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ArticleReport

DoesGod regret some of his actions? Does He ever make mistakes in Hisdecisions? In “God`s Own Repentance,” Margaret Nutting Ralphtalks about God, His actions, and His regrets after doing thoseactions. It`s a deeply thoughtful article that tries to explain thenature of God and whether He is repentant. It attempts to discuss ifGod ever turns away from his actions.

Thearticle acknowledges that God is loving and that He always acts outof love (Ralph 69). Consequently, there would be no reason for God tochange His mind or to repent. The common belief is that God`s minddoes not change. However, the scripture is reviewed in this article,and we find that it is not uncommon for God to repent or change hismind after doing an action. This paper will review the instances inthe scriptures that God seemed to change his ways. It will drawillustrations from the stories of Noah and the Floods, Saul the kingof Israel and the book of Psalms.

Noah`snarrative is one of the four stories about mankind`s sin in theinitial eleven chapters found in the book of Genesis. The fourstories in the book of Genesis that talk about man`s sin are Adam andEve, Cain and Abel, Noah and the floods, and the narrative about thetower of Babel (Ralph 71). In all these stories, man sins against Godby disobeying, killing and challenging God. God becomes so angry suchthat he becomes sorry He had made humankind. He regretted Hiscreation of man yet in the creation stories man was God`s mostspecial creation. This shows that God had changed His mind about manbecause sin had become too prevalent. The story of the Garden of Edenpictures God in an anthropomorphic way by giving God some humanqualities. God has a hard time figuring out who is the best companionfor man. He also does not realize that man has already committed sinuntil He searches for him in the garden and finds out that he ishiding. God talks and walks just like man (Ralph 71). Anotherinstance in the scriptures where God seemed to change his mind andbecome repentant is found in the book of 1 Samuel. The story is not amyth like the books of Genesis which are mysteries about the natureof sin and human suffering beyond our comprehension. Rather, thisbook is more historical in nature designed to teach a lesson. In thestory, Saul is anointed king of Israel, but later God changes Hismind and regrets bestowing the kingship upon Saul. God changes Hismind because Saul &quotHas not carried out my commands&quot (1 Sam15:11). Nathan confronts Saul who acknowledges his sin by stating, &quotIhave sinned for I have transgressed the commandment of the Lord andyour word because I feared the people and obeyed their voice.&quot(1 Sam 15:24). God withdrew His favor upon Saul and bestowed it uponKing David (Ralph 71). Saul disobeyed God, and this resulted in himnot being king anymore. The moral of this narrative is that we shouldnot disobey God. The author, just like in the story of Noah and theflood, pictures God just like a human being who regrets makingcertain decisions. In this story, God regrets His first choice ofmaking Saul a king, and he changes His mind by now turning to Davidto make him king instead. The narrative gives an anthropomorphicdescription of God. Furthermore, in Psalms another reference is madeto God’s nature of changing His mind. In this book, however, Hedoes not change his mind, but the psalmist is pictured trying topersuade God to do so in Psalms 13. They are crying out to Him askinghim to change His mind about the way He is treating them.

Thebelief in God`s constant love and mercy can never be challengedhowever, this article brings into perspective another aspect of Godthat I had never considered. The fact that God can change His mind issomething that is new and peculiar for most of us. This is the reasonI chose this topic since it challenges my basic understanding of thescriptures and God. Margaret Nutting Ralph has enlightened me in thatI have realized the human and soft side of God and his nature ofchanging His decisions according to the outcome of his originalactions or decisions. The belief in His constant love, however,remains as strong as ever. Even when he does change His mind, He isdoing so out of love, not dislike for humankind.

Conclusion

Thehuman understanding and perception of God cannot be measured norunderstood. This is so because the fundamental nature of God isbeyond our comprehension. Although this article describes theinstances in the scriptures where God seemed to repent, regret orchange his mind, we can never understand why He did so. Given ourbelief in His omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent nature, it isbeyond our understanding why He made some decisions only to go backon them later. What is constant in our beliefs is that He is alwaysright, just, merciful and loving.

Workscited

MargretNutting Ralph. God’sOwn Repentance. 2016

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CriticalThinking of the Jungle Book

“TheJungle Book” is a compilation of some short stories that useanimals in an anthropomorphic approach in teaching moral lessons tothe reader. The main character in these fables is Mowgli, a boy whois raised in the jungle and is referred to as a ‘Man-cub` in thebook. In his narrations, Rudyard Kipling reflects on a number oftheories of his time. He alludes to the Darwinist, Imperialist andDevelopmental theories in his short stories.

