us define the magnitude of our ambitions. Moreover,we align our principles according to those of our heroes. Theysymbolize our character and determines our behaviors heroism alsopromotes morality.

Theheroes nurture young people, children usually regard their parents astheir personal heroes due to the care that they receive from them andthe contribution that they make in bringing them up from a tender agewhen they are vulnerable to adulthood, they sacrifice their resourcesand time for the wellbeing of the children. Heroes also help usidentify the good qualities that we lack and adjust accordingly. Inmost cases, people get the information about their heroes fromstories that they hear or read. Through these stories and we learnthe behaviors that we need to become successful in life.Everyone has a right to choose his own heroes however, we shouldmake an informed decision when making such judgment, we need to beguided by the morals. It is unethical for a person to choose acriminal or a terrorist as their hero due to their negative traits.

Accordingto the poem ‘crazycourage,`a person need to be courageous and have a high level of confidence toqualify to be a hero. The level of courage is what distinguishes theheroes from other people. The poem also describes a hero as a personwith extraordinary qualities that makes him or her stick out from acrowd. John Hope Franklin in his literal work “TheTrain from Hate”describe people who view themselves to be inferior to their heroes.Such people have low self-esteem. As a result, they feel alienatedfrom the individuals who exhibit the qualities that they desire. Weshould not view ourselves as lesser beings when we lack the traits ofour heroes this is because we have the potential to develop thosetraits and make great achievement as compared to those of our heroes.

Personally,I have a different perception about heroism. I believe that a persondoes not have to be courageous in order to be considered a hero. Onemay lack the courage but have the wits and still qualifies to be ahero. If courage could be the deciding factor for heroism, thenpeople like Bill Gates would not be considered as a hero despiteimproving the life of people by transforming the computer technologyand participating in philanthropic activities.

Frommy concept of the heroism, I would define a hero as a person with anexceptional courage or wit who has made remarkable achievement in thesociety through devotion thus making them be admired. Even though thefeats of a hero usually go beyond people`s expectation, they are notsuperhuman, and therefore we don`t expect all the heroes to becourageous as stated in most definitions.


Quiñonez,Ernesto, and Robert Ramirez. Bodega Dreams. RecordedBooks,&nbsp2000.

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Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle-cell anemia is the most common among the sickle-cell diseases.This condition triggers an abnormality in the oxygen-transportingprotein hemoglobin located in red blood cells. Once the proteinhemoglobin becomes infected with sickle-cell anemia, it changes itsshape into rigid and sickle-like. More often, the condition beginswhen a person is around five-six months old (Brousseau,David et al., 77). A person with only one abnormalcopy of the hemoglobin gene does not have the disease. He/she said tohave sickle-cell traits. The disease originated from Africa and wasbrought to American during the period of the slave trade. Thecondition is prevalent in parts of the world with high rates ofmalaria. However, researchers believe that people who carry sicklecell traits are less likely to experience severe forms of malaria. People suffering from sickle cell anemia have irregular hemoglobinmolecules known as hemoglobin S which manipulate red blood cells intoadopting a crescent or sickle shape. When the red blood cells aresickle-shaped, they can easily break down prematurely leading toanemia. Besides, the sickle shape means a reduced capacity of redblood cells to carry blood to the place where it is needed triggeringanemia. Some of the symptoms of this condition include anemia,periodic episodes of pain, and repeated infections. (Brousseau, David et al., 77).

Epidemiology and genetics

Every person has two copies of hemoglobin in every cell found inhis/her body apart from the sperm and egg cells. One copy comes fromthe mother while the rest is inherited from the father. Only one ofthe two genes that a person inherits from his/her parents goes intoeach sperm or egg cell. This ensures that when the egg and the spermcells come together a fetus that has two genes is formed. Sickle-cellanemia occurs when an individual inherits two abnormal copies of thehemoglobin one from each parent.The disease is referred to as a recessive conditionwhich means that a person must have two sickle hemoglobin genes forhim/her to be termed as suffering from the disorder. If a person hasonly a copy of the sickle hemoglobin gene, it means that such anindividual is a carrier hence he/she can pass the condition tohis/her children (Sickle Cells Society). According toBrousseau, David et al., sickle cell anemia is themost prevalent inheritable blood disorder in America, and it accountsfor 113, 000 hospitalizations with $488 million dollars going towardscatering for the medical costs of the management and treatment ofthis condition (77). According toBrousseau, David et al., it is estimated that 25,000children are born with sickle cell anemia globally. The condition isprevalent among people of African descendants. According toBrousseau,David et al., in America, 89,079 people havesickle-cell anemia. Among this group, 80, 151 are black while 8928are Hispanic. In terms of states, Sickle cell is more prevalent inNew York (8308) followed by Florida (7539). Among the AfricanAmericans, a child with sickle cell anemia is born for every 289 outof 100,000 live births. On the other hand, among Hispanics ofNon-Mexican, the prevalence of sickle-cell anemia is 89.8 out of100,000 live births (Brousseau David et al., 77).

Mechanism of sickling

When a person’s vascular system does not have sufficient oxygen,the sickle hemoglobin tends to be considerably more insoluble andthis result in an increase in the polymer formation in the blood.Consequently, tactoid is formed. A tactoid is a gel-like form ofhemoglobin that ordinarily exists in a soluble state. Over time themembranes of the hemoglobin become permanently damaged resulting inthe cells adopting a bi-concave shape even in the presence ofsufficient levels of oxygen (Sickle cell Society).

Therapeutic approaches (Present and future attempts)

One of the approaches used to manage sickle cell anemia is the bloodtransfusion. This method is mostly used to manage the condition inacute cases to prevent the complications that result in a decreasedability of the red blood cells to supply the different organs withoxygen (Mayo Clinic). The procedure aims to lower the number of redblood cells that can sickle while at the same time adding healthy redblood cells to ensure that the patient does not contract diseasesassociated with oxygen deficiency in the body. The use of red bloodcells transfusion therapy in children with sickle cell anemia reducesthe risk of the contracting first strokes or salient strokes. It alsoreduces the likelihood of recurring strokes. Apart from bloodtransfusion, bone marrow transplant is the other method used tomanage sickle cell anemia. This is the only known cure for thecondition and has proved efficient in the treatment of the conditionin children (Mayo Clinic). The other method used to manage sicklecell anemia is the use of drugs known as hydroxyurea. This was thefirst approved drug for the causative treatment of the condition. Thedrug functions by decreasing the number as well as the severity ofthe heart attacks or strokes (Mayo Clinic). The management of thedisease is also done through daily dosage of folic acid andpenicillin. Especially for children below five years and who havesickle cell anemia, penicillin helps to protect them from childhoodillnesses that are brought by the immature immune system. Most peoplesuffering from sickle cell anemia experience episodes of intense painreferred to as vaso-occlusive crises. This condition is treated withpain medications where opioid is administered to the patient untilthe pain is eradicated. Apart from the vaso-occlusive crisis, aperson with sickle cell anemia may suffer from acute chest crisis.Acute chest crisis is managed through pain medications in addition toantibiotics.One of the methods that is being tried out and whichseeks to eradicate sickle-cell anemia completely is the use ofgenetically engineered stem cells. This involves adding a healthyversion of hemoglobin to blood stem cells taken from the patient’sbone marrow (Mayo Clinic).

Name some prominent scientist involved in sickle cell anemiaresearch

Some of the prominent scientists that have played a major role in thesickle-cell anemia research include Dr. Ernest Iron, Dr. James V.Neel, Dr. E.A Beet, DR. Linus Pauling, Dr. Harvey Itano, and Dr.Venom Ingram. There is also a group of researchers brought togetherby the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in 1978 to work on aproject dubbed Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease(Frenette &amp Atweh, 851).

Explain experimental approaches some of these researchers haveused towards finding a cure for sickle cell anemia

Dr. Ernest Iron is believed to be the first person to conductresearch about sickle cell. It was in 1910 when a dental studentnamed Walter Clement approached Doctor James B. Ernest withcomplaints of episodic chronic pain. However, Dr. Herrick referredClement to Dr. Irons who upon observing Clements` blood under themicroscope discovered that his blood had sickle-like hemoglobin. In1927, Gillespie and Hahn discovered that it was possible for redblood cells from a person with sickle cell to be made sickle-shapedby removing oxygen. The disease started becoming clearer in the 1940sand 1950s after Dr. James V. Neel and Colonel E.A Beet published twoarticles in different journals that showed that sickle cell anemiawas an inheritable condition. In 1951, Dr. Linus Pauling togetherwith Dr. Harvey Itano uncovered that the hemoglobin of a patient withsickle cell anemia varied in terms of chemical structure compared tothat of a normal person. However, the most widely recognizedresearch regarding sickle cell anemia was commissioned by theNational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in 1978 in a study referredto as Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease.These researchersaimed to find the similarities in the clinical course taken by thesickle cell disease using a group of 4,000 patients from 23 differentparts of the country (Frenette&amp Atweh, 852). The team started by defining theincident characteristics of almost every complication associated withsickle cell disorder. The researchers discovered high mortality rateamong children suffered from sickle cell anemia caused by severepneumococcal infections despite the patients receiving pneumococcalvaccination. Consequently, the researchers initiated another studyknown as Prophylactic penicillin Study that established the need forneonatal screening for sickle cell anemia. Upon the confirmation ofthe disease, prophylactic penicillin is administered to children agedfour months to five years (Frenette&amp Atweh, 852).

Work Cited

Brousseau,David C., et al. The number of people with the sickle‐celldisease in the United States: national and state estimates.&nbspAmericanjournal of hematology&nbsp85.1(2010): 77-78.

Frenette,Paul S., and George F. Atweh. &quotSickle cell disease: olddiscoveries, new concepts, and future promise.&quot&nbspTheJournal of clinical investigation&nbsp117.4(2007): 850-858.

Mayo Clinic. Sickle Cell Anemia: Treatments and drugs.” Web. 2016.Accessed on October 4, 2016.

Sickle cell Society. &quotInheritance of Sickle cell Anemia.&quotWeb. 2014. Accessed on October 4, 2016.

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Answerand reply

  1. Suppose your grandma asked you the difference between marginal and average when it comes to costs. How would you explain this to her in your words?

  1. Comment on this paragraph about what do you think about it answered for question #1.

Thequestion has been well and appropriately answered with the use ofpractical examples of products produced. The marginal cost can bedefined as the cost of producing one more unit of a good. Itinvolves all the costs that differ with the level of production. Forinstance in the above case, the need to produce an extra hat andscarf results to incurring an additional cost which is referred to asmarginal cost.

Ineconomic, both the short run and long run average costs are analyzed.The short-run average costs differ about the quality of productsmanufactured. On the other hand, the long-term average price is thevariation of quantities used for all the outputs required forproduction.

Adecrease in the average costs results in a reduction in the marginalcost as well. When the average price increases, the marginal costbecomes greater than the average cost. When the average cost remainsconstant whether at minimum or maximum, then the marginal cost equalsthe average cost.

Thereforemarginal cost is the change in the total cost when the quantitymanufactured changes by one unit. The cost incurred in producing theone additional unit. The average cost is the summation of total costdivided by the number of units produced. Can also be said to be thesum of the average variable costs and average fixed costs.

Supposeyour grandma asked you the difference between marginal and averagewhen it comes to costs. How would you explain this to her in yourwords?

Knowingmy grandma, she has zero interest or care about marginal and averagecost, so I would have to explain it to her using items she likes. Inthis case, I will use scarfs. The average price of a product, such asa scarf, is the total cost of making the scarf divided by the totalnumber of scarf’s made. If a company makes 500 scarf’s and spends$3000 to make the scarf’s, the average cost of each scarf is 3000divided by 500 which is $6 per scarf. Marginal cost is the change intotal costs that occur when a new scarf is made by that company. So,if the company making the scarfs decides to make 501 scarfs insteadof 500, and the total cost for 501 hats is $3050, the marginal costwould be $50 for the 501st scarf produced. Since 500 caps cost $3000and 501 scarf’s costs $3050, the marginal cost is the additional$50 spent to make one new scarf. I would then get the question frommy grandma why would anyone pay $6 for the scarf?

  1. Comment on this paragraph about what do you think about it answer the question.

Thinkabout two different kinds of hardware stores—the small, local,family-owned store and the large chain stores (Lowe’s, Home Depot).What advantages do you see for each kind of store? What are thebenefits of becoming larger? What are the drawbacks of becoming toolarge? Explain.

Advantagesof a large chain store such as Home Depot and Lowe`s are extremelycompetitive pricing for products and also potentially a moreexpansive inventory to choose from. These types of stores also offermore jobs to the local community than a typical family owned brickand mortar location and often give people the opportunity to workwith little or no prior experience. Advantages of a small familyowned business is typically better customer service and usuallybetter wages for its employees. They tend to value their customersmore and are willing to offer a personalized experience that may beharder to deliver at a large chain store. They feel morepartofthe community as well.

Disadvantagesof a large chain store tend to be lower or minimum wages for itsemployees and also a less personalized experience. They service thecommunity but don`t necessarily feelpartof the community. They also can afford to make less margins onproducts initially which can squeeze smaller businesses out of thelocal market and create less competition long term. Disadvantages tosmaller businesses are less competitive pricing and possibly lessinventory to choose from.

Benefitsof becoming larger are hiring more people and giving the communitymore jobs. It allows for more growth for employees to move up fromentry level positions that lead to experience and better wages goingforward.

Drawbacksto becoming too large are a less personalized experience withcustomers and the possible decline of quality and customer service.(Same as this one, I just need this comment reply back)


Peoplemay ask why we should buy goods from a small shop or even from alarge chain store. Both have their advantages and drawbacks as well.The most primary benefits of a large chain store are that they offera broad range of products, and therefore customers choose from thevariety.The business owners enjoy economies of scale.

Asmall shop owned by an individual or family enjoys the benefits ofcontrol, the run the business on their own. All profits are enjoyedsolely without sharing. Confidentiality is highly guarded as thereare no partners and they are not required to make their enterprisespublic. The best and most personalized customer service is given bysmall owned business owners. They have a personal touch with thecustomers.

Anotherdisadvantage is that, the large chain stores distribute theirprofits. The small scale business owners enjoy profits alone. Samecase applies to losses. It is distributed in large chain stores andsmall scale business owners suffer losses alone.

Student`s Name

Sexualobjectification of Women in the Game of Throne

Over the recent past, there hasbeen a proliferation of television shows that contain sexuallyexplicit content. This seems to be an attempt by the producers toappeal to the male audience as most of these shows contain femalenudes. One such television program that is awash with sexual contentis the Game of Thrones. According to Itzkoff, the Game of Thrones onits fourth season had an audience of more than 14 million people. The show is rated TV-MA for its extreme scenes involving nudity,rape, frightening images, and strong language. Both men and women arefrequently depicted topples, but the show concentrates more on thefrontal female nudity. Throughout the show female buttocks and breastdominants most sexually explicit scenes. Besides, most women areportrayed as overly sexual as depicted by the prostitutes and otherfemale characters who use their bodies to control men. Several scenestake place in the brothels where female prostitutes are depicted aseither preparing or having sex with different male clients. Thereare several scenes involving forced sex or stripping where the womanis a victim, but there is no feeling of remorse on the part of theperpetrator. This paper argues the Game of Throne promotes sexism bydepicting women as objects of pleasure, and this perpetrates sexualviolence that is prevalent in the show.

First, throughout the show themale characters view their female counterparts with much disdain.According to Franke,“there is something animalistic about the way the male charactersview the women in the show” (14). For instance, many scenes takeplace in brothels where the woman entertains the men in exchange formoney. The women are ready to do everything to please their maleclients. It is evident that some nude scenes could have been avoidedsince they serve no role in developing the plot hence the producerintended these scenes to pass as drama (Franke, 21). In season one,there is a scene where a man is in a brothel and he is receiving oralsex. However, the camera is centered on the man’s face before theprostitute providing the oral sex stands up revealing her naked body. If the show is not about objectifying the female body, there was noneed for revealing the naked body of the prostitute. This is becausethe audience already knows that there is oral sex involved in thescene from the face of the male character. In another scene, a manundresses her sister and caresses her breast before having sex withher as implied by her bare buttocks and breast. Besides, in episodeone season one, a man is having sex with her sister from behind andthe two grunts and moan. Only the woman’s buttocks are seen as theman thrusts. Just like the oral sex scene, this part does not help inadvancing the plot. Instead, it only serves to objectify the femalebody further. Although the show depicts life in the medieval erawhere incest was never considered wrong, the audience gets themessage that men still dominate over every aspect of the women’slife particularly her body.

Besides, although naked womendominate most sexually explicit scenes, the show contains only a fewwell-developed female character. Besides, some of the decisions theproducer of the show makes demonstrates his intention to furtherdegrades women. For example, he creates the character of Rose sinceshe is absent in the book yet she does not play any meaningful rolein the development of the plot. According to Franke, “the bookfrom which the program was adopted from may be sexual, but the show’snudity is more sexist” (7). This is because the female charactersspend too much time showing off their body or striping to manipulatethe men in the show. For instance, in Episode six there is a scenewhere a man gives a woman a coin in exchange for her to show him hervagina very briefly. According to Franke, on the Game of Thrones, thefantasy is written for men while romance and sex scenes are for women(14). Frank adds &quotLong, lingering pans over woman`s body placeviewers in the mind of a main male character and emphasize a woman aslove or lust interest (17). For example, there is a scene where afemale character even climbs atop the other as she demonstrates how awoman should ride a man. The scene takes four minutes and isaccompanied by objectifying close-ups of the nude prostitutes.Besides, in season one episode seven, two female prostitutes areshown practicing sex acts on each while a man is giving theminstruction on what to do.The brothel owner and politician in thisscene represent the male gaze of many of the program`s audience. Thismeans that the show targets more men than women as its audience andthis explains the prevalent sex scenes depicting the female nude.

. The objectification of thefemale body cultivates social evils such as rape and incest. In thelast episode of the season four of the Game of Thrones, the audiencewitnesses a group of women being held in captivity and sexuallybrutalized. The second last episode of the fourth season depicts anoblewoman being forced to have sex with his brother whom he is anincestuous relationship with. This is despite the woman constantlyshouting “no.” According to Itzzkoff, the show promotes thetraditional perception held by men that when a woman say “no” shemean “yes”. However, according to the director of the show thescene does not amount to rape. Ferredayreports that according to the director of the Game of Thrones beforeHome rips off cerci’s undergarment, she is already kissing himwhich shows that she has consented to the sex. This leads Ferredayto ask “whether a sexual act that begins non-consensually can everbecome consensual let alone when one partner is already physicallyoverpowered” (29). In this scene, the producer of the show seems tobe justifying domestic violence by depicting it as normal and evenaccuse the victim of faking of not enjoying the forced sex.

The biggest problem with nudityand sexual violence in the television is that the perpetrator walksscot free while the victim suffers in silence. According to Itzzkoff,the problem is not depicting sexual violence, but the tendency byproducers of the different television content to concentrate on theperpetrator as opposed to the person who survives the attack.Besides, in the Game of the Throne, it just takes the victims of therape weeks to overcome the trauma which depicts sexual assaultperpetrated on women as a trivial issue. Despite rape cases taking acentral point in the Game of Thrones’ plotline, according toItzzkoff sexual violence&quotis depicted as background noise: aroutine and unshocking occurrence.&quot The producer of Game ofThrones wants the audience to see sexual abuse as overtly accepted bythe society.

There is a difference betweendepicting a sexist story-world and being misogynistic. Sansa‘swedding night is quite eventful and unpleasant. Throughout the show,Sansa manages to miraculously escape unhurt in the many incidences inwhich she is targeted to be victimized. For instance, Hound does notsucceed in his endeavor to rape her as her dreaded wedding isinterrupted by the arrival of Marhaery Tyrell. Her near rape isdepicted as “the natural consequence of a high-born and beautifulwoman who suddenly does not have the protection of a man”(Ferreday, 30). This means that the Sansa beauty is to be blamed forher attempted rape.