TheDarwinist theory is depicted in this book by giving humancharacteristics and qualities to the animal characters. This methodof writing was particularly significant in Kipling`s time due to therevelation of Charles Darwin`s theory that traced the roots of humanorigins from within the animal kingdom. This belief in human kinshipwith animals is further illustrated by Mowgli`s constant reiterationto the animals that &quotWe be of one blood.&quot (Kipling, 40, 48,66). Another element of Darwinist theory is Kipling`s notion ofsurvival for the fittest in the book characterized by constantbattles among the animals. The summation of these battles can bedrawn from the story ‘Tiger, Tiger’ where a herd of buffaloeskills Shere Khan, the tiger. Kipling states that, “Shere Khanneeded no more trampling. He was dead…” (p 99). Mowgli hatchedthe plan to kill Sheer Khan so he can survive since Shere Khan wantedto kill him.

TheDevelopmental theory in the book is best illustrated by Mowgli whodevelops from a small helpless ‘boy-cub` to a strong, powerfulvoice and agent of change in the forest for all animals. Under thecare of the wolf family and Bagheera who adopts him as explained inthe chapter ‘Mowgli`s Brothers`, (p 2- 34) where Mother wolf says,“Assuredly I will keep him.” (p 10), he develops skills that areuseful in the forest and gains a sense of belonging in the jungle.His rise to the echelons of the jungle are well illustrated in thebook when he plans and kills Shere Khan, the tiger, and as he skinshim, he says to Buldeo, &quotThere is an old war between this lametiger and myself – a very old war, and-I have won.&quot (p 101).

TheJungle Book is also an allegory that is founded on imperialism inIndia. The theory of Imperialism is represented by the Europeans`desire to conquer the lands and the resistance represented by Mowgliand the animal kingdom. The characters` strong representation ofimperialism can be seen from the way they are divided into ‘evil`characters represented by William and his partners, and on the otherside, the ‘good` people represented by Mowgli and the animals whichunite to fight against these imperialists. The story of ‘Tommai ofthe Elephants` also alludes to imperialism. It talks of Kala Nag, anelephant who &quot…Had served the Indian government in every way…”(p 176). He served the imperialist government by going to wars andimperialist missions in the Afghan War of 1842, Upper India, AliMusjid, Moulmein and Garo Hills (p 176-178). All these missions werein service of the imperialist government of India.

WorksCited

Kipling,Rudyard. The jungle book.Planet PDF. Retrieved on 12thNovember 2016 from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&amprct=j&ampq=&ampesrc=s&ampsource=web&ampcd=8&ampcad=rja&ampuact =8&ampved=0ahUKEwiK- PHbsaPQAhVUGsAKHQ9HC_0QFghGMAc&ampurl=https%3A%2F%2Ffreekidsbooks.org %2Fdownload%2F219&ampusg=AFQjCNHhMVhFc24oPKCXna2dprcFDHwZFg&ampsig2=V GAocGrgWinBXB8d7xmGmg&ampbvm=bv.138493631,d.d2s

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LegalDrinking Age

Alegal drinking age is defined as the legally allowed age where anindividual can purchase or consume alcohol as illustrated byCarpenter, Christopher, and Dobkin (522). The law covers a wideaspect of issues and behaviors that address when and where one canpurchase and consume alcohol. These laws vary among differentcountries depending on their legislations and social aspects. For thepurpose of my research, however, the minimum legal drinking age is 21years. This paper will evaluate and analyze whether this legaldrinking age is appropriate.

Manyactivities have different age limits for varying reasons. One has towait to be at least 16 years to drive, 18 years to marry and 35 yearsto be elected president (Carpenter, Christopher, and Dobkin 522). Thequestion as to whether 21 years should be the legal drinking age canbe looked at from many perspectives. From the society`s view, whichincludes teachers, parents and the community as a whole, this age is,if any case, too young. Most people at 21 years of age are still inschool and still living with their parents. Most are too young tounderstand anything about alcohol and how to be responsible whendealing with it (Boyle, Boffetta, and Lowenfels, 36). Anotherconsideration that the society makes in viewing the 21-year age limitis that most people in this age bracket have not yet started earningon their own. This then shows that if they are allowed to indulge inalcohol consumption, they will be doing so at their parents` orguardians` expense. The only way one can be purported to beresponsible when taking alcohol is if they are doing so at their ownexpense.

Theother perspective through which this issue can be viewed is from theindividual`s perspective. In most countries, after the age of 17 oneis considered an adult. For most individuals, being an adult involvesmaking their independent decisions. This entails deciding when andwhere to drink and with whom. At age 21, most of these people feelresponsible enough to be barred from purchasing and consumingalcohol. Most are almost completing their studies, preparing forhigher education or starting their careers. This gives them enoughjustification to engage in drinking activities especially because bythis age, partying is already a norm. To them, therefore, the legaldrinking age of 21 years is in fact too restrictive and too late tobe allowed to consume alcohol.

Thisage, however, is appropriate. Any age below that will be deemed tooyoung while any age above that will be regarded as too restrictiveand harsh. The government set the legal age at 21 years because ofvarious reasons. This is the age which a person can, among otherthings vote too. It is also the most reasonable age where one can beengaged and even marry. At this age, an individual assumes greaterresponsibility for him or herself and the society as a whole. Whenone shows and proves that they can now assume their responsibilitieseffectively, then they are allowed to engage in some activities.Since most young people show an awareness of their expectedresponsibilities at the age of 21, then it is clearly appropriate toallow then to drink at that age.

Thisage limit is based on researches carried out on the young population.These researches show that the young people react differently toalcoholic drinks. Teenagers get drunk twice as quickly as adults, yetthey do not know when to stop, unlike adults who are responsibleenough to know when to stop. Teenagers seem to always want to overdoit naturally and more often than not, they end up blacking out morethan the responsible adults. This phenomenon can be attributed tovarious factors ranging from peer pressure to showing off and evenironically, to prove maturity. The mentality of the youth is suchthat &quotthe more I drink, the better I am than my peers.&quot(DeJong and Jason, 1050). This line of thinking is wrong, and theonly way to restrict this behavior and culture is to imposerestrictions on alcoholic drinks. If the youth are allowed to engagein alcohol consumption at an earlier age with this kind of mentality,then by the time they are 21 years of age they would be completelylost in alcohol addiction and related problems. To save them and thesociety from this kind of scenario, it is appropriate to set thelegal drinking age at 21 years.

Theother justification for this age limit is the behaviors associatedwith drunkenness. Adults are responsible and careful enough torestrict their drunken behavior and only rarely do they engage inanti-social behavior. This much, however, cannot be said about theyoung people. According to DeJong and Jason (1051), they tend toengage themselves in many socially wrong behaviors and actions whenthey are drunk. Sexual immorality tops that list. Being rowdy,careless, disrespectfulness, street fights, destructive behavior,stealing, and excessive partying in residential areas are some of theanti-social behaviors associated with drunken youth. There is a needto ensure the prevention or suppression of these cases of unrulybehaviors in the society. The only way of controlling and minimizingthis behavior is by controlling the youth`s access to alcohol at ayoung age. The only effectively appropriate way of restricting theiraccess is by limiting the age at which they are legally supposed toconsume alcohol. This drunken behavior can also entail risking theirlives. Drunken driving among the youth is rampant, and if uncheckedit can cost many lives (Kypri, et al., 9). Enforcing the legaldrinking age of 21 reduces alcohol-related accidents among the youthand helps save lives which could otherwise be lost.

Thereare health reasons too that support the appropriateness of the age 21as the legal drinking age. At 18 years old, most young people arestill at the development level. The brain is still developing(Squeglia, et al., 535). If they expose themselves to alcohol at suchan early age, their maturing brains will be affected. There are manyhealth, financial and social risks associated with alcohol asillustrated by Watson, Preedy, and Zibadi (16). Risks of lung cancer,kidney problems, addiction, financial risks, heart and livercomplications and negative impacts on family, education and careersare some of the associated negative implications of alcoholism. Ifthe youth are exposed to these risks at an early age, the effect onthem would be devastating. Their still maturing hearts, lungs,kidneys and other organs can suffer severely from an early exposureto this health risks. They would never learn to manage their financesif they become heavy alcoholics at tender ages and their educationwould be jeopardized at an early stage. At the age of 21 however,their bodies are fully developed, and their educational foundation iswell secure.

Conclusion

Allthese factors prove that the legal drinking age of 21 years isappropriate since most aspects of life have already been addressed.The level of maturity at this age makes it possible to handle theresponsibility that comes with consuming alcohol. Lowering the agemight lead to negative impacts as highlighted above, while increasingthe age might sound too late and oppressive to these adults andcurtail business in the alcohol and entertainment industry.