In conclusion, the game of Thronehas been criticized by being sexually provocative and promotingincident of gender-based violence. This paper supports the critics ofthe show who are concerned about the sexually explicit content spreadthroughout the show. This paper’s position is that many of theoverly sexual scenes are not justified. Besides, the producer goesahead to create female characters that do not exist in the book fromwhich the show was adapted from yet these new positions serves nomeaningful role in the development of the plot. Additionally,although both male and female characters frequent the brother, thewomen’s naked body dominates most sex scenes. This paper maintainsthat the Game of Thrones objectifies women by being sexist in thedepiction of the nude scenes and this result in sexual violenceperpetrated against the female characters. Sexual violence takes theform of rape and attempted rape. Besides, the show heralds the maleperpetrator of sexual abuse by accusing the victims.

Work Cited

Ferreday,Debra. &quotGame of Thrones, Rape Culture, and FeministFandom.&quot&nbspAustralianFeminist Studies&nbsp30.83(2015): 21-36.

Frankel,Valerie Estelle.&nbspWomenin Game of Thrones: Power, Conformity and Resistance.McFarland, 2014.

Itzzkoff, Dave. &quotFor ‘Gameof Thrones,` Rising Unease Over rape Recurring Role.&quot The NewYork Times. May 2, 2014. Web. Accessed on October 4, 2016.

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Thediscursive framework appropriate for the green new deal is Greenwhich is concerned with how human and their communities should live.It states that people ought to live in a just, equitable andenvironmentally friendly and sound world. It continues to highlightsome of the global abuses such as poverty, war, destruction andoppression which are closely connected to global capitalism and theeconomic and political forces that allow cases of social injusticeand inequality (Bauhardt,63). For example, in Jill new green deal it states that the federalsubsidy programs benefit primarily at the expense of small farmers. Billions of money is spent every year moving the economy in the wrongdirection and making our planet earth uninhabitable by imposing muchharm on communities and children. However, the green new deal isdetermined to take the same money used by federal subsidy programsand agribusiness corporations and create jobs so as to make thecommunity more healthy secure and sustainable. Its focus is not onlyon eradicating unemployment but in fighting the corporate dominanceof our democracy and the exploitation of the less fortunate andracism.


Accordingto PEW research center, the Americans are more concerned with climatematters. It shows that 36% are worried about the global climaticchange. It is clearly indicated that this concern for climate issuesis not influenced by any political affiliations rather it’s aconcern that cuts across both the republicans and the democrats.Americans state that climate changes are as a result of humanactivities and argue that the changes might have an adverse impact onthe earth’s ecosystem. The green new deal is determined to shiftthe America’s energy system and economy to 100% clean and renewableenergy by 2030. This plan is focused on creating jobs, providing atight economy and environmental sustainability that will rekindle theeconomy and avert the tide of climate change and bring to an end thewars for oil. The Americans will certainly support the plan since itbrings a solution to their concerns about climate changes (Bauhardt,67).


Bauhardt,Christine. &quotSolutions to the crisis? The Green New Deal,Degrowth, and the Solidarity Economy: Alternatives to the capitalistgrowth economy from an ecofeminist economics perspective.&quotEcologicalEconomics102 (2014): 60-68.

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Analyzing MassMedia


Introduction: There is a common cliché that says, “Be yourself,you can’t change other people.&quot This does not apply to thesocial media platforms such as Facebook. This is because a person canchange others by making them jealous of his/her accomplishments. Thispaper argues that Facebook makes people jealous of other people’sachievements.

In support:

  1. The desire to make other people envious of one’s accomplishments is the driving force behind most Facebook posts.

  2. Facebook creates a feeling of resentment of other people’s achievements and one’s life as well.

  3. Facebook tends to remind a person of his/her inadequacies.

On the other hand, Facebook does not make a person jealous.Instead

  1. It motivates a person to work hard and own more possessions than his/her friends for him/her to flaunt them too.

  2. The only people Facebook make jealous is the insecure ones and those who compare themselves with individuals who are not at the same level as them.

In rebuttal

  1. On Facebook, people exaggerate their accomplishment. Hence, if one owns a $500 car, he/she make sure that he/she craft the Facebook post in such a way that it convey a message that he/she has more vehicles even if this is far from the truth. As such, it is hard to compete with someone who depict him/herself as extremely successful.


Most Facebook users rely on the slogan &quotFake it until you make&quotto overcome the feeling of jealousy of other people’saccomplishments. Jealousy creates a sense of self-regret if a personperceives his/her friends as doing better than him/her. Although itis possible for a person to feel motivated by the accomplishments ofhis/her friends, the problem with Facebook is that everything isexaggerated.

Analyzing Mass Media Essay

In life, most people identify with the cliché that says, “Beyourself, you can’t change other people.” However, this does notapply in the social networking era. Every post or picture that aperson uploads is scrutinized by hundreds or thousands of peopledepending on one`s popularity on Facebook. Regardless of whatinspired a person to write a certain post or upload a particularpicture, people will always have their own interpretation. One majorrepercussion of most post and pictures that appear on Facebook everyday is that they make other people remember of their failures andinadequacies. In this digital era, you can agree with me that thefirst thing that most people do after opening their eyes in themorning is to log in to their Facebook accounts. While there areseveral reasons for using Facebook such as catching up with the day’snews, subconsciously people use this opportunity to know how theirfriends are going on with their lives. This paper maintains thatFacebook makes people envious of their friend’s accomplishments.

The desire to make a person’s online acquaintances jealous of one`sachievement is the driving force behind most Facebook posts. It isusually hard for a person to post about his/her failures or thechallenges he/she is experiencing in his/her life. Most people wantto make their friends realize how highly accomplished they havebecome. When I started using Facebook back in 2009, I would ensurethat I have taken hundreds of photos whenever I visited a new place,which was rare, for me to have something new to post for almost ayear. There is also a common trend on Facebook that involves peopledegrading their status with a statement such as &quot me and mysimple ride&quot or &quotI just feel like keeping it simple” yetthe photo accompanying this statement is that of a person inside aMercedes Benz. Some people are very uncanny because they pretend tobe thankful to God or need certain assistance yet they are flauntingtheir newest acquisition. However, the level of jealous differs fromone person to another, depending on whether or not an individualvalues what his/her online friends have achieved. For example, aperson may be financially stable compared to his/her friend, however,if the latter posts a picture of him/her with his/her beautifulfamily, the former is likely to feel jealous. The middle-aged personsare likely to envy the life of their married counterparts. Mostlikely ladies will be concerned about their friends increased levelof attractiveness. In my experience, almost everything that finds itsway to Facebook is fake, manipulated or ill-intentioned.

Facebook creates a feeling of resentment of other people’saccomplishments and one’s life as well. For people who have a largenetwork of friends and acquaintances on Facebook, the pressure isusually too much to handle. Within a day, a person is likely to comeacross about 20 of his/her friends flaunting their achievements.These experiences are likely to haunt a person for the entire day andsometimes the envy may spill over to the next day. Most people chooseto fight back by posting regularly about how well they areprogressing on with their lives. However, after several months oryears of fighting back a person come to the realization that tryingto get even with his/her online friends is affecting his/herself-esteem. At this point, a person feels exhausted of having toconsistently maintain a certain image that does not represent his/herlife. As a person ages, he/she come to the realization thatsustaining meaningless competitions is detrimental to his/herhappiness. Additionally, Facebook encourages a feeling ofself-regret. Reading about people accomplishments affects a person’sself-esteem, although temporary. Instead of rejoicing that otherpeople are excelling in their lives, one tends to become envious oftheir achievements.

Facebook tends to remind a person of his/her inadequacies. Imaginewaking up to the news that one of your high school friends has beenadmitted to the bar after completing his/her law degree, yet youended pursuing a vocational course at a local community college.Besides, it is common for a person to come upon the photo of his/herex-lover flaunting his/her fiancé, spouse, boyfriend or girlfriend.If this happens, a person is likely to feel envious particularly ifhis/her life did not turn the way he/she had expected. Encountering asuccessful former classmate or lover reminds an individual of how badhis/her life has turned. For instance, this is the time that onenotices that he/she has not had any meaningful relationship sincehis/her girlfriend or boyfriend left.Facebook encourages constantscrutiny of a person’s life by people who makes one’s socialcircle. Even though a person’s post on his/her profile may attractonly a few likes or comments, the truth is that many people havenoticed the message the individual was trying to convey. Besides,Facebook just like most of the other social networking sites keeps arecord of a person’s activity such as all his/her posts and photouploads. As such, it is relatively easy to monitor other people’ssocial and economic progress without being noticed.

On the other hand, some people maintain that Facebook does not makepeople envious. Instead, it acts as an inspiration to a person thathe/she can achieve as much as his/her friends. Life outside thesocial media is also full of jealousy, but more often an individualtakes other people`s accomplishments as a wake-up call that he/sheneeds to catch up. For example, the phones that most of us haveclosely resembles the ones owned by our offline acquaintances orfriends. To some extent, instead of feeling jealous of what otherpeople’s flaunts on the Facebook, one may feel motivated to workhard and achieve the same or even bigger. This may be true for theunmarried adults who are inspired to reconsider their decision ofremaining single after seeing their happily married online friends.Additionally, some people contend that Facebook affects only theindividuals who are already insecure. These are people who do notunderstand that social media does not reflect the reality. Suchpersons are likely to feel envious of their friends who are just onestep ahead of them. Besides, these are the people who comparethemselves to people who are way out of their league. As such, peoplewho hold this point of view dismiss the arguments that Facebookpeople envious of their friends’ achievements.

In rebuttal, I think that Facebook does not inspire people to workhard because almost everything is exaggerated. For example, if aperson owns a one million dollar car, he/she will ensure that he/shecaptures the vehicle in a manner that suggests that it is worth fivetimes its real value. As such, most of the time people can onlyremain jealous of their friends’ accomplishments since theyperceive these attainments as way too high, whereas the truth is thatthese individuals are just faking success. For example, one day myfriend posted a photo of him wearing a $100 watch. However, adjacentto the picture, he had inserted a map to a jewelry shop that is knownfor selling expensive watches. However, his watch was a cheap one,but the message he conveyed by manipulating his message was enough tomake even me jealous.

In conclusion, Facebook is the most widely used social media platformat the moment. Many people. particularly teenagers and young adultsspend a substantial amount of their time online socializing with bothfriends and acquaintances. Almost all people who have a Facebookaccount upload their photos and write various messages on theirprofile intending to convey a specific message to their onlinefriends. However, many Facebook users do not know they subconsciouslymotivated by the desire to flaunt their accomplishment to theirfriends. This results in a feeling of jealousy on the part of peopleon the receiving end of these messages. Besides, seeing a person showof their happy marriage, car, better body shape, and careerpromotions make other people feel inadequate. Additionally, Facebookallows a person to access his/her friend online activities that dateback many years ago. Lastly, “fake it until you make it” is thementality that motivates people into using Facebook. Hence, everyperson using this social media platform should learn how to avoidgetting jealous of other people’s accomplishments since most likelythey are just faking success.

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Causes and Effects ofStudents Dropping Out of School

According to Doll,Jonathan et al., currently, 89.9% of students whoenroll in the various levels of education complete their studies andare awarded the necessary certificates. However, the schoolcompletion rates are lower among certain groups of people such aswomen and people from the low-income families. This paper maintainsthat boredom, lack of fees, early pregnancies and low academicachievement cause students to drop out of school, whereas poverty,lost revenue, increased government expenditure, teenage pregnanciesand high crime rates are the effects of people choosing todiscontinue their studies.

One of the reasons students choose to drop out of school is pregnancyand parenthood. After getting pregnant while in school, girls andyoung women feel embarrassed, struggle with morning fatigue, andexperience difficulties concentrating on their studies. Parenthood isa complex and rather exhausting endeavor, particularly for younggirls since they have to invest much of their energy and time towardraising their children(Doll, Jonathan et al., 3).

Some students cite boredom as the reason they decide to drop out ofschool. The journey towards the acquisition of knowledge involvesstudents dealing with complex academic content that is notinteresting at all. Besides, college and university students canbenefit directly from their academic endeavors in terms of having apart-time job. However, it is hard for high school students to getmonetary rewards for their knowledge which makes some of them to optfor a way of making money, neglecting their studies(Doll, Jonathan et al., 5).

Apart from boredom, some students cite academic struggles as themajor factor that made them discontinue their studies. The Americaneducation system has set a minimum GPA that every student mustachieve before he/she is allowed to graduate(Doll, Jonathan et al., 5). Some students do not wantto risk failing. As such, they choose to drop out of school, which tothem is better that enduring years of daunting tasks only to fail atthe end.

While some students deliberately decide to discontinue their studies,others are forced to drop out of school because of the lack of fees. According to Lynch, students from economically disadvantaged familiesare ten times more likely to drop out of school compared to theircounterparts from high-income households. Apart from the exorbitantfees charged by high schools and colleges, students are required tohave enough pocket money to cater for their accommodation, food, andacademic materials, among other expenses.

Dropping out of school has severe impacts on individuals and thecountry at large. First, students who drop out of school possesslimited knowledge, skills and competencies compared to theircounterparts who complete their studies. This makes it hard for theschool drops outs to contribute to the growth of the country’seconomy. Lynch reports that if all students who dropped out of highschool in 2011 had earned a diploma, the country would gainapproximately $154 billion in income over the working lifetime ofthese persons.

Besides, the government spends a substantial amount of its budgeton programs aimed at helping the low-income families and the schooldropouts comprise a significant proportion of people living inpoverty. First, the unemployment rates for high school dropouts arefour percentage points higher compared to the national average(Lynch). Additionally, school dropouts earn less income compared totheir counterparts who possess a high school diploma or collegedegree. Lynch reports that according to the U.S Census Bureau, highschool dropouts make $20, 241 annually, which is $10, 000 lesscompared to the amount earned by people with a high school diploma.Consequently, Lynch, the poverty rates among the high school dropoutsare more than two times higher compared to that of college graduates

Other problems associated with students dropping out of school areearly pregnancies and high crime rates. For example, Lynch reportsthat 80% of all prisoners in America’s correctional facilities arehigh school dropouts.

In conclusion, academic challenges, lack of school of fees, boredom,and early pregnancies and parenthood are some of the factors thatmake students choose not to continue with their studies. On theother hand, dropping out of school has severe implications for anindividual and the country at large. People who drop out of schoolearn much less and are more likely to end up in prison. Besides, thefemale school dropouts face increased risk of getting pregnant whilethey are still teenagers.

Work Cited

Doll,Jonathan Jacob, Zohreh Eslami, and Lynne Walters. &quotUnderstandingwhy students drop out of high school, according to their ownreports.&quot&nbspSageOpen&nbsp3.4(2013).

Lynch, Matthew. “Causes and Effect: The High Cost of High schooldropouts.” The Huffington Post, November 20, 2014. Web. Accessed onNovember 3, 2016.

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Comparing andcontrasting Christianity and Buddhism

The world consists of many religions, but Christianity and Buddhismare two of the most dormant ones. The two religions differ in termsof the belief systems, the worship of one or many gods, but aresimilar in the manner in which each one of them came into existence.This paper maintains that the major difference between Christianityand Buddhism is that the former tends to be more optimistic comparedto the latter.

Both Christianity and Buddhism originated from the teaching of oneperson. Christianity dates back to 33 CE, and its origin is theMiddle East. It was founded by Jesus Christ, who according to theBible was conceived through the power of the Holy Spirit. Heexperienced numerous tribulations which culminated in His crucifixionand death at the hands of His accusers (Glasenapp, 7). The Biblereports that Jesus resurrected three after His death. He, however,ascended to Heaven after spending a few days with His disciples. Onthe other hand, Buddhism was initiated by Gotama Buddha. The religiondates back to the 5th century and has its roots in India.Buddha had a miraculous birth. He hailed from a royal household ofthe Sakyas that ruled on the Southern Slopes of the Himalaya. He isdescribed as having lived a life of luxury and splendor up until the29th century, when he moved away from the palace. Hisdeath occurred in Kusinara about 480 BC (Glasenapp, 7).

While Christianity is monotheistic, Buddhism is Polytheistic.Christians believe in one God who is all-powerful. They are evenforbidden from making graven images to represent their God. Accordingto Christians, God is divine and omnipresent. Christian’s view ofthe origin of human beings is that they were created by God. On theother hand, Buddhist worships many gods. They have a god for everyaspect of their life, such as fertility and weather. Buddhists do nothave one all-powerful supernatural being. Buddha clarified that hewas neither a god nor a saint. Instead, he referred to himself asbeing “awake” which is interpreted to mean enlightened. Buddhawas a human being. He was purified after going through severalrebirths as man, angel or animal until he finally attained nirvana. Additionally, according to Buddhism, the gods occupy transitionalpositions which mean that they are born and die (Glasenapp, 7).

Christianity and Buddhism have different belief systems. First,Christianity believes in the concept of sin. For Christians, one canlive his/her entire life committing sins, but if he/she seekforgiveness in his/her last days on earth he/she will still enterHeaven. Heaven is the ultimate goal for Christians since they believethat once a person manages to reach there, he/she will not face anymore suffering. On the hand, Buddhism literature talks about neithersins nor Heaven. Instead, it talks about Nirvana, which is a spacethat contains neither the consciousness nor any memory of anythingthat occurred in the previous life. Buddhism believes that a personwork out his/her own deliverance (Glasenapp, 10).Buddhists believein Karma which is the idea that after death a person getsreincarnated as a different animal depending on his/her actions inthe previous life. Unlike for Christians, there is not hope forBuddhists since they cannot plead with Karma for them not bereincarnated as something evil or angry.

In conclusion, both Buddhism and Christianity have many followersacross the world. The two religions are similar in terms of how eachone of them originated from the teaching of one person. However, theydiffer in their belief system where Christianity believes in theconcept of sin, heaven, and forgiveness. On the other hand, Buddhismbelieves in neither sin nor forgiveness. Instead, it believes inKarma and reincarnation as well as that it is only a person who candeliver him/herself from his/her mistakes. Besides, whileChristianity is monotheistic since it teaches that only one God whois all-powerful should be obeyed and worshiped, Buddhism accommodatesmany gods. From these differences and similarities, something standsout: Christianity tends to be more optimistic compared to Buddhism.Further research needs to be done to establish whether the optimismin Christianity is the reason the religion has attracted the largestnumber of followers.

Work Cited

Glasenapp, Helmuth. Buddhism and Christianity. Kandy:Buddhist Publication Society.

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Module4 Assignment

CharlesManson has been described as one of the most notorious criminals inAmerica. He was born on November 12th in the year 1934. He was bornin Cincinnati. He is the illegitimate son of Kathleen Maddox. Hisfather was Colonel Scott though he never got a chance to meet him,Charles father came from Ashland, Kentucky.

Mansonled the Manson family. Manson family was a quasi-commune that arosein the United States the state of California in late 1960. Charleswas convicted of conspiracy to commit the murders of Tate-LaBianca.Those killings were carried out at his instruction and command. Hewas convicted of the murders themselves through thejoint-responsibility rule of conspiracy.

Heis also linked with Helter Skelter. This is a term he adopted fromthe Beatles song of that name and used it as an apocalyptic race warthat the murders intended to fulfill. His love for rock music isconnected to be the genesis of his notoriety. He became an emblem ofinsanity as a result of the pop culture. He was violent and themacabre.

Thetime, during which the Manson family began to form, Charles Mansonwas an unemployed ex-convict. He had spent almost half of his incorrectional institutions due to the variety of offenses that he hadcommitted. Before the murders, Manson had been a distant fringemember of the Los Angeles music industry. He had a close associationwith Beach boy Dennis Wilson. Some of the recordings of songs done byhim were commercially released. And artists including Guns ‘N’Roses and Marilyn Manson covered his songs for about a decade or so.

Mansonwas sentenced to death, but his term was automatically reduced tolife imprisonment when the decision by the Supreme Court ofCalifornia eliminated the state’s death penalty temporarily.Therefore the California eventual reestablishment of capitalpunishment did not have an effect on Manson’s sentence. He is aninmate are Corcoran State prison.

Manson’smost actions could be linked to being heredity, but there are othersthat were caused by environmental factors. Mansions uncle committedsuicide to stop the authorities from taking his land that was a caseof mental health this could mean that it is possible that mentalproblems run in Manson’s family. However, Manson has a clearunderstanding of what is right and wrong. He does not appear to haveany deficiency insanity (Khan, 1122). He intentionally refuses tocare on certain occasions.

Oneof the problems Manson appears to be suffering from is an antisocialpersonality disorder. This condition formerly was referred to as asociopath or a psychopath however these terms have become outdated. Environmental factors such as lack of a stable childhood are whatpossibly led to Manson’s kind of a lifestyle. He was raised havingno example of a socially functioning adult. He created hisdysfunctional structure in life since he was not offered any (Khan,1128).

Thetheory of psychological development states that each stage of aperson’s life is a defining moment and is accompanied by its uniquechallenges. If the problem is faced, then a feeling ofself-confidence is built. If the problem is not overcome, then oneexperiences feelings of self-inadequacy. Lack of Mansion`s problemsredress explains his actions. He did not have any role models neitherstability (Khan, 1145). His life was full of failure, and heexperienced little social interaction. According to this theory,Mansion grew with an adamant sense of inadequacy which led him toovercompensate in later years through his actions.


Khan,M. Ali, et al. &quotLarge games with a bio-social typology.&quotJournal of Economic Theory 148.3 (2013): 1122-1149.

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LyingCorrupts Relationships

Varioussocial norms are regarded as acceptable in the society. Beingtruthful has been essential in creating and cementing bonds amongfriends, in families, business partners, and with God. Many longlasting relationships that have been founded by men and women havebeen grounded on truth where people are open to each other withoutbeing manipulative. Moreover, many religions such as Christianity,Islam, Taoism and Buddhism stress the value of being truthful as anessential virtue. In particular, Christianity has associated lyingwith the devil as he is referred as the “father of lies” whodevours the souls of people and those who follow his acts have chosenhim as their father. Thus, lying is seen as the root of evil and avice that destroys and corrupts relationships and existing bonds, notonly among people themselves but also between God and people.

Tobegin with, lying corrupts trust. Every relationship is built onmutual trust, whether it is a romantic one or not. Thus, when onelies, he/she erodes that trust, hurting the parties that are involvedin the process. Trust has been regarded as a fundamental pillar of ahealthy relationship. Many family relationships and marriages havebeen corrupted by lack of people being true to each other in theiractions and words. Though, it is possible to forgive for lying in arelationship, someone becomes subjective of anything that his/herpartner says as they are not sure whether it is true or not. Thus, arelation that was based on trust and love can be filled withsuspicion because of lies.

Furthermore,lying greatly hurts those who commit it and those around them bycorrupting their sense of care for others. When people lie to thosewho they are close to, there is a sense of guilt that engulfs them,which destroys their inner peace. As a result, people become stressedand depressed hence, affecting the relationships they have with otherpeople. In addition, when those who had trust in someone discoverthat they were lied to by those they trusted, they can be hurt asthey did not expect such an act.

Finally,lying corrupts the relationship between man and God. In theChristian, perspective lying is among the seven vices that God hates.The devil who is the main opponent of God has been said to use liesto corrupt people. When people become manipulative, they tend toacquire things through unjust means, a situation that God hates as Heloves justice and honesty. In the New Testament, Jesus wasdisappointed when Pharisees accused Him of using the power ofBeelzebub. As a result, He replied that those who sin against HolySpirit would not be forgiven. This show to what extent God hateslies.


Thus,it is true that lying destroys and corrupts relationships amongpeople and even between people and God. This is because it destroystrust, which is an essential element of a relationship as it createssuspicion in people’s lives. Moreover, lying makes it easy forpeople to hurt others without disregard for their emotions which,result in depression and stress to both the victim and perpetrator oflies. Finally, lying corrupts how people relate to God, whichdestroys the relationship between people and God.

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[Surname] 1


7November 2016


1. Theeconomic benefits of tourism are experienced both in the host countryand the country where the tourists come from. Tourism generatesincome through taxation, creation of employment in the hotel andtransport industries and development of better transport andcommunication networks. The World Tourism Organization and the WorldTravel and Tourism Council are organizations that aid development inthe tourism industry.

2. Governmentsmake efforts to ensure biodiversity is protected. Endangered animaland plant species are protected and awareness is raised to ensuremass conservation of the natural resources. Direct revenue collectedfrom tourism is used to create a trust fund to ensure the protectionof the ecosystem. Visits made by the tourists also increasesawareness and the need to conserve natural resources forsustainability.

Increasedpressure on the already scarce resource and demand for expansion ofinfrastructure can lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Waterpollution, land degradation air, and noise pollution, as well assolid waste dumping, are other negative effects of tourism on theenvironment. However much the government may try to preventenvironmental destruction, its efforts may be futile as the number oftourists to a particular location increase.

3. Thedevelopment of public parks started with the Yellowstone NationalParks Act, 1872. The idea behind the creation of these parks was todedicate and set aside public land so that they may be used aspleasuring grounds. This was for the benefit and enjoyment of thepeople. The same concept has been used to facilitategovernment-sponsored recreation.

Technologicaladvancements have been incorporated to improve parks. As a result,the idea behind the creation of parks has been perfected. The numberof tourists visiting parks today has tremendously increased due totheir popularity and hence it cannot be said that national parks haveoutlived their purpose.

4. Theneed for the inclusion of the physically and mentally challengedindividuals in all aspects of life has heightened the development ofrecreational facilities that cater for their full enjoyment andparticipation. Gaming and sporting accessories have been remodeledwhile others have been customized in their making to ensure that therights of persons living with disabilities are not neglected.

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Manipulationof Language

  1. Reflective Writing Activity

Russ&nbspJuskalianasserts that unconscious plagiarism should not be accepted since itis avoidable. Even though writers do not engage in the practicedeliberately, they need to be creative enough to determine unoriginalthought or content. I agree with Juskalian’scomments however, it would be unfair to entirely blame the culpritsand label them plagiarists without assessing the level of unoriginalcontent that they have used in their work. I do not supportplagiarism, but it is in order to have a given percentage ofallowable unoriginal content to take care of the unconsciousplagiarism.

  1. Discussion Forums:

Question:can any source relevant to the topic be used?

Thetype of sources that we use in our work determines the authenticityof our writings. Several sources exist both online and in printmedia. It is important to choose the right sources by evaluatingtheir credibility as well as their relevance to the topic. One way ofevaluating the sources is by using annotated bibliography which givesa summary of the references.

  1. Thematic Forum:

Peopleperceive colors differently and are able to distinguish one colorfrom another based on what they see. This is the same case forlinguistic which determines the way in which we perceive the thingsaround us. I have observed that the language that we use affect ourrelationship with others.

  1. Essay


Begley,Sharon. &quotWhy Language May Shape Our Thoughts.&quot Newsweek,7&nbspSept.&nbsp2009,

Begleyexamines the effect that language have on our opinions people use itto express their feelings and thoughts. The author goes ahead todescribe experiments conducted to prove that &quotlanguage indeeddetermine the way we think.&quot

Boroditsky,Lera. &quotHow the Languages We Speak Shape the Ways We Think.&quotThe Cambridge Handbook of Psycholinguistics, pp.&nbsp615-632.

Boroditskyaffirms that our way of thinking is greatly influenced by thelanguage we use. A statement used in one language may be interpreteddifferent in another language, for instance, In English, a durationis described in term of length while in Spanish it is defined interms of amount.

Filipović,Luna, and Martin Pütz. Multilingual Cognition and Language Use:Processing and Typological Perspectives.&nbsp2014.

Theauthors of the book highlight the elements that make languages differin terms of the semantics and structures.

Goldberg,Adele E. Cognitive Linguistics: Categorization, Meaning andLanguage Use. Routledge,&nbsp2011.

Theauthor describes how variation of the meaning of words depending onthe language used, different language may have similar words whosemeaning may differ.

&quotLinguisticdeficits in people who clutter.&quot Springer Healthcare News,vol.&nbsp1, no.&nbsp1,&nbsp2012.

Thisarticle describe the problem that result improper use of languagewithin a group of people as well as language barrier created by theuse of different language.

Ljung,Magnus. Swearing: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Study.Palgrave Macmillan,&nbsp2011.

Thisbook explains the impact of culture on language use some words areconsidered to be vulgar depending on the ethnic background of thepeople using them.

Lucy,John&nbspA. &quotMethodological approaches in the study oflinguistic relativity.&quot Multilingual Cognition and LanguageUse,&nbsp2014, pp.&nbsp17-44.

Accordingto Lucy, the learning of a language requires a cognitive approachthis is necessary to prevent mix up of the structure of two or morelanguage that one can speak.

&quotProofPositive That People See Colors With the Tongue – The New YorkTimes.&quot The New York Times – Breaking News, World News &ampMultimedia,

Theauthor discusses the perception that people have about the languagethat they use and how it affects communication and social relation.He gives an analogy of color by stating that the same way we candistinguish different color, we can also determine various elementsof language and use them appropriately.


Goldberg,Adele E. Cognitive Linguistics: Categorization, Meaning andLanguage Use. Routledge,&nbsp2011.

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Takingresponsibility for drug use

Responsibility-takingfor one`s situation is the beginning of the recovery process.Responsibility is having right moral or been mentally accountable forsomething so that a person is answerable for the consequences of anyact performed. The basis for trust is that human beings have thecapacity to make choices and are accountable for their decisions,meaning that even for negative consequences they should be preparedfor them (Leshner, 8). For a person to effectively manage to end anaddiction, it is very crucial for him/her to take responsibility fortheir predicament. During the process of substance abuse, most peoplehave a lot of justification which exculpates their accountability.Such thinking is irrational and complicates the recovery process.

Theprimary reason as to why addicts fail to take responsibility fortheir lives is because they can justify their conditions with ideassuch as blaming other people for the problem caused by substanceabuse. Some try pinning it to bad luck rather than blaming ownactions for the mess their lives have become, meaning that theytotally avoid taking any responsibility. Some use disease addictiontheory, logically they claim to be having a disease and hence cannotbe blamed for their circumstances. There are also those who blamepast events for their current condition. Some claim that life ismeaningless and use drugs as an excuse (Greenberg, 14). They view theuniverse as meaningless and hence do not find the reason for thembeing responsible. Suffering from low self-esteem makes some feelthat they don’t deserve any good thing, having a feeling ofhelplessness, and therefore feeling powerless to impact their livespositively. Whenever one is protected by family or friends instead ofbeen punished for their wrong doings, addiction sets in since onecannot be held accountable for their actions.

Itis critical for the users to take responsibility for them to overcomeaddiction. Some of the justifications for doing so are: no singleperson has the capability for making addicts sober least they put theperson in the cell, the user should be willing to participate andtake full responsibility for their life. A feeling of liability forowns recovery simplifies the ability for sabotaging addiction. Asense of responsibility results in the addict believing that theiractions can make a great impact on their lives. Taking responsibilitywill also prevent the user from falling into maladjusted behaviorsonce they become sober. It will also keep them from suffering fromgreat deals of negativity (Greenberg, 23).


Acknowledgingthat every person is accountable for the choices they make in life isvery crucial for the addict’s recovery process. It is nobody elsefault when one chooses to take drugs. Every person has the capabilityto dictate where they wish to be in their life and it is necessary toaccept that they are to blame for making poor decisions in theirlives. If an addict chooses to continue using alcohol, they should beready for the consequences of their choices. Injury, illness, jobloss, broken relationships, and discrimination are some of theimplications of continuous substance use (Leshner, 4). Most of theaddicts have excuses or identifiable triggers for their continuedsubstance abuse. These include peer pressure, relation, stress,anxiety, anger, loneliness, sadness, or boredom. Accepting that thatthere is a problem in both identifiable triggers and substance abusewill highly benefit anyone wishing to overcome their addiction.


Greenberg,Jerrold S. Empowering Health Decisions. Burlington, MA: Jones &ampBartlett Learning, 2014. Print.

Leshner,Alan. &quotTaking Drug Abuse Research to the Community.&quotPsycEXTRA Dataset (2015): n. page. Web.

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Student’s Last Name 1



Analysisof Articles on Mindfulness

Allthe three articles provided focus on the concept of mindfulness in anorganizational setting. The topic has been tackled in differentmanners among the papers provided. It has been displayed as theability to use the intellectual and cognitive abilities in makingdecisions and ensuring that an organization runs in the right manner.Mindfulness is much needed in organizational operations.

Inthe article Mindfulnessat Work: A New Approach to Improving Individual and OrganizationalPerformance, theauthors expound on the topic of mindfulness. They provide a generalidea of what mindfulness is, where the concept originated from, andhow it has been used in the places of work (Hyland, Lee &amp Mills,577). The topic has been explained as the ability to think criticallyto solve a problem.

Theconcept of mindfulness is applied in various fields and institutionstoday. The authors of the article have based their view on the topicon all aspects in which the concept is applicable. They explain thatapart from the organizational setting, mindfulness is also applied byprofessionals in the health sector to solve some problems related tohealth and psychology. The authors also employed the use ofdescriptive ideas to assist the I-O researchers to understand thetopic of mindfulness in a broader perspective.

Mindfulnessand its application have an extensive history. It is believed thatthe teachings of mindfulness originated from the Buddhist practice.The Buddhists put that mindfulness is the ability to interpret thingsas they truly are in the present moment (Troy &amp Davis, 200).Following such a belief enables one to rightfully think about acurrent situation or task and handle it in the right manner. From thepoem TheZen Buddhist in Produce at our Local Wal*mart,one would clearly see that the mindful nature of the Buddhist hasbeen helpful in drawing customers. It has also enabled him to developa character of not minding much about time (Kitson, N.P). His traitsmake him retain his job besides being perceived by other workers asbeing boring with his tales, and he keeps referring to nature as hehandles his duties.

Thetopic has also been analyzed basing on how both genders perceive it.The article Mindfuland Masculine: Freeing Women Leaders from the Constraints of GenderRolescarefully displayed the paradox that females face in the workplace.The article shows that males are more successful in their leadershiproles due to their masculine nature whereas females are somehowdisadvantaged as they lack the masculinity (Kawakami, White &ampLanger, 53). It is true that the “soft” nature of femalestroubles them when it comes to leadership and execution of duties totheir subordinates. It also becomes hectic for them if they employthe masculine character of their male counterparts. The article,however, gives a solution to the problem that females face when itcomes to leadership in a work environment that is dominated byindividuals of either sex. It suggests that employing a mindfulcharacter will be helpful in ensuring that their leadership qualitieslead to both productivity and respect from their subordinates.According to Forbes (N.P), the ability to handle situations as theypresent themselves, and without considering much on becoming toomasculine is indeed a thoughtful step to ensure that women make greatleaders in their places of work.

Thebest approach towards understanding or explaining mindfulness is toconsider it as a cognitive ability. There is a discrepancy in the waypeople think in a mindful manner (Kong, 87). This is mainlyattributed to the fact that people have different cognitive abilitiesand that there is a difference with the way each one perceives asituation (Sternberg, 25). Mindfulness, as put in the article Imagesof Mindfulness,differ among people due to the differences in their personalitytraits and the way they behave when faced with different situations.The article uses different perspectives to explain the variousaspects and understandings on mindfulness successfully. Itsuccessfully employs the use of psychological literature to givemeaning to the topic of mindfulness and in explaining its link withan individual’s cognitive ability.

Tosummarize, it is true that mindfulness is much needed in anyworkplace. The best way of understanding mindfulness is by viewing itas a cognitive ability. It enables one to think critically and handlea situation as it presents itself. It is also a better way in whichboth genders can excellently perform their leadership roles leadingto improved productivity at the workplace.


Forbes,David. &quotModes of Mindfulness: Prophetic Critique and IntegralEmergence.&quot Mindfulness(2016): n. pag. Web. 2 Nov. 2016.

Hyland,Patrick K., R. Andrew Lee, and Maura J. Mills. &quotMindfulness atWork: A New Approach to Improving Individual and OrganizationalPerformance.&quot Industrialand Organizational Psychology Ind. Organ. Psychol.8.04 (2015): 576-602. Web. 1 Nov. 2016.

Kawakami,Christine, Judith B. White, and Ellen J. Langer. &quotMindful andMasculine: Freeing Women Leaders from the Constraints of GenderRoles.&quot Journalof Social Issues56.1 (2000): 49-63. Web. 2 Nov. 2016.

Kitson,Herb. &quotThinking Out Aloud.&quot TheZen Buddhist in Produce at Our Local Wal*mart(2011): n. pag. Web. 1 Nov. 2016.

Kong,Dejun Tony. &quotThe Pathway to Unethical Pro-organizationalBehavior: Organizational Identification as a Joint Function of WorkPassion and Trait Mindfulness.&quot Personalityand Individual Differences93 (2016): 86-91. Web. 2 Nov. 2016.

Sternberg,Robert J. &quotImages of Mindfulness.&quot Journalof Social Issues56.1 (2000): 11-26. Web. 1 Nov. 2016.

Troy,Allison S., and Tchiki S. Davis. &quotHistory of Mindfulness-BasedCognitive Therapy Is Associated with Increased Cognitive ReappraisalAbility.&quot Mindfulness4.3 (2012): 213-22. Web. 2 Nov. 2016.

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Cause and Effects ofSmoking

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports that cigarettesmoking claims the lives of 480,000 people in America annually.Besides,smoking causes 90% of all lung complications in America(Center for Disease Control and Prevention). This paper willinvestigate the causes and effects of smoking.

The major cause of smoking is peer pressure, particularly amongteenagers. Peer pressure is usually reinforced by the media thatportrays smoking as an activity that brings fun and pleasure. Themass media, particularly the billboards and television, depict peoplewho smoke as having good looks and fun-filled lives. Also, there is anotion held by people that smoking calms one’s nerves (Center forDisease Control and Prevention).

Smoking causes numerous health complications. For instance, thebehavior causes emphysema, which is a respiratory condition where aperson experiences colds and flu, shortness of breath, and lastingcough. Some of the ingredients used to manufacture cigarettes, suchas tar, clog the tiny air sacs in the lung whose role is tofacilitate breathing(Center for Disease Control and Prevention).Apart from causing emphysema, smoking increases a persona’s chanceof contracting heart diseases. On the other hand, carbon monoxideproduced during the combustion of the ingredients used to makecigarettes may result in conditions such as stroke and heart attack. Besides, people who smoke are more likely to contract cancer thattargets the liver, pancreases, cervix, blood, kidney, and bladder,among others parts of the body. Smoking also triggers the developmentof cardiovascular diseases. Besides, pregnant mothers who smoke arelikely to miscarriage or give birth to underweight children.

In conclusion, people are driven into smoking by peer pressure, massmedia and the desire to escape from the reality. Once a personbecomes an addict, he/she faces an increased risk of developingcancer, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory conditions, amongother complications caused by the ingredients used to makecigarettes.

Work cited

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. “Health effects ofcigarette smoking.” Center for Disease Control and Prevention,2016. Web. Accessed on October 2, 2016.

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Summary andResponse


Mike Rose in his essay “I Just Wanna Be Average,” recounts hisexperience in a school that only admitted students who wereconsidered academically underprivileged. In the essay, Rose providesan in-depth narration of his teachers and classmates. For example, hedepicts his teachers as having specialized in using violence tocontrol students. The other strategy used by Rose’ teachers was therepetition of the syllabus as a way of keeping the students busy andnot necessarily ensuring that they understand whatever they aretaught. For example, Rose says that his sophomore English teacher,Mr. Mitropetros, “ had little training in English, so his lessonplan or his day work had us reading the district’s required text,Julius Caesar, aloud for the semester” (2). On the part of hisclassmates, Rose points that the majority of them had no desire forlearning. Instead, they specialized in partying, arguing, andengaging in fights. Although Rose shows his classmates as a messygroup of students that had no interest in improving their academicperformance, he portrays the majority of them as being smart in theirown unique ways. For example, Ken Harvey, one of Rose’s classmatesprovides a well-thought-out opinion when he is asked about his pointsof view on working hard. Harvey responds that all he wants is to beaverage. For Harvey, being average is better because it allows aperson to avoid the frustration and confusion that comes with workinghard. The other student whom Rose depicts as having great thinkingabilities, although his capabilities are never appreciated, is TedRichard. Rose portrays Ted as enjoying philosophical discussions thatexplored the controversial issues about the existence of God and thesource of courage. He was also good with words. However, when itcomes to school work, Ted was not a performer.

Rose’s main argument is that the teaching methods and theeducators’ interest in their duties play a major role ininfluencing students’ academic performance. Throughout the essay,Rose provides examples of how most teachers do not know how tonurture the different potentials held by their students. Rosemaintains, &quotmostly teachers had no idea of how to engage theimaginations of us kids…&quot (2). Besides, he portrays some ofhis teachers as ill-prepared during their training and thus only endup wasting their students’ potential. He depicts most of histeachers as insensitive. Instead of ensuring that the studentsrealize their potentials, Rose’ teachers make an effort tocultivate a sense of fear for the authority and a lack of interest ineducation among the learners. Additionally, the teachers usedegrading and humiliating statements towards the weak students. Theydo this as opposed to encouraging these students to reflect onthemselves and work hard toward improving their academicperformances.