WorksCited

Boyle,P, Paolo Boffetta, and Albert B. Lowenfels. Alcohol:Science, Policy and Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. Print

Carpenter,Christopher, and Carlos Dobkin. &quotThe minimum legal drinking ageand crime.&quot Reviewof Economics and Statistics97.2 (2015): 521-524.

DeJong,William, and Jason, Blanchette. &quotWhen enough is enough: thepublic health argument for the age 21 minimum legal drinking age.&quotJournalof studies on alcohol and drugs75.6 (2014): 1050-1052.

Kypri,Kypros, et al. &quotLong‐termeffects of lowering the alcohol minimum purchasing age on trafficcrash injury rates in New Zealand.&quot Drugand alcohol review(2016).

Squeglia,Lindsay M., et al. &quotBinge drinking differentially affectsadolescent male and female brain morphometry.&quotPsychopharmacology220.3 (2012): 529-539.

Watson,Ronald R, Victor R. Preedy, and Sherma Zibadi. Alcohol,Nutrition, and Health Consequences.New York: Humana Press, 2013.

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PandaConservation

Outline

Thereis a need to conserve these wild animals as they have now beenclassified as an endangered species. Various researchers haveconducted research on the practices being employed in theconservation of this endangered species. This Paper will review andanalyze the findings of this research by focusing on three articleson the conservation of the giant panda in China.

Body

  1. Review of Butt’s article on panda conservation and the conflicts between traditions and modern values in China.

a.Analysis of the two schools of thought in endangered animalconservation in China

b.Objectives of the article

2.Review of Martin-Wintleet al. articles on free mate choice in giant panda conservationbreeding

a.Analysis of the conservation breeding program and its failures

b.The use of behavioral mate method

c.Objective of Martin-Wintleet al. article

3.Review of Xu, W. et al. article on the evaluation of theeffectiveness of nature reserves in panda conservation in QinlingMountains in China

a.Objective of this article

b.The researcher’s findings

c.Importance of the article

Conclusion

Byprotecting panda’s natural habitat, it facilitates the protectionof the habitats of other endangered animals too. More effort needs tobe put into legislation and expanding their natural habitats toreduce poaching and enable the pandas to sustain themselves.

References

Butt,L. (2013).&nbspNotso Black and White: Panda Conservation, Bile Farming and the Conflictbetween Cultural Traditions and Modern Values in China (Doctoraldissertation, University of Washington).

Martin-Wintle,M. S., Shepherdson, D., Zhang, G., Zhang, H., Li, D., Zhou, X.,&ampSwaisgood, R. R. (2015). Free mate choice enhances conservationbreeding in the endangered giant panda.&nbspNatureCommunications,&nbsp6.

Xu,W., Viña, A., Qi, Z., Ouyang, Z., Liu, J., Liu, W., &amp Wan, H.(2014). Evaluating conservation effectiveness of nature reservesestablished for surrogate species: Case of a giant panda naturereserve in Qinling Mountains, China.&nbspChinesegeographical science,&nbsp24(1),60-70

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Anthropology

&quotMedicalizingHomelessness: The Production of Self-Blame and Self-Governing withinHomeless shelters&quot is an article that has been put togetherfollowing three years of ethnographic research. This research wasconducted in an emergency shelter for the homeless in Massachusetts.It explores the subject of routine helping practices in the shelters.A dominant conceptual framework is provided which concerns both thehomeless people and the staff in those shelters (Lyon-Callo 329).These collaborating practices pay attention to detecting, thendiagnosing and treating the known deviancy found within the bodies ofthe homeless people. These discursive practices assist the homelesspeople to evaluate and analyze themselves so that they can locate andunderstand the circumstances, habits or disadvantages that could haveled to their homelessness. After they evaluate themselves, theirtreatment will focus on their reformation and self-control. Practicesthat challenge the political and economic circumstances aremarginalized and treated as peripheral and unreasonable. The conceptsdiscussed and analyzed in this article are homelessness, ethnography,subjectivities, homeless shelters, political and economic processes.