As such, Rose maintains that education should aim at helping learnersto be true to themselves and not lose their identity in the processof acquiring knowledge. For example, Mr. Macfarland joins Rose’sschool immediately the latter’s father dies. Other teachersconsider Mr. MacFarand as disorderly and eccentric. However, deepinside him, he is genuinely concerned about his student’sperformance. Despite holding a masters degree from ColumbiaUniversity, Mr. MacFarand decides “to find a little school andteach his heart out” (3). Besides, he pushes Rose into workinghard and excelling in his academic life and this is the reason thatmakes Rose admire Mr. MacFarand.

Rose argues that instead of liberating students, some schools serveas prisons to a group of the learners who consider the educationsystem as ignoring their existence or whatever they are goingthrough. For example, Rose portrays one of his classmate TedRichard`s situation as a case of school-sanctioned madness. Though atthe time Ted joined the institution he was already violent, hissituations worsened when he started school. To safeguard himself fromthe stereotypes and the hostile environment at school, Teddesensitizes his mind as a defense mechanism to enable him cope withthe traumatizing school experience. Ross says, “The tragedy is thatyou have to twist the knife in your own gray matter to make defensework” (2). This defense mechanism enables students such as Ted toreject any efforts aimed at making them better learners. Instead ofworking hard to excel in the education, students in Rose’s schooldid everything they could to cultivate boredom that would ultimatelyresult in failure.

Rose holds the opinion that the education systems encouragescheating. He criticizes the education system as being grade-orientedand as only concerned about individuals who can attain the bestgrades ignoring the rest. Even if teachers are not concerned aboutthe problems facing their students, the latter are expected to passin order to be allowed to go to the next level. For example, Rosenarrates how he helped Dave Sydney cheat during the biology test. Onhis part, initially, Rose had to copy math assignments from hisfriends as he had trouble understanding the subject.


The essay titled &quotI Just Wanna Be Average&quot written by MikeRose raises very important questions regarding the effectiveness ofnot only the vocational schools but the education systems at large.Every person, at some point in his/her educational journey, canrelate to the challenges that Rose had to endure at the hands of histeachers and an education system that divides students into twogroups: performers and nonperformers. Students who are categorized asacademically inferior are taught by unskilled, violent, anddisinterested teachers. For example, Rose describes one of hisfreshman English teacher as “a troubled and unstable man..” (1).This could be the reason the majority of Rose’s classmates weremessy since their teachers would not be considered as role models.

Secondly, Rose’s academic ability was misdiagnosed, resulting inhim spending some of his time learning things that are far below hisintellectual capacity. This raises the question, how many studentslike Rose were in the vocational school and who had the potential tobe great persons in the society, only that they did not meet someonewho was genuinely interested in helping them? Second, I concur withRose that some people take education in colleges and universities,yet they are not interested in the field at all. For example, myfriend who is taking education at a local college once told me thathe enrolled for the course only because he thinks that the jobopportunities in the field are higher compared to otherprofessionals. In my case, I have witnessed teachers who would neverdeviate from the curriculum in order to give their students someadvice on how to realize their full potential. For such teachers, ifsomething is not in the curriculum, then it desists from beingimportant. Apart from family, the school is the other institutionthat has much influence on an individual. As such, school plays animportant role in either destroying or building a student’s life. Ithere concur with Rose that in some rare cases, a student gets out ofschool worse that when he enrolled. For example, Rose says that afterfacing numerous disappointments in their academic journey “manystudents finally attribute their difficulties to something inborn,organic” (4). Take the example of Ted, who deliberately directs allefforts towards making himself insane as a defense mechanism in orderfor him to survive the torturous school life.

Throughout the essay, Rose constantly implies that everybody has someunique capabilities which, if nurtured by good-intentioned andwilling persons can ensure that every person has a way of meetinghis/her needs. Rose mentions some of his friends whom he consideredas having various capabilities that probably went to waste as aresult of lack of a mentor. I tend to think that Rose essay perfectlydemonstrates the quote by Albert Einstein that says “if you judge afish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole lifethinking it is stupid.” Einstein message in this quote is similarto that held by Rose, in his essay, “I Just Wanna Be Average.”The quote means that everybody is a genius in his own way. However,the education system acknowledges and nurtures only the intellectualcapabilities which it perceives as equal to good grades. If a persondoes not achieve good grades, he is considered a failure who does notdeserve anything but to be laughed at and ridiculed.

Work Cited

Rose, Mike. &quotI Just Wanna BeAverage.&quot

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EbsteinAnomaly of Tricuspid Valve in Children


Ebstein’sanomaly is a very rare abnormality that occurs at early stages ofchild’s heart development. The objective of this paper is todiscuss the defect which is also known as the tricuspid valvesabnormality. A key goal will be to look at the various works thathave been done on this kind of defect. Also considered are thevarious signs and symptoms associated with this condition. In anattempt to find an appropriate diagnosis for Ebstein’s anomaly, thepaper will look at the different tests and other complicationsassociated with the heart malfunction in children from birth toadolescence. Tricuspid valve abnormality can be either mild orsevere, and both have different effects in the life of the affectedchild.

Duringlower stages of development, some children develop anomalies which inturn hinder their growth pattern and even lead to death in severecases. The tricuspid valve is the valve that separates rightventricle also known as right lower chamber and the right atrium alsoknown as the upper right chamber. In a normal healthy heart, thevalve completely closes whenever blood is pushed to the lungs by theright ventricle. The closure is to prevent backward flow of theblood. This paper looks into the defect where thetricuspidvalve fails to closecompletelyresulting to blood leaking back into the right atrium. According toFreud et al. (278), the backward flow of blood into the atrium maycause the chamber to enlarge due to the large volume of blood and mayresult in heart failure. In most cases, children with this anomalyhave an atrial septal defect. The error is associated withperforations on the walls of the heart’s two upper chambers, andother defects of the heart. There has been an increase of the anomalyin children, making it an issue of concern in the society. A lot ofresearch has been done in the field and articles written to addressthe matter. The primary objective of such research is to come up withan appropriate diagnosis of the anomaly.

Thearticle by Takeshi et al. (2010) tries to address management andlong-term outcome of neonatal Ebstein’s anomaly. The authorsdescribe the anomaly as congenital malfunctioning which involves theright ventricle and the tricuspid valve. The main features of thecondition are displacement of the tricuspid valve septal leafletalong the apical of the heart. The abnormality is also associatedwith arterialized portion in the right ventricle which results intomalformation of the anterior leaflet, and this abnormality may causeanomalous projections in the right ventricle tract of outflow. Thearticle goes further to explain that Ebstein`s anomaly has rareclinical cases. Further discussions reveals that the age ofpresentation for the defect has a bimodal characteristic wherepatients include both neonates and older children or young adults.There is always a combination of both cyanosis and heart failurewhich often make symptomatic neonates critically ill. This situationresults from decreased blood flow to the pulmonary, regurgitation ofthe tricuspid valve, depression in the functioning of the rightventricle, and minimal output of cardiac. The study remarks thatthere is a significant challenge in managing the condition insymptomatic neonates. In as much as there are many effective options,there is a controversy in selecting the ideal surgical interventions.These operations included repair of tricuspid valve as totalreplacement of the valve, shunt the systemic –pulmonary artery,closing the valve with SP shunt which involves right ventricleexclusion, and the last solution resolving to a heart transplant. Inan attempt to understand and establish a prognosis that optimallymanages this anomaly in neonates, they reviewed a group of patientswho attended their institution. Primary outcomes of their surveyinvolved patients’ survival and the urgent need for intervention.

Thesurvey was conducted for patients from January 1988 to June 2008,children under thirty days old who were admitted to their hospitalwith this anomaly formed part of their retrospective study. Theyexcluded all patients who had other complicated heart abnormalitiesnot related to Epstein anomaly. They obtained approval from theUniversity of Michigan from the institutional review board. Thesemedical records were reviewed in line with surgical interventions,postoperative data, and initial clinical factors. In the analysis andassessment, the experts conducted echocardiograms at the point ofadmissions. They reviewed these echocardiograms and the assessed thedegree of regurgitation of the tricuspid valve. Color Doppler ofscale from one to four was used to reveal the severity ofregurgitation of the tricuspid valve. Great Ormond Street (GOS) scoreassessment was established as a product of arterialized rightventricle and full area of right atrium then dividing by area oftrabeculated right ventricle and chambers on the left side of theheart.

Fromanalysis, out of the forty patients admitted to the hospital,eighteen of them were males while the rest were female. Median weightat the point of admission was 3.2kgs. Medical analysis revealed thatthirty-three of those patients needed an infusion of prostaglandin tomaintain saturation of arterial oxygen level. Review of transthoracicechocardiograms showed that mean degree of regurgitation of tricuspidvalve was 2.9 1.1 with GOS score of 0.77 0.28.

Danielet al. (2014), indicated that Ebstein’s anomaly occurs to about 3-5per 100,000 live births. In their article, they indicated that thereis a broad spectrum of diseases associated with this anomaly whichranges from severe neonatal. They explain that this defect isassociated with displacement of septal leaflet of the tricuspid valvewhich results to atrialized right ventricle. The degree of tricuspiddisease is related to defects in the functionality of the rightventricle size. In embryos, they explain that this anomaly results tofailure in delamination of tissue’s valves from underlyingmyocardium resulting to posterior apical attachments.

Malfunctioningof the tricuspid valve leaflets results in regurgitation or stenosishowever the former is very common. Tricuspid valve functionalintegrity in Ebstein’s anomaly is dependent on a variety of factorssuch as level of displacement of the right atrioventricular junction,dysplasia’s presence and fenestrations size, and restriction of theanterior leaflet. Ebstein’s anomaly is also characterized by abroad category of ventricular development in the right chamber of theheart. In most severe cases, an atrialised section of right ventricleenlarges disproportionally, this discovery shows association withpoor prognosis both in children and in adults. There is massivetrabeculation in the apex of the functioning right ventricle althoughmyocardium may be reduced and even aneurysmal. Replacement ofmyocardium is advisable in extreme forms using a fibrous tissue.

Thepaper looks into the causes, signs and symptoms, risk factors,possible management and diagnosis of this abnormality. It alsoaddresses other conditions associated with the condition. Studyingthe analysis of past patients with this anomaly and how theirprognosis was carried out will be of importance to this paper andvarious factors that hinder effective prognosis of this defect.


Researchshows that Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve is a congenitalcondition i.e. it is developed at birth. The reason for itsdevelopment remains unknown to date and research on that is still inprogress.

Signsand symptoms

Thisanomaly can either be mild or severe and each shows different signsand symptoms. In most patients with the mild form of this anomaly,the symptoms are not prominent and may not even be detected untilvery late in life. Such patients’ are only diagnosed due to thepresence of heart murmurs. Physical examination of patients withsevere form reveals abnormal heart sounds. Blood flow from rightatrium to left atrium may result into blue colorations on the skinsof some children and babies. Children with this anomaly oftencomplain of funny heart beats, skipping of beats, and heart races.Such children tend to tire faster than normal children, or at timesthey become short of breath especially when playing. In young adultsand adolescents, there is a palpitations sensation or faster heartrate. They also experience pain in the chest cavity and short breathwhen involved in rigorous activities. Celermajer et al. (765), thisanomaly has very minimal effect on growth and development in babies.Children who are severely affected are always very critical at birth,they develop cyanosis where oxygen saturation is very low andeventually heart failure. Such critical conditions require that thechild is taken immediately for intensive care.

Otherconditions associated with Ebstein’s anomaly

Thisanomaly is also associated with some other heart conditions. A few ofthese conditions are common and include:

  • Small hole in the heart. In most cases, there is a hole between the heart’s upper chambers known as atrial septal defect. There may also be patent foramen ovale (PFO) which is a flap-like opening. The PFO is a small hole in the heart’s upper chambers exists in the heart of babies before birth, and it’s expected to close after birth. The hole may persist without imposing any issue. The presence of this hole allows less oxygenated blood to mix with highly oxygenated blood in the right and left atria respectively, and this causes a decrease in oxygen presence in the blood which results to the blue coloration of the skin and lips.

  • Arrhythmias. This is a condition associated with abnormal heartbeats. Some children with Ebstein’s anomaly tend to have an abnormal rhythm of the heart and often characterized by fast heartbeats also known as tachycardia. This type of irregular heartbeats reduces the effectiveness of the heart especially in the case of leakage of the tricuspid valve. In the case of very fast heart rhythm, there may be syncope i.e. fainting spells.

  • Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome. Some children may develop this condition where there is an abnormal electric pathway in the heart. This syndrome leads to fainting spells and faster heart rates.


Thisanomaly is congenital and happens at the early stages of a baby’sheart development. There is still a lot of uncertainty in risk orpredisposing factors of this defect. According to Tierney et al.(654), it is highly speculated that environmental and genetic factorsplay some role in this anomaly. If a child is from a family with thehistory of this defect, it is very likely that the child may developthis fault. Boyle et al. (1-9), a mother who was previously exposedto particular types of medications like lithium may result in thechild developing this anomaly.

Complicationsand precautions

Thereare always fewer complications in children with mild Ebstein’sanomaly than those with severe forms. Some precautions need to betaken in certain situations. These precautions include:

  • Being active. Participating in several physical activities is advisable in cases of mild Ebstein’s anomaly where the heartbeat is relatively normal with no disturbance in the heart’s rhythm. The physical activities need to be done according to doctor’s advice.

  • During pregnancy. In cases where the mother has mild Ebstein’s anomaly, the child may be safely delivered, though some risks may be involved. The woman needs to seek doctor’s advice before getting pregnant to find out if it is safe to become pregnant and administer monitoring if required during pregnancy period. The doctor may also consider some forms of treatment in case the symptoms appear before being pregnant. In severe conditions, the death of either the mother or the baby may occur.

  • Other complications associated with this anomaly include problems with heart rhythm, heart failure, stroke or sudden cardiac arrest.


Inorder for the doctor to administer diagnosis for this anomaly, he orshe need to perform a physical examination and review the signs andsymptoms. If the physician suspects certain signs and symptoms or anyunderlying conditions, he or she would recommend any of these tests.

  • Echocardiogram. This test is used to assess heart’s structure, blood flow through the heart and tricuspid valve. When performing this test, sound waves produce some detailed images of the heart structures. The doctor may also conduct transesophageal echocardiogram where a tube is inserted with a minuscule transducer into the digestive tract running from the throat to the stomach (esophagus). This is because the esophagus is close to the heart and the transducer will be able to produce images of the heart.

  • Electrocardiogram. In this type of test, sensors are attached to the limbs and chest so as to measure timing and period of the heartbeat. The test will enable the doctor to detect irregularities in the heart’s structure and rhythm.

  • Chest x-ray. X-rays taken on the chest reveals images of the lungs, blood vessels, and the heart. These pictures may show an enlarged heart which is an Ebstein’s anomaly.

  • Cardiac MRI. This test uses radio waves and magnetic fields to produce detailed pictures of the heart. The severity of this defect, assessment of the size or functioning of the right ventricle, and view of the tricuspid valve is done using this test.

  • Holter monitor. This is very usefu testl in diagnosing heart’s rhythm irregularity that occurs uncertainly. The control is won and then records information concerning electrical activity of the heart as the patient go about normal activities for about two or three days.

  • Pulse oximetry. Here a sensor is attached to the finger or toe and used to measure oxygen amount in the blood within the vessels.

  • Exercise stress test. The patient is made to walk on a treadmill or ride on some stationary bicycle with the heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure being monitored. This test is used to determine heart’s responsiveness to exercise which helps the doctor identify what kind of physical activity is appropriate.

  • Electrophysiology study. Doctors use flexible tubes with a thin thread tipped with small electrodes to test several of spots in the heart. These electrodes map the spread of heart’s electric impulses. These electrodes can also stimulate the heart to beat which eventually may help the doctor to find an appropriate treatment for arrhythmia.


Thisrare heart’s anomaly have various signs and symptoms that should bemonitored during earlier stages so that appropriate diagnosticmeasures can be taken. Though the primary cause of this anomaly isstill under research, several precautions should be taken andpatients who exhibit various signs should be tested and effectivetreatment measures administered. Most parents are therefore advisedto visit their doctors before they choose to get a baby so thatdifferent tests can be conducted to minimize the possibility ofpassing the defect to the child since to some level genetics playsome role in the development of this defect. Children with suchanomaly should also be supported and accommodated in the family andnever be involved in rigorous activities that may worsen thecondition.


Boyle,Breidge, et al. &quotThe changing epidemiology of Ebstein’sanomaly and its relationship with maternal mental health conditions:a European registry-based study.&quot&nbspCardiologyin the Young&nbsp(2016):1-9.

Carpentier,A., et al. &quotA new reconstructive operation for Ebstein`s anomalyof the tricuspid valve.&quot&nbspTheJournal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery96.1(1988): 92-101.

Celermajer,David S., et al. &quotEbstein`s anomaly: presentation and outcomefrom fetus to adult.&quot&nbspJournalof the American College of Cardiology&nbsp23.1(1994): 170-176.

Freud,Lindsay R., et al. &quotPostnatal Management of Fetuses with EbsteinAnomaly or Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia in the Current Era: AMulti-center Study.&quot Circulation 132.Suppl 3 (2015):A17203-A17203.

Freire,Grace, et al. &quotPrenatal Evaluation of the Fetal CardiovascularProfile Score in a Multicenter Study of Ebstein Anomaly/TricuspidValve Dysplasia.&quot Circulation 132.Suppl 3 (2015): A18132-A18132.

Kumar,Amy Edalji, et al. &quotEbstein`s anomaly: clinical profile andnatural history.&quot&nbspTheAmerican journal of cardiology&nbsp28.1(1971): 84-95.

Nora,J. J., A. H. Nora, and W. H. Toews. &quotLithium, Ebstein`s anomaly,and other congenital heart defects.&quot&nbspTheLancet&nbsp304.7880(1974): 594-595.

Theron,Alexis, et al. &quotAn uncommon cause of tricuspid regurgitation:three-dimensional echocardiographic incremental value, surgical andgenetic insights.&quot&nbspEuropeanJournal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery&nbsp(2015):ezv423.

Tierney,Elif Seda Selamet, et al. &quotAssessment of ProgressivePathophysiology after Early Prenatal Diagnosis of the Ebstein Anomalyor Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia.&quot The American Journal ofCardiology (2016).

Watson,Hamish. &quotNatural history of Ebstein`s anomaly of tricuspid valvein childhood and adolescence. An international co-operative study of505 cases.&quot&nbspBritishheart journal&nbsp36.5(1974): 417.

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CamillePaglia is a feminist whose beliefs lead to a sharp critique of themovie AnnaKarenina.The movie is based on a tale of adultery and self-discovery againstthe backdrop of significant historical changes that were occurring indifferent parts of Russia during the nineteenth century (Wright,N.P). There is confusion among the people on whether to hold on tothe traditional old days or to appreciate the changes brought aboutby industrialization (Paglia, 62). Camilleprovides a description of the different tolerances that Ana Kareninaand her brother face from the society of their time frame and theirmarital infidelities.

Camillesuggests that Anna and her friend Dolly were very enduring especiallygiven the situation of their marriages. Part of the story is based onStiva’s dinner party which according to Camille, raises thequestion of the rights that women have (Mandelker, N.P). Camilledescribes that women have the right to control their marriages andthat if things are impossible, then they shouldn’t force themselvesinto the relationship as it will only result in pain (Gloria, 41).Anna is also faced with allegations of adultery, as suggested byWright (N.P), which Camille describes as a personal issue, and thatit should not generate great concern, as put by Paglia (N.P).

Onthe other hand, Camille criticizes Stiva, Anna’s brother, forhaving an affair with his children’s governess. The relationshipnearly destroyed his relationship with Dolly, his wife (Elvert, 63). Stiva faces scorn from the public, including his wife(Edmundson,Helen, and Leo Tolstoy, N.P). Camille describes the attack on Stivaby the public as appropriate in ensuring that he changes his ways andthat restores his relationship with his family to a stable state, assuggested by Foster (N.P).