Thearticle talks about how these homeless shelters help the homelesspeople to deal with their current situations and conditions throughtherapy. It is depressing to blame oneself for a situation which youdon`t have control over. The objective of this research is toillustrate the concept of tabula rasa of self for the medical modelin homeless service provision. There always exists a cause and effectreaction in any circumstance. The logical interconnections of a givenphenomenon of the institutions offering homeless services and thebroad contexts in culture are analyzed in this research. Socialscience has been particularly critical of the medicalization ofhomelessness although it shares in the supposition of self. This hasrelegated social science to the structural critiques who offer littleor nothing of help to the homeless and to those who want to helpthem. This article shines a light on the path towards the developmentof an alternative response to the challenges of medicalization ofhomelessness (Lyon-Callo 331).

Accordingto Lyon-Callo (336), the case studies of these homeless peoplerevealed their desire to be recognized and treated as credible peopledespite their vulnerability and risk. Their experiences resonate withthe research observations that homelessness has often been associatedwith criminalization. Most homeless people are regarded as eithercriminals-at fault- or clients who are at risk. The data collectedand analyzed in this research show that from these narratives,homeless criminals or clients are not aligned with the reality on theground. The tales of the homeless people have a diversity thatexplains how these people see their conditions, circumstances, assetsand need in a different perspective from the rest of the population.

Ananthropologist can look at this topic from a different viewpoint.First of all, an anthropologist is a person who studies the variousaspects of humans both in the ancient and the contemporary societies.By studying the issue of homelessness in the society, ananthropologist can look at the cultural concepts that influence orshape the societal thinking about homelessness. They can also lookat the societal constraints and policies that inhibit satisfactorysolutions. He/she can also look and study the social control thathomeless shelters and other service institutions have on the homelesspeople. An anthropologist`s perspective can help reduce theover-reliance on epidemiological and clinical approaches to thisissue of homelessness which results into incomplete and distortedperceptions. Anthropological research can provide insights that arepolicy-relevant, and an opportunity to pursue a broad range of issuesthat are relevant to the field.

Workscited

Lyon-Callo,Vincent.”Medicalizing Homelessness: The Production of Self-Blame andSelf- Governing within Homeless Shelters.&quot. American Anthropological Association.2000

.

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Merchantof Venice

TheMerchant of Venice is a play set in the 16th-century city of Veniceand Belmont, Italy, between 1596 and 1599. The play is largely aboutAntonio, a merchant of Venice who borrows and defaults on a JewishShylock`s loan. Shakespeare explores various themes in this play byusing different allegories which present ideas to the audience. Hehas illustrated the theme of love, law, and equity, mercy, andculture. This paper will focus on the play`s theme of culture in theperspectives of religion, nationality, ethnicity and gender. Thepaper will illustrate this theme drawing examples from the case studyof the encounters between Christians with Jews, and men and women.

Themes

Posner(10) states that “TheMerchantof Venice exploresthe pitfalls of cross-cultures in the society.&quot Shakespeare ispertinent to the current effects of differences in cultures whichresults to cultural antagonism. This hostility between the culturesleads to religious conflict which consequently results in unequalseparation within the population. Different cultures and religionsmainly represented by Christians and Muslims interact in differentscenarios. Christians are regarded more respectably and honorablywhile the Jews are disrespected and looked down upon. In the play,there is deep-rooted prejudice that precipitated the humiliation ofJews and the degradation and subsequent objectification of women.Shakespeare describes a society which creates the norm of being aChristian and concurrently persecuting Jews. The play is synonymouswith Shylock, Antonio, Bassanio and Portia, a beautiful heiress whoare the main characters. Shylock is openly harassed and spat on fornot being a Christian. Antonio who is portrayed as an honestChristian and a wealthy merchant, calls Shylock a &quotmisbelieverand (a) cutthroat dog&quot (p 35) yet, to his fellow Christians, heis a saint. The play is synonymous with Shylock, Antonio, Bassanioand Portia, a beautiful heiress. At the time, Jews were facingmistreatments from the Christians a fact that Shylock alludes towhen Antonio comes to borrow money from him. Shylock taunts Antoniofor the power that he now exerts over him since he is in need ofmoney which the Shylock can provide. From the texts, it is clearthat Bassanio is also a Christian since Antonio develops a closerelationship with him. From Act 1 Scene 1, it is evident that Antoniohates the Jews especially the Shylock when he tells Bassanio &quotMypurse, my person, my extremest means lie all unlocked to youroccasions&quot (p 15). He already has antagonized the Shylockbecause of his outspoken anti-Semitism.