Toconclude, Camille presents her feministic views on the characters ofStiva and Anna. She happens to defend Anna while she criticizesStiva’s behavior (Arnold, N.P). She provides a description of whatAna and Stiva face from the society and their marital infidelities.As put by Wright (N.P), both Anna and Stiva take part in adulterousmisconduct, and this is considered differently by society, andCamille also offers her critique on societal views on the twocharacters.


Arnold,M. &quotMatthew Arnold On ‘Anna Karenina’.&quot TheCritical Heritage Leo Tolstoy(2014): n. pag. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

Edmundson,Helen, and Leo Tolstoy. &quotAnna Karenina.&quot AnnaKarenina (stage Version)(2012): n. pag. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

Edward,W. CriticalEssays on Tolstoy.Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, 1986. Print.

Elvert,Allison. CamillePaglia: A Modern Day Renaissance Woman.N.p.: n.p., 2012. Print.

Foster,G. &quotFilm Theory and Analysis – Finding Meaning in Movies.&quotFilmTheory.N.p., 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2016.

Gloria,F. &quotFeminism and Film Theory.&quot (2011): 32-53. Web. 31 Oct.2016.

Leavis,F. R. AnnaKarenina, and Other Essays.London: Chatto and Windus, 2013. Print.

Mandelker,Amy. FramingAnna Karenina: Tolstoy, the Woman Question, and the Victorian Novel.Columbus: Ohio State UP, 2011. Print.

Paglia,C. &quotCamille Paglia.&quot, Biography, Blog, Audiobooks, Kindle.N.p., 2013. Web. 30 Oct. 2016.

Paglia,Camille. &quotCamille Paglia`s &quotSex, Art, and American Culture&quotFeministReview49 (2012): 108. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

Tolstoy,Leo. AnnaKarenina.New York: Modern Library, 2011. Print.

AnnaKarenina.Dir. Joe Wright. RBA, 2014. DVD. 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

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PrimarySource Analysis: The Columbus Letter

Thisparticular historical document is in form of a letter and is believedto be authored by Columbus. While there emerged numerous printedversions of this letter upon his return to Europe, it is recognizedby many analysists to be the basic inspiration of Europe’s turnpoint as far as the understanding of the world is concerned. Thispaper will critically discuss the various lessons both subtle andobvious, as they are availed to the reader.


Theletter seems to be addressing the sovereign leaders of Spain (theking, queen, and princes) after Columbus had completed hisexplorations around the islands and continent of India. Columbuswrites the letter from a socio-cultural anthropologist point of view.He observed and recorded the Indians way of life. He describes theirfaith and religion, their mode of dressing, their general societalcharacter, their commercial and agricultural activities and theirmilitary organization. This form of documentation is meant toenlighten the sponsors of his mission.

Hecaptures and records the information that will be analyzed by theking and his advisors as to the best ways of initiating foreignrelations with the Indians. He also records his account throughoutthe Indian peninsula from a geographer’s point of view. Hedescribes its endowment in minerals, the fertile soils, the safe andconvenient natural harbors, the rivers and their hard wood trees thatabound this sub-continent (Fenn3). Thisletter also reports Columbus` feed back to the sovereigns seekingmore logistical assistance during his subsequent voyage as he seeksto conquer the Indian islands.


Thehistorical context of this document is during the times when theIndian peninsula was not well known, neither traversed by Europeans.These were the times when Europeans were heavily compelled and drivenby the spirit of adventure, expansion of territorial empires,colonialization, international trade and Christian evangelism.

Internationallaw at this time had not yet matured to the extent of engaging therepresentatives from the entire world including the Indian peninsula.There were no bilateral trade agreements nor organizations that arededicated to championing the welfare of uncivilized states.

Thisdocument also captures the lack of the concept of universalterritorial sovereignty, which demands all states to respect andtreat each other as their equal. There seemed to be a lack of mutualrespect and recognition of territorial sovereignty when conductinginternational engagements with the Indian sub-continent.

Lessonsfrom the Letter. Wecan gather from the document that there are several things that thereader can learn. For starters, the Spanish sovereign seemed to haveimmense executive powers to order and fund overseas explorations. Theauthor who is a seasoned navigator and explorer (Fenn5) seemedto have been commissioned by the Spanish rulers to survey the foreignlands for the presence of any valuable natural resources as well asthe opportunities to convert people into Christians throughevangelism. We also learn that the Spanish military is well armedwith sophisticated weapons that cannot be matched with the Indianstype. According to Columbus` description of the Indian boats, theyseem to be of primitively inferior in making as compared to the shipsof Spain and Europe.

Apartfrom the unbelievable breathtaking beauty of India’s flora andfauna as well as he seemingly endless natural resources, one gets tolearn Columbus’ underlying selfish thinking. His writing tells thereader of the letter that according to him, it is the Spanishsovereigns and the Christians in Europe who deserve to inherit andown all the valuable minerals and natural resources that were underthe possession of the Indians.

InterestingOmissions.Interestingly the letter fails to thoroughly describe the Indianpolitical form of self-governance and religious faith. This lack ofdescription contrasts with how he describes the Indian naturalenvironment or how he describes their lack of armory and brevity. Areader expects Columbus to at least mention the points of divergencebetween the Christian faith and their religion.

InspiredCuriosity.This letter raises some fundamental questions on the concept ofproperty ownership and the value therein. Could it really be that theIndians were too naïve to realize the value of their precious metalssuch as gold or did they have another significant attachment otherthan its commercial value that Columbus did not bother to establish?

Anotherquestion that the document reader cannot help but ask themselves isrelated to Christianity and its practices. From the letter, we learnthat the Indian people cherished generosity, peace, did not practiceidolatry and believed in heaven. Then why did Columbus see thedesperate need to convert them into Christians considering theirChristian like values? It also puzzles the reader as to how theseparation of men from their families and community by seizing andforcing them to be slaves for the Spanish navy augurs well with theteachings of Christianity.


Afterreading the letter closely, we get to realize that this documentsuffers from various limitations. The first is that the claims ofthis particular historical document have not been corroborated by theIndians on the same account. One would want to ascertain the claimsas made by Columbus in his letters before taking them as factualtruths. The other limitation is that the letter is not signed out byColumbus himself and thus lacks authenticity. However, its importanceas a primary source of historical knowledge cannot be ignored. Thisdocument casts a lot of light into the aims of past explorations andit is used to better understand current explorations in and out ofthis world. It is a source relied on western historians in the studyof historical foreign engagements that contributed to thecivilization of the whole world.


Fenn, Elizabeth. &quotThe Columbus Letter.&quot HISTORY 1015 DOCUMENT COLLECTION (n.d.): 3.

—. &quotThe Columbus Letter.&quot Document Collection (n.d.): 3-7.

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Nameof the course


Ihave always found pleasure in learning and getting new understanding.My professor is awesome, and I have a lot of respect for him. I havealways been told that a school is a place of various activitiesalways moving, different teachers, making friends and having fun.However, one thing I know about school is that learning is theprimary objective. There is no point of doing other sorts if thingsin school and still fail academically, as in my case. It does notmean that I am a failure, but truth be told. I wrote an essay onMulticulturalismComparison, butI failed terribly since the paper did not meet the required standardsand the expectations of the professor, resulting in a poor grade.

First,the reason why I did not get a good grade is that my paper did nothave a thesis statement. This is the sentence that offers the paper’smain idea and it is paramount for controlling the ideas in the paper.The thesis statement usually points on the opinion intended to bepassed across by the writer (Connellyand Forsyth).All the same, my paper did not have a thesis statement that couldguide my opinions on the multicultural comparison. For my essay’scase, the thesis statement could have been something like, “Maria,Vijay, Sarah, and Hull are authors who seek to shed light onMulticulturalismas such, it is paramount to compare and contrast their views in anexplicit manner.

Thesecond reason I did not get a good grade is that I failed to utilizeall the class materials. The available materials that I neglected touse were ThePhenology of Whiteness bySara Ahmed, Race,The Floating Signifier, whichfeatured Stuart Hall, and the NewRacial Preferences. Thesewere the class materials that talk about multiculturalism, but I didnot use them. Just as a slight comparison, Sara Ahmed takes intoconsideration the manner in which whiteness does function as a habit,even if the habit is not good, and this habit becomes a basis of asocial action. On the other hand, Hall is, in a very compassionatemanner, concerned with the physical, cultural as well aspsychological violence brought about by racism. Nonetheless, he isconfident that it is impeccable to fight racism, but only byunderstanding the logic behind its functioning. Apart from thesearticles, there are also other articles like that of Maria and Vijaybut I mentioned them in the essay. These articles are important sincethey provide views on multiculturalism. I ought to have read throughthese articles and then cite all the ideas from them, both as in-textcitations and in the reference list so as to avoid plagiarism(Connellyand Forsyth).

Ifailed terribly because the paper failed to meet the requiredstandards and the expectations of the professor, thus, resulting in apoor grade. Although I failed in this paper, I am looking forward tobeing keener in future papers to ensure improvement. One thing I willdo to improve my grade in future is to make sure that I useappropriate thesis statements at the end of the introduction topics.I will also ensure to use clear topic sentences, proper sentencestructures, and clear conclusions. Secondly, I will ensure that Iread through all the class materials provided and mention them in myessay. I will, additionally, provide the in-text citations as well asthe reference lists.


Connelly,Jacqueline and Patrick B Forsyth.&nbspEssayWriting Skills.London: Kogan Page Limited, 2012. Print.

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Geographyof Latin America

Environmentaldimensions of every aspect of life are growing in importance.Sustainable development has become an important notion, and manycountries are implementing political, social, and economic emphasison the environmental changes as they emerge and change over time.Sustainable development applications on cultural and economic levelsare defined in the Latin America perspective. This is done in thecontext of drug production, tourism, and the growing export economy,neoliberalism is discussed and the benefits of shifting from itsapplication.

Sustainabledevelopment is growth that caters to the needs of now without ruiningthe ability of future generations to do the same. It is also thesystemic integration of cultural specifics in the formulation andpractice of development it views the inclusion of locals as adesirable outcome of development efforts. A major determinant ofLatin America`s fast progression in exports is raw materials, food,and resource-based productions. This natural wealth is being used tofund financial liabilities. This approach raises questions ofenvironmental sustainability as the situation is not consistent withsustainable development. Development agencies in the area arepromoting chemical dependent agriculture instead of regenerativeagriculture, the chemical form of farming depletes the land making itunfit for agriculture in the long run. This method ruins the economicfuture of incoming generations.

Althoughmany countries have ventured into manufactured exports, naturalproducts other than petroleum are exceptionally high in LatinAmerica. Commodity prices are yet to recover from the world recessiondespite consuming countries having an increase in economic growths,which is partly contributed by the increase in production by nationsdesperate to earn foreign exchange. These countries are destroyingthemselves, earning less while exporting more. The preferment ofraising volumes of product exports has led to cases of unsustainableabuse of the natural wealth.

LatinAmerica has a large mixture of culture, scenic beauty, and cuisinecoupled with a progressively refined local industry to cater to everyvisitor’s disposition. Individual countries differ in performancein the tourism sector. Government intervention and economicdevelopment have both lead to a substantial upsurge in the intake ofcultural tourism in the region. The region has amazing architecturaldesigns that attract people to the area, beautiful sites and areligion that is rooted in the people. Sites like Cartagena inColombia, Isla Margarita in Venezuela and many others have enabledthe local communities benefit by providing trade opportunities.

Tourismand travel have influenced the economy of the region to rise, whenconsidering its contributions to the supply chain and capitalinvestment effects both direct and indirect. Tourism spending relatesto more jobs, everywhere in the region, the industry is a majoremployer. Tourism creates a lot of new jobs in the area, half ofwhich are in Brazil because its a populous state, economicsuperiority, and sports tourism in the “2014 World Cup and the 2016Olympics.”

Themajor determinant of the explosive growth of tourism in Latin Americais the constant rise in intraregional and domestic travel, coupled bygovernment induced economic development plans. With an increase inthe economy of the countries, many families obtain middle-classstature this translates to an increase in tourism within the regionas many people will visit a neighboring state. Argentina, Brazil,Peru and Chile are the favorites to receiving the biggest growth intourism. Business tourism has grown in Latin America especially inArgentina, the availability of good hotels, flights and connectionsmake it a desirable business retreat destination. Companies come updue to the favorability of trade in the area creating investmentsthat will serve the community for lifetimes to come.

Directeffects of tourism constitute spending within the tourism industry,based on a list of the usual tourist purchases. Indirect effectstouch on the transitional intake for the manufacture of products andservices in the attraction industry that enterprises obtain fromtheir dealers. A tourism supply chain is created whose inducedeffects include increased spending by the locals from the money theyearned as salary from working in the tourism industry. Localbusinesses such as cafes, hotels, bike rentals have also benefitedfrom the industry.

LatinAmerica states are grieving the results of drug production and trade.Violence associated with drugs drive away prospective investments andtourism to the countries. Most economies are gradually losing theirpotential to produce legal goods and are becoming dependent onillegal drug export. And with persistence in drug trafficking, thereis a distortion in the natural pattern of development. In countriessuch as Bolivia and Peru, drug trafficking brings more revenue thanlegal exports enabling cartels to wield a lot of economic power. Dueto drug trafficking, Latin America states incur a lot of expenses inenforcing drug laws and prosecuting cartels. This means that money isdiverted from economic development. Farmers invest in illicit drugcultivation which provides a false sense of security which can bebrought down at any time. These actions place the population at aperpetual state of poverty because children are getting caught up inthe trade.

Neoliberalismis an ideology that emphasizes the importance of a free marketcompetition it includes the elimination of barriers to trade such astariffs. The government reduces tax on businesses so that enterprisescan compete with foreign nations for investments. Despite itsportrayal as an equalizing ideology, it has ruined most of LatinAmerican`s lives. Countries were viewed as insufficient employers andstate-owned businesses were privatized. Spending was reduced, fundingfor education and health was cut, public employees were laid off andthe existing ones had their salary was reduced.

Transitioningfrom neoliberalism will help states be sustainable. With thegovernment controlling how resources are allocated and spent,everybody will get an equal chance of growth. With neoliberalism ifone had an advantage of education, inheritance, or class they wouldalways grow to be rich, but the poor with no education will have nochance of competing.

Countrieswill now have equivalent strata in the society and no longer theperpetually poor and rich. Citizens will be able to afford housing,education, and peace of mind. There would be no self-harm,depressions, and performance anxieties because failure will not meanthat someone is not enterprising. The cost of living will improvebecause the government can regulate the prices of essentialcommodities so that everyday citizens can be able to sustainthemselves. It will also prevent companies from making overboardprofits through exploitation. Locals will now be able to get jobs forthe government will implement laws to regulate foreign investment ina country. This will give rise to local industries which will growand provide financial sustenance to a local population elevatingtheir economic status.

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Theimage chosen was that of the Google building. The image is made of anelaborate foreground and background. The contentofthe front is made of trees and vegetation thus, giving it a distinctgreen color. The background is made of the Google building, which ismade of blue-colored glass. The perspective created by the trees inthe foreground and mid-ground gives depth to the image. The photo isframedwith landscape dimensions thus, giving a comprehensive view of whatthe photographer wanted to capture. It has a proper compositionwith appropriate representation of the whole landscape. From theimage, it is clear that the photographer was focusingon the building, and especially the Google logo. The image was takenwith natural lightingwhich seems to be coming from the right as elaborated by the shadows.The shadowing and reflections on the building give an impression of asmooth reflective surface while the trees have a rough texture(Frank, n.p). The photo was taken from a straight anglewith the steady positioning of the camera. This is evident from theproper presentation of a two-way perspective displayed by the treesin the fore and mid ground.

Theimage reminds me of a photography session that I undertook onarchitectural structures. It also reminds me of the influence thatnatural lighting has on the final appearance of a photo, and how thevantage point is important in ensuring that all the contents of thephoto are contained within the frame. The image creates a feeling ofcalmness mainly due to the effect of the light on the trees and thecolors presented. The image intended to display the Google buildingand the inclusion of the logo on the picture was intentional to makethe building known to the viewer.

Inconclusion, the image, therefore, presents different elements of aphoto and evokes varied feelings. Various photographic aspects wereconsidered in the creation of the piece. The photo has greatcomposition, and the landscape is well presented.


Frank,By. &quotPostSecret.&quot PostSecret.N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Oct. 2016.

Imageof the Google Headquarters. (Frank, N.P)

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Freshmenshould live on Campus or Not

Forthe freshmen who attend the traditional Four -Year College schooling,it is a fact that college experience is their real chance to liveaway from their parents` or home. The point is that as the freshmenspread their wings in the process of easing into adulthood, they needa place to reside. Most of the universities have dormitories wherethe freshmen can live. They also do allow the undergrads to resideoff-campus. It is always a great challenge for most freshmen todetermine the option to go with (Wise,Carolyn, and Stephanie Hauser 100).Most universities or colleges make it mandatory for the freshmen tolive in the campus dormitories. While either of the two options hasits pros and cons, I agree with the schools that make it compulsoryfor the freshmen to live in the dorms because I find it the besttransition to the college life. Therefore, freshmen should live oncampus.

ThePros of Living on Campus

Thereare several advantages that come along with living on campus. Tostart with, for a freshman, the residence hall tends to place you inthe center of what you hope to be a vibrant college life. Therefore,you have no other choice but to become part and parcel of the campuscommunity when living on-campus.

Also,the dorm life equates to easy living. While living on campus, thereis some guarantee regarding facilities as well as amenities(Senechal, Diana 622). The amenities that freshmen living on campuswill have access to range from the dining hall, gym, classrooms andalso the library. The good thing with this is that the distances thefreshmen have to travel have been minimized and there is a higherchance that time wastage will be eliminated. You agree that earlyclasses can be tough especially for the freshmen who might not be tooconversant with the college environs.

Apartfrom the quick commute, when freshmen live on campus, it means thatthey will be on the meal plan. Freshmen should not spend much oftheir time worrying about where they will fetch groceries or planningwhat they will cook for supper and so forth. Once they live oncampus, anything that concerns food is done for them, and all thanksto the dining services. Living on campus also has additionaladvantages. The school ensures the maintenance of bathrooms byproviding the necessary human resource who work on that as well asall the other common areas within the dorms (Senechal, Diana 623).Also not to mention that living on campus ensures that the studentswill have access to the internet since the rooms are wired with Wi-Ficonnection.

Additionally,when freshmen live on campus, it means they are generally withinreach of their fellows. It is true the dormitories are an excellentway for the freshmen to meet many other people and make friends. Lifein the dorms means that there will always be someone to hang outwith, there is always someone to grab lunch with and there is alwayssomeone you to talk to even during difficulties (Kemp, Roger Town andGown Relations 215). It is important to realize that therelationships that the freshmen form informs the collegiate knowledgeor involvement on equal measures as the time that you spent readingor in the classroom.

TheCons of Living on Campus

Aswe said earlier, even college dorm life has its disadvantages. Forexample, while there is so much fun in the dorms regarding the socialoptions that life on campus presents, it also means that focusing onstudies is not easy or carving out private time is a challenge. It istough to concentrate on some serious tasks especially when others arebusy racing some desk chairs in the halls.

Onan equal note, privacy and space are at a premium. High chances arealmost everything requires that you share. Yes, life on campus meansthat you will be sharing the small sized rooms with a few otherpeople. It becomes even more difficult for you especially when youhate the idea of sharing bathrooms. The bathrooms are communal and assuch once in a while you will find yourself fighting for thebathrooms for shower and such things. It is also difficult for anindividual to escape the many peers when they want to.

ThePros of Living off Campus

Livingoff campus has its unique advantages as well. To begin with, when thefreshmen choose to live off campus, there are possibilities that theycan afford, even more, privacy and space. First-year students livingoff campus can, therefore, find themselves more comfortable thanthose living on campus. Living off campus means that you will notshare the bathrooms and rooms as it is in the case for those livingon campus (Wise,Carolyn C, and Stephanie Hauser 101).There are also chances that when you live off campus, you will enjoysome quietness unlike living on campus therefore it will be possiblefor you to secure some private study time.

Livingoff campus also makes it possible for you to escape the schoolbubble. Therefore, you will find that your neighbors are youngprofessionals or even local families. As a result, you will realizethat this is a welcome change because some of them are very maturewhich might not be the same case with the collegiate counterparts.Living off campus gives you the chance to experience some senseindependence as well as adulthood (Garton, Christie 81). As afreshman living off campus, you will be running your household persay. Although your apartment will not have a long list of rules orregulations like it is in the dorms you will realize that there arethose things that you will do and there are those that you willrestrict yourself from doing.

TheCons of Living off Campus

Whileliving off campus, it is likely that at times you will find yourselftoo lonely or feeling isolated especially when you are a freshman.Living off campus means that as a freshman you are likely to havefewer friends than those living on campus because there are fewchances of finding friends or classmates residing in the sameapartments or block as you. It is true that depending on yourresidence or the distance of where you live, your social life mightbe influenced to a large extent (Garton, Christie 87).

Itis also important to note that as much as living off campus comeswith some sense of independence, there are very many responsibilitiesand demands as well. Living off campus means that you will berequired to take care of your bills in the apartment. Installation ofamenities such as the internet therefore is solely upon you, and thatmeans that you will also be in charge of paying up the bills.Maintaining the apartment will also be upon you. Besides, it is uponyou to furnish the apartment that you will be living in not tomention cleaning and all that.

Livingoff campus means that you will be cooking for yourself, as such itwill be up to you to stress on where to fetch the groceries. Whilethe freshmen might have these skills as well as the finances toensure that these tasks are completed, it is important to keep inmind that there is a tight schedule that one has to observe.


Thereare several factors to consider while deciding whether to live oncampus or off campus especially as a freshman. One of the importantfactors to consider is cost. Either option come along with its costswhich you will have to compare very carefully before landing into aconclusion. For instance, you will be required to compare the cost ofthe dorms with that of renting an apartment. You will also berequired to weigh whether the expenses associated with livingoff-campus exceed the rent. It is also necessary to find out thecosts related to the utilities which may not always be included.There are also transport costs especially when you decide to resideplaces that you cannot walk which may be incurred either by usingyour car or the public bus and so forth. Depending on where you livethe costs may end up being even lesser than living on campus, but ofcourse, you will be required to do the calculations. There are alsothings to do with the responsibilities that come are associated witheach of the choices, the time factor especially concerning commutingto the classes, forming the necessary relationships as well as accessto the necessary school facilities.

Asyou can see the argument on whether freshmen should reside on campusor not is an open debate, and therefore there is nothing like thecorrect answer. This is because each of the options has its benefitsand drawbacks (Su,Yong, and Lanjian Chen 187). The decision will differ from one personto another depending on the needs of an individual. At the end of theday, it is not a permanent or a life and death decision and whetheryou will come to regret or hate the decision that was made on yourbehalf by the school authorities or your parents you can alwaysrearrange after the one first year of your college life is complete.In my opinion and based on the facts presented in the paper I thinkthat first-year students should live on campus as I find this optionan ultimate transition from high school life to the college life.Living on campus for the freshman makes the first year of collegelife easier, and this ensures that they can familiarize themselveswith the learning environment as well as focus on their studies a lotbetter.


Garton,Christie. U Chic: The College Girl`s Guide to Everything. Naperville,IL: SourcebooksEDU, 2013. Internet resource.

Kemp,Roger L. Town, and Gown Relations: A Handbook of Best Practices. ,2013. Print.

Senechal,Diana. The College Buzz Book. New York: Vault, 2006. Print.

Su,Yong, and Lanjian Chen. Modern Oriental Corporate Culture: A CaseCollection. , 2014. Internet resource.

Wise,Carolyn C, and Stephanie Hauser.&nbspTheCollege Buzz Book.New York: Vault, 2007. Print.

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TheCatholic devotion is founded on Divine Revelation. Believers in theChurch hold that they were created by God and Jesus Christcommissions their faith. The Divine Revelation empowers Catholics todeclare the Gospel as part of God`s affection to humanity. (PopeBenedict XVI 34). Inthis view, the basic vision of Divine Revelation is to discloseeverything that seems hidden. It implies that God reveals himself andhis mysterious plans to mankind and the world. The aim of DivineRevelation is to make people understand that God’s will is that manneeds to reach him through Jesus Christ. The gospel presents Jesus asthe word formed from the Holy Spirit. It suggests that he is theembodiment of divinity (PopeBenedict XVI 47).Through Divine Revelation, Jesus instituted a new and everlastingconvention between the Father and man.

Theelement that I find most useful is the fact that the DivineRevelation will never be substituted even in the future. In thisregard, there is no probability that there will be any form of newdivine revelation (PopeBenedict XVI 51).Also, the chapter on Divine Revelation provides an answer to thequestion how is the word of the creator, which was given to humanitymany years ago by Jesus Christ, passed on from one generation toanother?


Thefirst theme in this week`s readings is dignity and life of mankind.Every individual is made in resemblance and image of God. For thatreason, every dignity and life of a person must be valued andrespected to the point that one dies. Christians hold that therelevance of any tradition lies in its ability to enhance dignity andexistence of human beings. The second theme is the call for householdand communal participation. Mankind needs to be both holy and social.It covers how one organizes himself and the society in terms ofeconomy and law. Every individual has the freedom to take part insocial duties and to contribute towards the progression of the publicgood. The third theme is the call on care for all creations. Theworld created by God is entrusted to every human being. People’spresence is made meaningful if they can participate in sustainingGod’s creatures. One is only able to show respect for the God bycaring for his creations. Forth, there is the theme of solidaritythat recognizes the need for humans to behave like a family. Lovingone’s neighbor is a prove of respect for God’s mass creation. Atthe center of this virtue is the search of integrity andreconciliation (Council,Second Vatican 21). One’slove for a brother leads to ease in the realization of a just andpeaceful society.

TheCatholic teachings, as expressed in this week`s readings, calls foreveryone to have a flexible mindset and the ability to shun thethoughts of extreme logics to the extent that one is able to admitthem for emotional purposes. The notion of creation and society, asexplained in the teachings, bear significant relationships to thecounty’s constitutional rights. Devine teachings are relatively old(Council,Second Vatican 31).As a result, finding that they are still integrated into politicalideologies is an important milestone for religion.

Thesignificance of the difference between the form and content of thecreation narratives is that they make the periods of creationsymbolic. It makes the successive days after Genesis exist to expresshierarchy and order of events (PopeBenedict XVI 47).&nbsp


Council,Second Vatican. &quotSacrosanctum concilium.&quot&nbspVaticanCouncil II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents&nbsp(1963).

PopeBenedict XVI. In the Beginning`: A Catholic Understanding of theStory of Creation and the Fall. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1995.

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TheVon Thunen model of agricultural land use was developed by J.H. VonThunen in 1826. Von Thunen was a farmer and an amateur economist. Themodel was created before industrialization, and most of the conceptsit contained were based on that period. The Von Thunen model was madeup of four zones which were distinctively marked and represented in acircular manner. The innermost zone represented the central city. Thecity is then surrounded by an area of intensive farming, which isthen followed by a forest zone. The fourth zone, as put in the model,represented an area that was covered by vast crop fields, while thefourth zone was covered by ranches and animal product industries. Themodel, however, has some limitations especially in the current worldwhere industries and technology have dominated the world. Von Thunenmodel, however, fails to represent agricultural activity in differentgenerations adequately.


Thetechnological advancement led to the development of refrigerators,which are used today for the storage of perishable agriculturalproducts. With the development of the refrigeration technology, thefruit, milk, vegetables, and other dairy products, which in the modelare produced in the second zone, can now be produced in areas faraway from the city (Cromley, 404). The products are then transportedto the city for consumption. The model failed to include such apossibility, thus, weakening the model`s concepts.

Moreso, the model fails to represent all the means of transport. In themodel, Von Thunen only presented the boat as the modes of transport,as shown by Stutz &amp Barney (53) and failed to acknowledge thatother means such as trains and trucks could be used in ferryingcommodities from different locations. This, therefore, shows how themodel is unrepresentative and ignorant. The model could have beendeveloped to only represent the geographical zones of Von Thunen’slocation during the period of its development.

Themodel also failed to consider the differences in physical conditionsof the zones that are represented. The model states the specificagricultural activities that occur at each zone but fails torecognize that the activities depend on specific climatic conditionsfor their sustainability. In the first ring, for example, Von Thunenputs that the primary agricultural activity is dairy farming andhorticulture. This two, however, require cool and wet climaticconditions, which might not be the case of the areas closer to thecities.

Additionally,the model is very restrictive. Von Thunen confines the agriculturalpractices in specific zones and fails to acknowledge that activitiessuch as agroforestry can occur (Cromley, 404). In the modern world,some of the products in zone two can also be found in zone 5 andother zones. The current situation of agriculture indicates thatagricultural activities are unrestricted in nature. Therefore, themodel should create room for the changes in agricultural practicethat may occur with the changing times.

Lastly,Von Thunen’s model also fails to consider the possibility of havingdifferent markets for the farm produce. In the model, the flow ofagricultural products to the market is unidirectional (Beckmann, 2).In the real situation, however, farm produce have different marketsother than the central city. The model fails to indicate thispossibility thus making it weak.


VonThunen model of the geography of agriculture fails to represent theever-changing picture of agriculture adequately. The model fails torecognize other means of transport, and possibilities that might becreated by is also restrictive and fails to appreciatethat different markets can exist for the agricultural produce.


Beckmann,Martin J. &quotVon Thünen revisited: a neoclassical land usemodel.&quot The Swedish

Journalof Economics (2012): 1-7.

Cromley,Robert G. &quotThe Von Thünen Model and Environmental Uncertainty.&quotAnnalsof the Association of American Geographers72.3 (2013): 404-10. Web. 29 Oct. 2016.

Stutz,Frederick, and Barney Warf. TheWorld Economy: Geography, Business, Development.Boston, MA: Prentice Hall, 2012. Print.

Student`s Name


Inlife, we try our best to discover ourselves, but very often do ourtalents go unnoticed due to the social norms that are deeply rootedin our societies. I remember when I was young, I thought that beingan engineer, pilot, captain, detective, military personnel or apresident were the only lucrative careers that one had to pursue tobe successful apart from being a celebrity. As a result, I almost didforsake my interest in music as I said that I would never besuccessful in it. These words are still vivid in my mind because Isaid them with so much conviction since I was tired pretending that Idid not hear my classmates laugh at me each time I tried to sing witha polyp in my throat.

Itwas also the day I gave up on learning to play instruments, choosingto leave that part of my life behind. That went on until the 8thgrade when my phone’s default alarm tone turned my mind back tomusic. Curiosity drove me to find out whose tone it was, and Idiscovered it was Canon D by Johann Pachelbel. No one, even myparents or close friends noticed that I was interested in musicdespite, my talks being characterized with an appreciation of variouspieces. Regardless of being great in other subjects, I felt thatthere was something that was missing in my life. I think this mightbe the reason why I found myself interested in my phone’s tone,which opened my way back to my dream, and I do not regret.

Atthat time, I noticed that there were many variations that I wouldlisten to. I developed an entirely new interest in the genre,something I thought would be impossible when I was fourteen yearsago. Music to me is something magical that I cannot explain. Mypassion for music is a drive from within that if I were to choosebetween a well-paying job and a comfortable earning from music, Iwould take the latter. The reason I consider this whole episode asimportant in my life though it has gone unnoticed for a while is thatit has opened up my mind on how I perceive things. I have become sogood at playing instruments like a piano by perseverance and beingpersistent. This life moment has taught me that whatever I wanted toachieve I would get if I committed myself.

SometimesI am tempted to find my classmates who laughed at me and show themwhat I have managed to achieve. I often find peace and solace inmusic, especially when I need to be away from stressful scenarios orthose moments that I feel disappointed in life. Furthermore, I havelearned to pass time constructively by learning new pieces of music,which seem difficult. When you learn a piece that is challenging,there is a great sense of satisfaction and fulfillment that isassociated with its mastery which brings peace and joy in your life.In this process, I have learned how to be patient and responsible bymanaging time.

Anotherimportant lesson that I learned in playing the piano was that youcould achieve anything as long as your heart was completely committedto that act and you believed in yourself. As a result, I have learnedthat I need to have self-esteem to be able to move above beingridiculed and looked down upon by other people. I had stopped havingan interest in music because my friends laughed at me and the factthat this interest was not nurtured while I was young.

Asa result of my hobby, I have interacted with many people who hadclose to the similar experience as mine and we have shared storiesand became friends with strong bonds in music. As a consequence, Ihave traveled across many states attending concerts and learning fromexperiences due to my passion. Thus, music has shaped me into a moreeducated individual who cherishes opportunities of practicing andexploring different aspects of life and staying committed to thecourse, despite the hardship I face in life.

Student`s name

Student’s Last Name 3


ResearchPaper: Interview Summary and Analysis

Thispaper offers a summary and analysis of an interview conducted by theresearcher on the managing director of Loxim Polymers Pvt Ltd, Mr.Cannon Patel. The company is based in Ahmedabad, India and it dealswith Engineering Plastics Compounds also known as granules. Thecompounds are used in processes of Injection Molding and are suppliedto some high-end markets including but not limited to the automotive,electrical and electronics, lighting and other consumer goodsindustries based in India and other regions like Europe, the MiddleEast, China, and areas of South East Asia.

and analysis of the interview

Theinformation sought by the interview process relates to the marketingmechanisms of the businesses. The conversation with Mr. Patel wasnatural and enjoyable, even though it was unrehearsed. There were noany pre-constructed or predetermined opening and closing statements.The interviewee Mr. Patel identifies himself as a professionalbusiness manager. He acts in a professional and polite manner and hasways of making his listeners feel important and respected. He beginsby giving a brief overview of the company, indicating that it hasbeen in business for ten years. He is committed to ensuring thebusiness performs the best it can via efficient management ofoperations and marketing. Patel considers the company to be a mediumsized company so far, it has annual revenue that reaches $60million. The interviewee seemed considerate about company’s valuechain that determines its delivery of products. He reiterated thatLoxim Polymer delivers its goods to system suppliers like Delphi andHella among others. The system vendors then deliver the goods to theclients or OEM that are companies like Toyota, General Motors, FORDand Philips among others.

Inelaborating about the business perspective of the company, Mr. Patelensured to offer in-depth information regarding why the company wasformed in the first place. He mentioned that, ten years ago, Indiahad a 5kg per capita consumption when it came to engineeringplastics. What is more is that at the time, the global average percapita consumption of the product was 30 kgs, even as the consumptionof countries in the European Union (EU) and the United States stoodat 100 kgs. As such, a huge gap would facilitate a massive growthpossibility for a startup company in the country. This situationformed the primary motivation behind the initiative of starting upLoxim Polymers Pvt Ltd.

Accordingto the interviewee, venturing into the market was not a difficulttask for the company because there was an apparent need for a localservice provider in the country that was flexible and able to chargereasonable prices. Undeniably, this was an opportunity for thestartup company to exploit. What is more is that the competitors thatexisted were multinational corporations (MNCs) like GE Plastics,BASF, DSM, and Dupont. Apparently, these MNCs did not charge veryfair prices for the product, besides being inflexible in their supplychains. Then again, it is worth mentioning that utilization ofplastic material for purposes of light weighting of automobiles orvehicles and motorcycles, regarding metal replacement, was becomingan issue of great concern on the global level. It must be rememberedthat such procedures go a long way in reducing fuel consumption bythe vehicles. As such, the interviewee reiterated that the situationalso formed an invaluable opportunity for the startup company.

Also,the interviewee was keen to mention another aspect that was a driverof the firm into business, another opportunity. The end productmarkets in the country (India) were growing at a rate of 10% to 15%per annum. These markets mainly included those of the automotiveindustry as mentioned before in this paper, lighting industry, homeelectrical, household items and other domestic goods. Anotherimportant aspect that the interviewee put across was that the laborcosts in India are small as compared to those in other countriesaround the world and the working methods involved are also flexiblein nature. As such, the company had strength of low costs ofproduction, which would enable it to take advantage of opportunity ofrealizing more exports to the West

Asindicated before, Loxim Polymers has customers in some professionalfields. Even so, the interviewee ensured to elaborate the range ofclients in more detail. For the automotive industry, he mentionedthat the company provides engineering plastic products for fourwheelers and two wheelers as well. In the lighting industry, theysupply products for LED and CFL developments. For the electrical, thecompany’s products are used by makers of switches and MCB, whilethey are used for mobile phones and chargers in the electronicssector. For home items they are used by makers of furniture likechairs, consumer durables involve things like TV sets and fridges.The plastic products are also used for development of garden items inaddition to other home tools.

Regardingmarketing of the firm’s products, Mr. Patel indicated that thecompany was keen to make use of some resources to achieve desirablecommercialization of their products. These tools help Loxim Polymersto identify and communicate with its customers in a direct andefficient manner. To begin with, Mr. Patel indicated that the companyengages forms of public advertisement via collaborations withlighting and automotive companies. The MD of the company was rationalin claiming that a good portion of the population gets to see the adsin newspapers or some other industry magazines. Then again, and asindicated by Mr. Patel, the company engages in broad measures ofindustry associations like electrical component associations andautomotive component manufacturing associations. Indeed, this provesto be a valuable method by which the company maintains a sense ofrelevance and growth in the market. Also, Mr. Patel indicated thatthe corporation staff always endeavors to visit various dealers inthe market they make official visits to showrooms like the Sears andCroma. It is evident for one to comprehend that such activitiesenable the company to be up-to-date with the needs of the market themembers of staff can also inform clients about improvements in theirproduct lines.

Accordingto Mr. Patel, other means by which advertising is achieved in Indiais via erection of billboards along roads and highways. Even thoughthis is a conventional method of publicity, the MD seemed convincedthat it was also effective. Mr. Patel indicated that the companyengages in digital marketing tools on the internet. The staff ofLoxim Polymers is also involved in activities of theLocalChamber of commerce within the country as indicated by theinterviewee. They also attend Global Plastics fairs now and then.

Toensure that the company maintains good relations with the customers,Mr. Patel indicates that it makes constant inquiries from them evenas it does the same with molders for purposes of quality assurance.It also emerges that word of mouth and other forms of feedback fromcustomers are elements of great significance to the company. For thisreason, Mr. Patel highlighted that the company ensures to relay anyimportant or relevant information from suppliers to the customers.Seemingly, and owing to the information from the interviewee, thecompany maintains a sense of networking among its employees,suppliers, and the customers altogether. Undeniably, such representsan invaluable resource for the organization, which is well maintainedon the web-based platform of the company. This platform of theinternet also proves useful since it traverses existent geographicalsegmentations.

Abouthow the company segments its customers, the interviewee pointed outthat the firm has some metrics in place that enable it to deal withdifferent groupings of customers effectively and efficiently. Inparticular, as it occurred to the interviewer, the company putsclients in categories the first one is based on the products usageor purpose, which may be electrical, home use or automotive amongothers. Again, the company segments the customers according to theirlocation or region domestically they are grouped as north, south,east and west. There is also the approach of segments of the type ofproduct (polymer) used as well as the pricing of the differentproducts as low, medium and high. Additionally, there are segments ofthe services needed (regarding short and long lead times) and therequired quality of products (low, medium and high). Lastly are thesegments of nature of support for logistics (like a local warehousein the city or other) and the technical assistance required. From theabove information, it was evident to the interviewer that the companyhad put measures in place to ensure precise and reliable segmentationof its customers. Such serves to enable efficiency in handling theorganization’s operations as they relate to its distribution chain.Such segmentation also assures a sense of reliable metrics fortracking the progress of the firm’s performance, ensuring customersatisfaction and achievement of smooth management operations. In thecourse of explaining the aspects of customer segmentation, theinterviewee seemed so confident that the company’s business has hada significant impact on both the domestic and international marketsof engineering plastics. The interviewee also appears to believe thatthe members of his organization were people of advanced expertise,especially regarding handling company’s operations and marketing ofthe products. Furthermore, it emerged to the interviewer that thesocial impact of the business was also high in the larger market. It,therefore, comes as no surprise that the firm does well regardingachieving some desirable levels of sales.