Thehatred between the Christians and the Jews is further illustrated bythe actions of the Shylock towards Antonio when Antonio fails torepay the loan of three thousand ducats. They had agreed beforehandthat if Bassanio defaults on his loan, then shylock would take apound of Antonio`s flesh. This agreement is illustrated in Act 1scene 3 where the Shylock says to Antonio, &quotIf you repay me noton such a day, in such a place such a sum expressed in the condition,let the forfeit be nominated for an equal pound of your fair flesh.&quot(p 143). Shylock seizes this opportunity to exact revenge onChristians because of the suffering he alleges to have suffered underthem. He is also particularly hateful of the Christians since hisdaughter, Jessica, eloped with Lorenzo, a Christian and convertedtaking with her a substantial amount of Shylocks wealth and his latewife`s turquoise ring. He, therefore, demands the pound of flesh fromAntonio and when matters get out of hand, he has Antonio broughtbefore the court. He goes on to lose the case, yet he was entitled tohis payment.

Judaismand Christianity in the play are not only viewed as religions but asalso races (and even national) as also illustrated in the Gospel ofLuke in the works read for EN 111 which calls Jews as “The chosennation of Israel” (EN 111, 40). Racism is a theme that is portrayedby people with prejudice against those of a different skin color,particularly the whites who look down upon those with a darkercomplexion. A prime example of an instance of racism is in Act 1Scene 2 when Portia says, &quotIf I could bid the fifth welcome withso good heart as I could bid the other four farewell, I should beglad of his approach If he has the condition of a saint and thecomplexion of a devil I would rather he should shrive me than wiveme.&quot (p 80). Portia associated the Prince of Morocco`s darkcolor to the devil. In those days, discrimination against people of adarker complexion was rampant, and they were associated with thedevil or evil. This subsequently led to their mistreatment and theyhad no rights. White people were seen to be of a greatersignificance. The Merchant of Venice describes many acts of prejudiceand stereotypes towards the people of a different race. Portia’sracist comments further elucidate the attitude of Christians towardsthe Muslims. When she discriminates the Prince of Morocco, a moor,and a Muslim, she shows that the Christians’ religious intolerancewent beyond their rivalry towards the Jews but also to otherreligions including the Muslims. The prince tries to improve hischances by telling Portia to “Mislike (him) not for (his)complexion,” (p 43). He feared he would be exposed to the racism ofthe society. When he chooses the wrong casket, however, Portia isrelieved and prayed that “All his complexion choose so.” (p 79).

Thebond of friendship between men is well illustrated by the friendshipbetween Antonio and Bassanio. In Act 4 scene 1, Antonio confesses hisdeep love to Bassanio by saying, &quot…say how I lovedyou…..whether Bassanio had not once a love…&quot (p 201).Antonio was ready to risk his life to helping his friend by agreeingto the Shylock`s conditions in case of a loan default. His utterdevotion to his friends made some critics to conclude that he issuffering from unrequited love as it stands outside the bounds ofsociety. In line with the societies view on male friendship at thattime, Antonio`s friendship with Bassanio was seen as platonic, butcritics questioned the way the play depicted their closeness.

TheMerchant of Venice describes the discrimination and inequality thatwomen faced in those times. They did not have the freedom of makingtheir decisions. A good depiction of this is by Portia who iscontrolled by her father`s will. She is not entitled to choose hermarriage partner but instead, her father`s will ties her down to thechoice of her marriage partner. She disliked this fact very much asshe stated, &quot…so is the will of a living daughter, curbed bythe will of a dead father.&quot (P 22) In those times, husbands wereentitled to all their wives` possessions after marriage. When Portiamarries Bassanio, he becomes entitled to all her wealth which she hadinherited from her late father. Women’s opinions were notconsidered by the men as they were viewed as unwise. They werediscriminated against by the men. Portia had to dress up like a manto get people to listen to her. Married women were expected to doanything and everything for their husbands. This proves that duringthose times, male chauvinism was rampant and it was a male dominatedsociety.

Conclusion

Shakespeare`sThe Merchant of Venice is a play that tackles various societalissues. The play has been adapted for theaters and TV plays worldwidebecause of its applicability even in the contemporary societies.

References

Shakespeare,William, and John Bidgood. TheMerchant of Venice.Toronto: Longmans, Green, 1929. Print.