Theinterviewee was then asked to elaborate on how the company positionsits products in the market. Without even taking the time to thinkabout the query, Mr. Patel began to inform on the features thecompany uses for the important endeavor. To start, he reiterated thatthe firm offers its products at very reasonable prices compared toits competitors that are MNCs. Even so, the MD was keen to mentionthat despite the fair prices, the quality of their products is alwaysgood and at par with that of the MNCs in the market. What is more isthat Loxim Polymers has the capability of offering customers thequality of products that they desire, a point that was hinted earlierin this paper. Besides, the company hardly asks for high minimumorder quantities from customers with the understanding that some ofthem keep low inventory as a norm. Mr. Patel also added that thecompany’s nature of business has the capability of offeringrelatively short lead times, products in color of customerpreference, all necessary certifications, and packaging by directionsof the customer. One cannot decline to note that the company operatesunder a business strategy of putting the customer first theirsatisfaction and preferences are the main determining factors for thenature of the firm’s operation. In some way, the intervieweedemonstrated that Loxim Polymers focuses on evaluating the differentneeds that different customers have in conducting business with thecompany. Such implies that the company operates under a reliable,robust and astute business strategy of reliability and flexibility.Without any doubt, the interviewee demonstrated the quality of quicklearning from experience in both the domestic and internationalmarkets for the product.

Fromthe dialogue with Mr. Patel, it was clear that he was confident thatLoxim Polymers’ strategic approach would ensure that the companywould continue to grow and develop over time. He added that thecompany offers special services to its clients for specially designedengineered components. Such services are mostly employed in timeswhen a company launches a new product. Mr. Patel gave examples bysaying the business can come up with special color products for a newphone by a mobile company or special low weight products for a newcar model to enable it to reduce its fuel consumption. Also, thecompany offers local warehousing for products of short lead-times.Indeed, such assures the company a sense of customer loyalty in thelong-term (Wagner, Jönke, &amp Eisingerich, 70).

Theinterviewee also indicated that the corporation maintains a set ofcommunication tools for interaction with customers. He was adamantthat the sales and marketing personnel, exhibitions, market surveys,and the distributors formed important platforms for interacting withcustomers. Mr. Patel also mentioned that the company engages inmarket surveys, internet-based surveys (like andspecial training seminars for customers. What is more is that LoximPolymers seeks customers’ opinion and feedback whenever it plans tolaunch a new product for purposes of determining what is expected.This implies a sense of significant research and development activityfor product development.

Regardingthe challenges that the firm faced regarding market research, Mr.Patel was honest by indicating that the clients sometimes place theirexpectations too high. Indeed, it is challenging for the company tooffer high-quality brands of a product with low prices (Hitt,Ireland, &amp Hoskisson, 24) the interviewer could not help butagree with the MD about that challenge. Nevertheless, Mr. Patel alsomentioned that clients sometimes fail to be truthful in theirresponses during times of market research. Like many other businessactivities, conduction of market research always has some significantchallenges.


Theinterviewer was able to come up with some recommendations to thecompany after the interview process. Primarily, Loxim Polymers oughtto focus on establishing a strong brand considering that it is arelatively young company in the market. Then again, the companyshould involve customers during the early stages of productdevelopment while making considerations of offering some freeservices for instance designing of an enticing product like asubstitute plastic chair for a wooden one. Finally, there is a needfor the company to come up with environmentally friendly products,over and above being cost effective.


Hitt,Michael A., R. Duane Ireland, and Robert E. Hoskisson.&nbspStrategicmanagement cases: competitiveness and globalization.Cengage Learning, 2012.

Wagner,Stephan M., Ruben Jönke, and Andreas B. Eisingerich. &quotAstrategic framework for spare parts logistics.&quot&nbspCaliforniamanagement review&nbsp54.4(2012): 69-92.

Student`s name



Macbethis playwright done in the Renaissance period. It focused mainly onhuman greed for power. The playwright outlines the psychological andphysical effect of political ambition. Macbeth is the majorprotagonist in the play. He received prophesy from the trio witchesthat he will one day become a King. He murders King Duncan and takesthe throne. He commits more murders to save himself from suspicionand hostility. The desire for power leads to neglect

ofmoral responsibility. Macbeth kills many people to attain power

Macbethaction and deeds prove that he is a real replica of human beings. Heis envious when King Duncan announces that his son Malcolm will bethe next king Macbeth is filled with furry and becomes frustrated. Heis worried that the prophecy of the witches will not come to pass. Heis jealousy that Malcolm will be the next king and decides to killthe father so that he may not pass the kingdom to his son.” That Idid kill them” (ACT1, scene7)’But screw your courage to thesticking place” (Act1, scene5), In day to day life, human beingsare envious over the success of others, and they will always try topull others down. Male counterparts will never accept any challengefrom women. They try their best to show their superiority to thewomen. Macbeth is most human when masculinity is scorned and put downby his wife. Macbeth feels challenged and decided to put the matterinto his hands. In collaboration with his wife, he plots on how tokill Duncan. Pride is another reflector of human beings. It alwaysleads to tragic fall of people. In Act four, scene one, he returns tothe witches of his treaty. His pride and confidence bring his fall.

Macbethis to blame for the deaths that happen in the play because he acceptsthe challenge to kill King Duncan. Macbeth after the successfulmurder his personality increases and commits more murders. When hismasculinity is challenged, he wakes up and plots many deaths to claimhis throne[ CITATION wil l 1033 ].He kills more to prove himself to his wife and justify conscience.Lady Macbeth is not to blame for the deaths she is used to luringher husband into the killing. &quotI laid their daggers ready(Act2,scene 2)”Shakespeare seems to use her to awaken Macbeth idea thatmen are the pillars dare do all that may become a man” Act 1, Scene7).Lady Macbeth implies that women can be more ambitious but cannever pursue the ambitions themselves.

Bloodin the play is significantly used to reflect the loss of humanity inMacbeth and Lady Macbeth. Blood is used to show the heroism andvictories of Macbeth. In Macbeth “What bloody man is that?” (Act1.2.1) Macbeth uses the word more often in his dialogues.The meaningof the word blood seems to revolve to revolve around Macbeth`skilling and the suffering he has caused to many people.&quotBleedpoor country&quot some kills seem to be painted blood and afterblood is mentioned the killings continue as to justify the goodnessof killing.At the mention of the word blood, the speaker appears tobe unrepentant and more powerful than before.

InMacbeth, we learn different morals that we should always have to keepour heart at peace. The character like Lady Macbeth teaches us thatwe will never be at peace at the expense of people`s joy.


Schoenbaum, ed Macbeth: critical essays, Routledge 2015

Student`s Name

Anti-GunControl for International Students

Theproposed law on gun control mandates that firearms must be kept awayfrom individuals. However, if enacted, the policy will targetinternational students mostly. Many people believe that the controlon gun ownership within campus premises is essential. The groupreasons that this measure will be the best way to reduce the numberof college student deaths. They think that the international scholarsinitiate most of the killings. Furthermore, whenever some people hearthat a foreign learner is in possession of a gun, they begin tospeculate violence (Squires23).One the other hand, anti-gun control activists believe thatestablishing measures to dictate who can own guns is wrong because itshows signs of discrimination against non-citizens. It is not fairbecause in most cases, the foreign scholars are not the instigatorsof these deaths (Spitzer 3). While many people accept that guncontrol on international students is right, this essay discussesreasons why the measure is pointless and should be abolished toreduce discrimination against non-citizen students.

Accordingto the book, “Politicsof gun control,”the international students, regardless of them being few in numbers,are relatively less dangerous compared to their American counterparts(Spitzer 4). The author argues that that the minority groups may havepersonal issues but this does not mean that they are likely to goaround firing bullets at people. Students are curious on the equalmeasure when it comes to owning firearms. However, this may not makethe international scholars more ready to direct their personalproblems to innocent publics. According to a study by the Office ofDelinquency Prevention, the foreign students come to America withguns with the aim of defense and not necessarily to inflict pain onanyone (Spitzer 3). On the other hand, Americans obtain gunsunlawfully and tend to commit crimes more often. This is an indicatorthat instead of barring the foreigners from ownership of concealedfirearms, the law should otherwise restrict the American studentsfrom owning guns. On every occasion that an international scholar issuspected for the death of a colleague, the outcome of investigationis always that the murder is linked to firearm accidents duringdefense and not intentional shootings. Besides, most of the deathsare usually associated with accidental burns and swimming pooldrowning than guns. A case scenario with the issue of gunscontroversy is Tennessee State University where only 10% of thestudents are from oversea. The rest are Americans (Spitzer 4). Mostof these foreign students carry firearms to college for self-defensebecause they are the common targets of most of the police involvedshootings and even other forms of maltreatment. Their smallpopulation is a depiction of the number of deaths that they caninitiate in case the accusations are anything to go by. In thisview, international students may have guns and bring them to collegecampus with no any intention for violence but safety.

Campusesshould not limit the possession of guns on the basis of nationality.Foreigners are found to be the most law-abiding individuals. Theimplication is that they would rarely commit homicide, burglary, orany other forms of violence. The law needs only to regulateforeigners who possess firearms but have been detained and foundguilty of violence. Rather than controlling who can own guns, thereshould be misconduct regulatory systems that look at an individual’scriminal history before one can be denied a chance for self-defense. In the year 2014, the American Justice Department noted that therewere more than 660 criminal gangs in universities, but the number ofinternational students in these groups was not even 2% (Squires29). Moreover, instituting gun control measures may not be the solutionto crime because lawbreakers could still know of better ways ofacquiring weapons and keeping them more privately. Guns are readilyavailable in black markets where they are made and sold illegally.Most foreign students may not regard the American gun policiesbecause they have the mindset presented by the 2011 Supreme Courtruling that the régime lacks specific ways to defend individualsfrom unforeseen crime. In the American universities, there are almost20,000 violent criminalities committed yearly, but only 10% of suchcases involve the victims’ use of guns (Spitzer 4). As a result,firearms in the hands of civilized individuals are aimed forself-protection and not misconduct.

Ifthe law is enacted, it would be unjust for the international studentsbecause it is a show of discrimination. When the state barsnon-citizen students from carrying guns around campus, it portraysthat these individuals are less human beings and do not need toprotect themselves from any unanticipated danger. The U.S. tries, byevery means, to limit the foreign scholars from the possession offirearms. Sometimes, they are even restricted from the legalacquisition of concealed gun licenses. It raises the question ofwhether or not the matter of self-protection also pertains to them(Spitzer 6). Gun lobbyists contend that holding the weapons incampus premises is an issue of assurance since foreigners are equallyhumans to shield themselves from danger. When the college lawsdictate that international students must not have private firearms,it would be the same thing as saying that these individuals do nothave the similar rights with the locals. In other terms, it wouldimply that the state does not value the foreigners’ points of view(McCreary45).To some degree, it may be true that the voices of non-citizens do notmatter considering the many decisions that are made without theinvolvement of foreign stakeholders. It may continue like this for aslong as the non-citizens think of ways to make things work for theirside (Squires31).They have to speak and make themselves be reconsidered. Also, thereis the need to sensitize lawmakers and make them conscious of thefact that foreign students are only forced by circumstances to ownguns in campus.

However,if gun control is implemented as a law, there will be regulation ofthe militia that tends to act against the armies. The enactment willbe significant for the realization of a free state. Additionally, ifit becomes a policy, the government will find ease in ensuring thatit meets the rights of the security personnel. The key aim of thedefense force is to safeguard the interests of the nation fromforeign inversion. In this view, the armies and police officers willeasily carry out their security mandates (Squires21).Also, if the gun control bill is transformed into law, only themilitary groups would have the authority to protect theadministration and the interests of the nation.

Althoughguns are believed to be the cause of many killings in Americanuniversities, they are also important in saving lives. It is for thepurposes of security that the non-citizen students opt for thefirearms. Guns save millions of people’s lives yearly when they areused safely for self-defense. American students have the highest rateof firearm possession. The non-citizens are only accused, but thereis no evidence to prove that they use their guns to instigateviolence. Guns have been a topic of controversy and it has led humanrights activists losing in the courts due to public opinion (Squires23).The only circumstance when the weapons may be considered illegal iswhen they are in possession of convicted criminals. In this view, anystudent in America has the right to carry a gun because of the needfor self-protection. Undeniably, the situations in the U.S. collegecampuses are distinctive, and nationality checks are not of help.


Spitzer,Robert J. Politics of gun control. Routledge, 2015.print

Squires,Peter.&nbspGunCulture Or Gun Control?: Firearms and Violence: Safety and Society. Routledge, 2012.print

McCreary,Jana R. &quot`Mentally Defective`Language in the Gun ControlAct.&quotConnecticutLaw Review&nbsp45.3 (2013).print

Student`s Name

Stock Market Crash1929

The stock market crash of 1929 started on October 24 when investorstraded 16 million shares in one day. Although this was not the solereason behind the great depression, it played a pivotal role inworsening the situation (Federal Reserve History). During the 1920s,the United States stock market experienced rapid growth, but itreached its epitome in August 1929. The rapid growth was a result ofthe wild speculation and as such, immediately before October 24,1929, stocks were in great excess of their value. For example, withinthe nine months preceding the crash, the Dow Jones share increased invalue tenfold (Federal Reserve History).

On March 25, 1929, a mini-crash occurred. This was a result of theFederal Reserve warning investors against the excessive speculation.Following the warning, a large number of investors panicked andstarted to sell their stocks at a very fast pace revealing themarket’s shaky foundation. Despite several problems facing theeconomy, the stock market recovered from the mini crash. The pricesfor the various shares started to increase rapidly through June,July, and August. The decline in stock prices started in Septemberuntil the first half of October 1929 (Public BroadcastingCorporation).

In an effort to salvage the situation, leading bankers andinvestment companies bought up massive amounts of stock. However,their efforts moderated the market only for a day. On Monday, theprice started to decrease again, and on Tuesday the market collapsedcompletely (Federal Reserve History). On March 27, 1929, a banker bythe name Charles E. Mitchell reported that his company the NationalCity Bank would give loans worth $25 million to individuals whowould be willing to invest in the stock market. For some days,Mitchell`s declaration brought short-lived relief to the financialpredicament facing the stock exchange market. However, the economycontinued to deteriorate. This is because several key sectors such asthe automobile, steel production, and construction industries werefacing financial problems.

On September 20, 1929, the London Stock Exchange crashed. Thecrashing of this market led to the imprisonment of one of the leadingBritish investor Clarence Hatry together with several of hisassociates for forgery and fraud. The collapse of the London StockExchange marked the onset of the decline of the New York Stock marketas it made investors lose optimism on Americans companies that hadinvestments outside the country. Following the collapse of the stockmarket, a group of the top Wall Street bankers held a meeting to findsolutions to the chaos and panic on the trading floor. The groupagreed to have Richard Whitney transact on their behalf. Whitneywent ahead to purchase a large portion of shares belonging to the U.SSteel. He ensured that he bought the shares at a price way above thecurrent market value. At this point, investors were just watching.Whitney went ahead to buy at higher price stocks belonging to otherblue chip companies. In doing so, Whitney was adopting a strategythat helped bring to an end the 1907 stock market panic (Ohio HistoryCentral).

However, over the weekend newspaper across the country covered theevents of the possible collapse of the market. This resulted in moreinvestors leaving the market on Monday, October 28, 1929. However,the following day, which came to be known as the Black Tuesday,investors sold some 16 million shares. During that day some stocksdid not have even a single buyer at any price. William C. Durant onOctober 29, 1929, together with some members of the Rockefellerfamily as well as other rich investors sought to buy large volumes ofstocks as a way of demonstrating to the citizens their trust in themarkets. However, their efforts did not bear any positive fruits asinvestors continued to sell a large portion of their shares such thaton October 29, the ticker stopped running about 7:45 p.m. On this dayalone, the market lost $14 billion (Public Broadcasting Service).

The other causes of the stock exchange crash of 1929 included thelow wages that reduced the consumer spending power. Also, the economyexperienced a proliferation of debt. At the same time, theagriculture industry was getting weaker. This was a result of asignificant number of Americans migrating to the cities in search ofgreener pastures, leaving only a handful of people to work on thefarms. By 1932, stocks had lost about 80% of their value at thebeginning of the crash (Ohio History Central). One year later, almosthalf of banks in America had failed while unemployment affected 30%of the workforce.By the time Franklin Roosevelt was beinginaugurated as the U.S president in March 1933, depositors had lost$140 billion. Consequently, President Roosevelt ordered the closureof all banks across the country for three days. After the three dayholiday ended, some banks cautiously opened, but had strict limits onwithdrawals (Public Broadcasting Service).

In conclusion, the stock market crash of 1929 marked the onset of theGreat Depression, which lasted for ten years and which haddetrimental effects on the economies of all the Westernindustrialized countries.The stock market did not recover until1933 when the financial institutions started operating normally. Themarket crash was triggered by the excessive speculation in the marketwhich resulted in most of the stock being highly overvalued. Besides,other areas of the economy such as the industries and the agriculturesector had declined triggering the unemployment rates to surge. Theeffects of these problems were felt in the stock market when traderssold 16 million shares in one day following public panic andinvestors’ loss of confidence in the American companies. Most ofthe strategies adopted by key stakeholders to salvage the situationdid not help much.

Work Cited

Federal Reserve History. “Stock Market Crash of 1929.” FederalResearch History. 2013. Web. Accessed on October 27, 2016.

Ohio History Central. “Stock Market Crash of 1929. Ohio HistoryCentral. 2014. Web. Accessed on October 28, 2016.

Public Broadcasting Service. &quotThe Stock Market.&quot PublicBroadcasting Service. 2015. Web Accessed on October 28, 2016.

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Hybrid/FusionMusic and global media, culture and modern day society

ResearchQuestion:What is the influence of Hybrid/Fusion Music like Hip-Hop on globalmedia, culture and modern day society?

Relevance:One cannot decline to note that the world of today operates as onevillage wherein everything and everyone is influencing each other.With developments of advanced technology, persons on any part of theglobe can easily achieve real-time communication. Such describes thegrowth and development of globalization, which influences almost allaspects of life and music is not an exception (Savage, &amp Steven,149). The resultant effect is that social boundaries are blurringsignificantly between the different regions of the world owing to theestablishment of a stable global media. An important aspect toremember is that music, as an art, is a representation of theparamount manifestations in human communities from a socialperspective. Even though people of different regions of the worldoperate in various forms of cultural principles and conditions oflife, some potent types of music tend to bring them together as acommon interest. This piece of research focuses on howhip-hop music as a hybrid music establishes an elaboration of howglobal media has an influence on different people from various partsof the modern-day world.

Tobegin with, it is important to understand the meaning of some termsused in this research. World music refers to music classificationthat is characterized by a combination of popular styles from aroundthe world (Frith, 305). From this perspective, it is evident for oneto observe that world music contrasts in meaning with traditionalmusic or rather folk music which is that of a particular or specificgeographical region. For most people around the world and mostly theyouth in urban centers, world music is that which they consider asglamorous. For the most part, and over time, a good number of hip-hopsongs have been considered as world music. Times have changed, andhip-hop is also widely considered as hybrid music.

Alook at the English word “hybrid” shows that it means blending ormixing two different things or elements. From an in-depthperspective, hip-hop has mixed people of many ethnicities on theplatform of the backgrounds of people that have engaged in therecording of songs of the hip-hop genre around the world. Inactuality, much collaboration has been made between hip-hop artistsand those of other genres that are local in some other areas of theworld. As such and undeniably, the penetration of hybrid music inareas of the world brings different people together.

Onecannot decline that hip-hop music is characterized by immense levelsof global fusion. The genre of hybrid music is prevalent in manycountries of the world, similar to the other kind of music that isReggae music. Even in the developing countries, the hip-hop music isobserved as one with many fans and followers. A good reference pointto that ideology is the fact that hip-hop stars have enjoyed highlevels of fans in countries all over the world (Gray, 4). Forinstance, stars like Tupac are remembered for influencing the mannerin which youths and young adults determined patterns of their dresscodes in many countries of the world.

Guilbault(32) explains that hybrid music in the global media is highlyresponsible for transnational connections that people in the worldhave established so far. Owing to commonplace understanding, onecannot decline to note that the art of music represents a mostsalient issue that associates with human societies. Indeed, andduring times of social gatherings, be it formal or informal, music isusually employed as the preferred form of entertainment more than theothers that exist. Even in cases where the entertainment is achievedvia forms like drama, dance or acrobatic performances, music isalways present.

Fromanother perspective, fusion music is normally the preferred type ofmusic in most social gatherings simply because it reaches out to themost number of people compared to other kinds of music. It institutesenduring processes of social interactions among people of diversecultures how they interact and identify with each other (Appadurai,284). Stokes (49), refers to the scenario as one that establishes an“ethnomusicological account of globalization,” one that has grownrapidly in the recent past.

Itis also true that a person of a particular culture can easily getbored of listening to the same kind of music at all times. For thisreason, and according to common understanding, fusion music tends tobe more interesting that traditional folk music to many people aroundthe world (Connell, &amp Chris, 344). The fact that composers ofmusic are increasingly mashing up different musical genres alsoimplies that they have an opportunity or two to learn something ortwo about the norms of another culture that are different from theirs(Siapera, 26). Even though such blends existed in the past, they werevery rare and or occasional. An excellent example of a combination ofgenres is an instance where the Beatles incorporated some forms ofIndian music in one of their compositions. Such occurrences bringabout the subject matter of Epistemology of music, which refers tothe ability of a musician to be part or engage in musical activity ina manner of those of another culture, acquiring and disseminatingmeaning in a musical sense. Many music pieces have been establishedon such a platform. For instance, American rapper Rick Ross engagedin collaboration with Nigeria artists P-Square in a musical form thatwas embedded in the Nigerian style of music. Additionally, meaningcan be signified by music in the context of other societal norms likereligion. In such a case (of religion), the piece or composition istermed “Ritual music,” and it implies a direct impact of music onthe culture of the people. Important to mention is that there aremany religious songs out there, which are of the hip-hop genre-conceivably the most in comparison to the other genres (Gray, 54).

Whenit comes to globalization, it is important to mention that theconcept refers to the integration of the countries of the world toform an international community. The idea of globalization alsoimplies sharing of worldviews and or ideas about phenomena ofinterest. Important to note is that music forms one of the strongestcommunication platforms on which information can be disseminated tothe people. As aforementioned, the spread and acceptance of dominanttypes of music in all areas of the world imply that global mediaremains the main avenue for the achievement of globalization in theworld today. In as much as the people continue with the practice ofsome if not a few of their conventional cultural norms, global mediahas brought about a sense of the world culture via the platform ofmusic. In the world of today, it is easy and common for people ofdifferent backgrounds to interact and even identify with others froma very diverse ethnic background as shown by a range ofanthropological studies (Stokes, 47). Undeniably, there are strongrationales that can help one comprehend the sudden and widespreadissue of globalization and disregard for popular culture. Theserationales owe their impact on the spread of hybrid music in theworld (Tenzer74).Some issues of concern that can be addressed by hybrid or fusionissues are matters like cultural imperialism and cultural dominance(Siapera, 46). Needless to say, however, the music platforms are notonly used to address issues of a biased or oppressive nature but alsoothers regarding matters like education, encouragement, andentertainment among other things. There are some concernsnevertheless especially when it comes to aspects of language.Undeniably, English is the most widely used language in global mediaand specifically in the global music industry since countries thatspeak the language are many in comparison to those of other languagesindependently (Connell, &amp Chris, 352). In a good number of caseswhere the culture of the West was observed to be merging with that ofanother country or region, the latter came to be acquired or lost inthe process (Emmerson44).Also, some musicians have been known for stealing and takingadvantages of the ideas of others in the industry, especially thosefrom other regions and using them for their own selfish benefit.

Toscholars of social anthropology, the effect of hybrid music has asignificant impact on ethnography and description of modes ofengagement among persons of different cultural backgrounds (Rice,102). For this reason, the general perspective of Stokes is thatthere is a need for musical globalization- an approach that wouldserve to contextualize styles and genres that traverse culturalboundaries and establish histories that are more significant andinstitutional sites or management organs (Connell, &amp Chris, 358).Some other scholars observe that since world culture does not exist,there can be no world music but there can be hybrid music that canthrive (Brennan. 45 Ackbar, 34). Such an approach would be suitablefor the neoliberal economic world of today wherein world music wouldbe a more valuable product in markets around the world. What is moreis that such an approach offers potential for the totality ofcompensation in the global music industry since the best product willbe the one to receive the best returns (Czekaj55).Then again, hybrid music, as of now, offers a precise and reliablepanoramic specter of the global media industry. According toPapastergiadis (40), hybridity not only has potential of elevatingenlightenment to new levels of accessibility but also to moredirections of movement. Since globalization has made people, moreinterconnected, global media culture would more likely incorporateother forms of contemporary art in its network and flows owing toworld music globalization. &nbsp

Inconclusion, this paper establishes that hybrid or fusion music likehip-hop have a significant influence of on global media, culture andthe modern day societies of the world. Even though there may be someadverse effects like absorption and loss of some cultures, thebenefits are still vast and cannot be disregarded. As mentioned inthis paper, institutions or management organs can be established toensure that the adverse effects do not see the light of the day andthat fusion music forms a platform for the establishment of excellenthistories for the people of the world.


AckbarAbbas, Faking Globalization, in Other Cities, Other Worlds, ed. A.Huyssen (Durham, NC: Duke UP, (2008).

Appadurai,Arjun. &quotDisjuncture and difference in the global culturaleconomy 1990.&quot&nbspCulturaltheory: An anthology&nbsp2011(2011): 282-295.

Brennan,Timothy. &quotWorld music does not exist.&quot&nbspDiscourse&nbsp23.1(2001): 44-62.

Connell,John, and Chris Gibson. &quotWorld music: deterritorializing placeand identity.&quot&nbspProgressin Human Geography&nbsp28.3(2004): 342-361.

Frith,Simon. &quotThe discourse of world music.&quot&nbspWesternmusic and its others: Difference, Representation, and appropriationin music&nbsp(2000):305-22.

Guilbault,Jocelyne. &quotInterpreting world music: a challenge in theory andpractice.&quot&nbspPOPULARMUSIC-CAMBRIDGE-&nbsp16(1997): 31-44.

Gray,John. Hip Hop studies an international bibliography and resourceguide. African&nbspDiaspora Studies. 2016.&nbsp

Papastergiadis,Nikos. &quotHybridity and ambivalence places and flows incontemporary art and Culture.&quot&nbspTheory,culture &amp society&nbsp22.4(2005): 39-64.

Rice,Timothy. &quotEthnomusicological theory.&quot&nbspYearbookfor traditional music 42(2010): 100-134.

Savage,Patrick E., and Steven Brown. &quotToward a new comparativemusicology.&quot&nbspAnalyticalApproaches to World Music&nbsp2.2(2013): 148-197.

Siapera,Eugenia.&nbspCulturaldiversity and global media: The mediation of difference.John Wiley &amp Sons, 2010.

Stokes,Martin. &quotMusic and the global order.&quot&nbspAnnualReview of Anthropology(2004): 47-72.

Czekaj,Jef.&nbspHip &amp Hop, Don`t Stop!. New York:Disney/Hyperion Books, 2010. Print.

Emmerson,Simon.&nbspMusic, Electronic Media, And Culture. 2nd ed.Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011. Print.

Tenzer,Michael.&nbspAnalytical Studies In World Music. 2nd ed.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

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What Gender FacesTougher Challenge these Days?

Although much has changed regarding the society’s perception ofgender-based roles, I think that women still face tougher challengesthese days. The nature of the female gender predisposes women to moredifficulties compared to their male counterparts. The challengeswomen face include balancing career and parenthood, sexual harassmentin the workplace, and few opportunities for career growth anddevelopment. Besides, the society has set the parenthood bar higherfor women compared to men.

First, even if more women are joining the men in the workplace, stillvery few of them are able to reach the highest levels of theircareers. According to Dishman, a study conducted by the RockefellerFoundation and Thomas Reuters Foundation found that 47% women inAmerica believe that men have better access to career growth andprofessional development opportunities. Throughout my entire life, Ihave not seen many women working as either the top executives or inthe management boards of huge companies. From my experience, themajority of women tend to be nurses and teachers. One of the reasonsthat may explain this phenomenon is that despite their level ofeducation and career achievement, women will have to request forseveral months of leave of absence (LOA) to give birth and take careof their children until they are comfortable leaving the latter witha house help. As women go on maternity leave, their male counterpartsare gaining more experience and education which increase theirchances of being promoted. Three years ago, my auntie delivered ababy at a time when the company where she worked in was in the middleof expanding its operations. When she was coming out of the maternityleave, she found that most of her former colleagues were departmentalheads in the newly established outlets.

Apart from having trouble accessing job growth and professionaldevelopment opportunities, women face more gender-based harassment intheir places of work that worsens their situation. According toDishman, 37% of women in the United States report having beingharassed in their places of work. Despite the high rate ofgender-based harassment in the workplace, women hardly report theseincidents. According to Dishman, 61% of women who says that theyhave experienced sexual harassment in their place of work have neverreported these incidents. One of the reasons that may explain the lowreporting rate among the female victims of sexual harassment is thatthe majority of those who occupy the senior positions are men. Assuch, it is highly unlikely that men will take action against one oftheir own in case charges of sexual harassment are brought to them bythe female co-workers. Besides, it is evident that a large proportionof women do not understand what constitute sexual harassment. Themajority of them interpret most verbal statements or uncalled-forphysical gestures soliciting sex from them as normal flirtations.

In most cases, the men are used as the standard for measuring thewomen’s level of performance. Besides, the few women who manage togo against all the odds to achieve the highest ranks in their careerreceive lower salaries compared to their male colleagues. Accordingto a research conducted by Thomas Reuters and Rockefeller Foundationin which 9,500 women participated, 58% of those who were interviewedsaid that the number one challenge to them is the wide gender-wagegap (Dishman). Even if women perform similar tasks as the men, theyare lowly remunerated. I remember reading an article from anewspaper several years ago about a woman who come to realize thather pay was lower compared to that of some of her juniors after thecompany where they worked in collapsed and they had to file a lawsuitto get their money.

Even if research shows that the number of stay-at-home fathers isincreasing steadily, mothers have the difficult job since they areharshly judged compared to fathers. According to a researchconducted by the Pew Research Center, about 70% of the public saythat mothers face more challenges today compared to 20-30 years ago.Apart from having to deal with the challenging work of raising theirbabies, the public judge mothers more harshly compared to fathers. Ina research conducted in 2007 by the Pew Research Center, 56% ofAmericans think that the today`s women way of parenting is worsecompared to 20-30 years ago. In comparison, only 47% think thatfathers are failing in their parenting job. Besides, men who takepart in parenting are highly rated mainly by women. As such, thestay-at-home fathers have an easy time with the society as they areappreciated. When I was in high school, only one father was inattendance compared to about 20 mothers during one of the impromptumeetings. I still recall how the man was praised by the principal andother women in attendance.

In conclusion, within the last half a century much has changed. Forexample, men are taking an active role in parenting. Some men evenstay at home taking care of their children while their wives go towork. On the other hand, more women are joining their malecounterparts in the workplaces. However, upon further investigation,women are facing tougher challenges both at work and in their homes.For example, in the workplace, women find it hard to achieve thehighest ranks in their careers as they have to spend a substantialamount of their time on pregnancy leave. Besides, women are lowlypaid and face more sexual harassment in the workplace. Additionally,despite women sacrificing their careers to take care of theirchildren they are harshly judged as poor parents. On the other hand,stay-at-home dads are highly rated, particularly by women. As such,women face tougher challenges these days as they have to provethemselves to the society both in the workplace and in their homes.Besides, the society has set the bar too high for women compared tomen.

Work Cited

Dishman, Lydia. “These are the biggest work challenges for womenaround the world.” Fast Company Leadership, October 13, 2016. Web.Accessed on October 22, 2016.

Pew Research Center. “Motherhood today: Tougher Challenges, LessSuccess.” Pew Research Center, May 2, 2011. Web. Accessed onOctober 22, 2016.

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Itis right that loneliness is associated with interpersonal problemsthat ought to be observed as health problems. In as much as one beingdelusional from reality characterizes extreme cases of loneliness,the general condition is supposed to be regarded as serious problemsof frustration of human needs. From another perspective, lonelinessposes as a threat and or force that unravel members of humansocieties around the world. Loneliness is not just a form ofisolation or deficiency as far as the social needs of a person areconcerned. Rather it is a kind of mental challenge. It is emptiness,imprisonment, and poverty of the self, the essential being of aperson, and a feeling of not being loved by others. A significantconcern about loneliness is that it is a feeling that can grow anddevelop in the inner self of a person until he or she becomessuicidal or a danger to others in the society (Patterson, &ampVeenstra, 181). It is interesting to note that a person can be aroundothers who do not feel lonely, yet his or her life is full ofloneliness. Lonely people often struggle with feelings of rejection.The resultant effect is that they are pessimistic about possibilitiesof establishing meaningful relationships with others- a situationthat easily leads to the development of depression (Hawkley &ampCacioppo, 220). From this perspective,it is evident for one to comprehend that loneliness affects people asa mental state.

Feelingsof Loneliness

Lonelypeople develop some other undesirable behavior patterns likeaddiction to drugs and internet or computers among other things.Seemingly, such behaviors appear to be filling some sort of gap intheir lives that is caused by shyness and belief of being a socialvictim. Some even end up being mean and cruel to others in societybecause of a bad experience, over and above living lives ofloneliness, frustration, and hopelessness. It turns out that suchundesirable behavior is but a means of hiding their loneliness. Thebehavior enables them to have some form of contact or link with theothers in society.

Manypeople observe loneliness as a mere neglect of social life by anindividual. An in-depth look, however, reveals that the condition isa major problem or challenge that traverses need for solitude. Assuch, it is important for people to understand that there is adifference between loneliness and solitariness. The former involvesemotional discomfort or distress while the latter simply impliesbeing or spending time alone. The psychological conditions of lonelypeople are also characterized by feelings of fear, indignation,anxiety, hopelessness and sadness among others. These examples ofemotions aid a lot in distinguishing solitariness from loneliness.Indeed, one can spend time alone, engage in activities of personalinterest and not have the aforementioned feelings.

Thereare cases where an individual may desire but miss the experience of asocial relationship nonetheless, this does not imply the situationof loneliness that is discussed herein. The exact situation ofloneliness that is under discussion is that in which achieving asocial relationship is a problem despite the fact that it can beattained with much ease in a prevailing context (Heinrich, &ampGullone, 699). Some other people that dwell in loneliness alsodevelop a sense of guilt owing to the patterns that their sociallives have taken. As hinted before in this paper, a good number ofpeople who live lonely lives do not make deliberate choices ofsystematically distancing themselves from others it is intrinsicallydifficult for them to establish connections.

Alook at natural human behavior shows that humans are social beings.It is therefore not normal for an individual to desire or choose toforsake others in the society. Even so, some lonely people manage tohave a few friends or associates with whom they communicate with,although they tend to have poor communication skills, making themalways to feel left out (Hawkley &amp Cacioppo, 224). For those whomanage to have some average or excellent communication skills, theyfocus more on talking about themselves or their interests relative tothose of others.

Itis also important to note that feelings of loneliness are subjectivein nature. In reality, people experience loneliness differently interms of levels and even duration, which may be short-term orlong-term. A good example of those who feel lonely in the long-termis people with emotional discomforts in the association of marriageor other forms of intimate relationships. In such cases, one or evenboth of the partners may be unhappy with the companionship, seeing itas a form of slavery of love. They feel that they have little or nocontrol over their lives and or freedom. Others that are likely to beaffected are those with physical or psychological illnesses sincethey feel that the general society has enormous control over them. Inboth cases, there are those who live in outright isolation and otherswho pretend to be happy and fulfilled in their lives. Nevertheless,both kinds of people are sacrificing their happiness for purposes ofpleasing the society. It is appalling to note that a good number ofthem have little or no power of the self to change their situationsof loneliness.

Othersfind themselves in a state of loneliness owing to a bad experiencethat had a significant and adverse impact on their lives. Theexperiences of traumatization could have involved loss of a loved oneor instances of physical or psychological abuse such as sexualassault. Such experiences make people have big thoughts on how lifecan be difficult sometimes. Some even substitute human companionshipwith immense focus on careers or work-related activities that ofteninvolve isolation since it `s hard to talk about the experiences.What is troubling is that most of them still miss the feeling of afulfilled life even as their mental states continue to deterioratewith time owing to selfhood


Itis clear for one to comprehend that loneliness affects people as amental state.Moreover,onecannot decline to note that loneliness is a serious problem that isaffecting many around the world in negative ways. It is a seriousmental challenge that people face beside one being a social victim insociety. As such, human societies need to view the situation as aproblem that requires much help and support for affected persons. Agood way of offering such support involves the establishment ofcommunity centers for support groups that would help lonely peoplerecover and live healthy social lives. Without any doubt, withdrawalfrom the world makes one live a cold and empty life, one of povertyof the soul and spirit.


Hawkley,Louise C., and John T. Cacioppo. &quotLoneliness matters: atheoretical and empirical review of consequences andmechanisms.&quot&nbspAnnalsof Behavioral Medicine&nbsp40.2(2010): 218-227.

Heinrich,Liesl M., and Eleonora Gullone. &quotThe clinical significance ofloneliness: A literature review.&quot&nbspClinicalpsychology review&nbsp26.6(2006): 695-718.

Patterson,Andrew C., and Gerry Veenstra. &quotLoneliness and risk ofmortality: A longitudinal investigation in Alameda County,California.&quot&nbspSocialscience &amp medicine&nbsp71.1(2010): 181-186.

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Inthis society being conversant in one subject is not quite enough, itis thus vital to pick another one that is going to supplement yourmajor. It is for the reason I have developed an interest inelectrical engineering. Moreover, the interest was cemented by thefact that my father is a computer engineer and I have always beenamazed by what he can do with his laptop. After exploring the fieldof electrical engineering further, I found out that this area ofstudy is magical, but realistic at the same time as it is alwaysrelated to the latest technologies, which are essential in aerospaceengineering, my major.

Electricalengineering has become necessary in creating designs, developingproducts and systems that use electricity. In aviation and aerospaceengineering, electrical engineering is important in flight controland avionics systems to ensure smooth and safe air traffic. Furthermore, this subject is important as its knowledge can help mein maintenance, detecting problems and carrying out repairs throughtroubleshooting. Therefore, pursuing this subject will be veryessential in my studies as it will be an added advantage in the fieldof aeronautics.

Before,I made this choice I had to talk with my father who was conversantwith the subject and some of the professors, and they told me that Icould not be more right than to complement aerospace engineering withelectrical engineering. After I had realized how important it was inthe world of technology, I started to be keen on its role in myaerospace engineering career. Also, electrical engineering proved tobe critical as nothing today runs without the use of power as we havemoved to a digital world. Thus, electrical engineering is not only apivot to my major but being knowledgeable about it will bring moreproductivity and satisfaction in my career, and it is for that reasonI have chosen it.

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Theuntitled piece commonly referred to as Boywith Hand in Drainis a photo from a series of forty images titled “Twilight.” Thephoto was taken by Gregory Crewdson, who is an American photographerwhose works have been described as being extraordinary. According toWhiteCube (n. p), the untitled photo dates back to the period between2001 and 2002. The photographer is known for taking his photos in akeen process that involves a large number of crew members and aconsiderable amount of time (Sjostrand n. p). However, hisphotographs, such as the Boywith Hand in Drain, havebeen able to display an unexpected mystery in an ordinary setting.This particular picture has been described as cinematic and one thatholds compacted drama. From the photo, it is evident to note thattechnology has been employed in creating various enhancements. Onecan clearly tell that the photographer used digital manipulation toblur the distinction between reality and fiction (WhiteCube, n. p).There is also a significant use of constructed or edited lighting tocreate a perfect atmosphere for the photo. By looking at it, it isclear that the scene is a constructed one.

Crewdsonseems to have created the stage for this particular shot to bring outhis ideas and ensure that what is on his mind is represented in thephoto. The lightings are dramatic and play a critical role in makingthe viewer focus more attention on the boy and his activities. Thephotographer also seems to have used the dull bluish light in thedark empty space below the floor with the aim of creating somespookiness. The differences in the two environments set up in thephoto and the activity of the boy create some mystery, which attractsone to the picture. It creates a thrilling effect, especially whenone starts to wonder what the body is trying to reach for in such aneerie environment.


Sjostrand,Jordan. &quotSJOTIME PHOTOGRAPHY – N.p., 2012.Web. 24 Oct. 2016.

WhiteCube.&quotGregory Crewdson: Twilight | White Cube.&quot N.p., 2014. Web.24 Oct. 2016.