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TheVoodoo Queen

‘TheVoodoo Queen’ is an account by Robert Tallant published in 1984that focuses on the lives of Marie Laveau and her mother, also knownas Marie Laveau. These two were prominent and influentialFrench-speaking Catholics and priestesses during the period in whichthis book was set, in the 1800s. The two women were known to bepractitioners of voodoo in New Orleans and this practice gave themeven bigger influence. Priestesses in New Orleans were known to beritual leaders and healers.

Thefirst Marie lived from the year 1801 to 1881. She was a nurse whoattended to men on death row. She worked in the prison where most ofthese men were. She was a heavy campaigner against public executions,slave trade, and poverty. She even helped slaves escape the prisonsaccording to the book. She was a baptized member of St. LouisCathedral. According to Robert Tallant, Marie used her voodoo magicto influence the community and the legal system. She protected themembers of her community although not all people treated her kindly.Some viewed her with skepticism because of what they termed as darkmagic. “Not everyone, however, was impressed with the quality ofher devotion.” (Mistress Marie Laveau: The Real Story of the VoodooQueen of New Orleans, 2016). Her love of dancing with snakes afterPalm Sunday was one reason for this lack of full acceptance in hercommunity. During her days, New Orleans was a slave market hub andvoodoo was viewed as a way to instigate a shift in powerrelationships. “When danger peaked, and power was almost limited,magic played its greatest role (The Voodoo Queen, 2016). The corevalues of both Maries was that “The first spiritual objective ofNew Orleans voodoo was protection” (Mistress Marie Laveau: The RealStory of the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans, 2016). Marie the first wasa member of several social aid societies.

Mariethe second, born in 1827, never wanted to be a voodoo priestess likeher mother. Despite the fact that voodoo traditions were passed downthrough females in a family line she instead loved parties, dancingand being in the social life of New Orleans. She, however, received acalling and was initiated into the world of voodoo practice. She thencontinued her mother`s work. She would later become a therapist,counselor and a social worker just like her mother. As times changedand New Orleans evolved to become the wealthiest city in the UnitedStates, it became hard for the voodoo practitioners. The city’srich culture brought legal constraints, raids and harassment and thevoodoo women had to look for safer locations to continue theirpractices (Mistress Marie Laveau: The Real Story of the Voodoo Queenof New Orleans, 2016). Things escalated after the civil war when themedia began a campaign against these women. They were accused ofinstigating the intense conflicts that ensued. When racialflexibility gave way to the Anglo-American apartheid, the post-warlife became hell in the now multicultural society (The Voodoo Queen,2016).

Unlikeher mother who died a natural death in 1881, Marie the second’slife suddenly unraveled. She ultimately disappeared without a trace(Catholicin the Morning Voodoo by Night: An analysis of Marie Laveau’sSyncretistic Practice of Roman Catholicism and Voodoo).After 1874, no one could find a shadow of her. After her death, a newracial order emerged in New Orleans. People, especially politicians,still feared that her spirit was present and influencing other womento change or alter the course of luck, love, and law to suit theirinterests. In 1877, the police and media escalated their campaignsagainst these voodoo women culminating into attacking them. Bothwomen maintained large social networks within New Orleans. Theycircumnavigated the murky world of existing laws by employingintelligence and connections and managed to take leadership positionsin the woman-centered voodoo community.

RobertTallant’s TheVoodoo Queenseems like a detective literature and managed to illustrate women’snineteenth-century religion in America. It offers a compellingaccount of history, worship, and culture.

Workscited

Catholicin the Morning Voodoo by Night: An analysis of Marie Laveau’sSyncretistic Practice of Roman Catholicism and Voodoo. Retrieved on30thOctober 2016 from https://www.academia.edu/20195239/Catholic_in_the_Morning_Voodoo_by_Night_An_Analys is_of_Marie_Laveaus_Syncretistic_Practice_of_Roman_Catholicism_and_Voodoo?auto=downlo ad

MistressMarie Laveau: The Real Story of the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans.(2016). Roadtrippers. Retrieved 30 October 2016 fromhttps://roadtrippers.com/stories/mistress- marie-laveau-the-voodoo-queen-of-new-orleans

TheVoodoo Queen, (2016), Gras.edu. Retrieved 30 October 2016, from http://www.gras.edu/voodoo/

TheVoodoo Queen (Pelican Pouch Series) Retrieved from http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/147218.The_Voodoo_Queen

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TheBattle of Red Cliffs

TheBattle of Red Cliffs is also known as the Battle of Chibi. It was thebattle that took place during the decline of the Han dynasty, twelveyears before the rise of the three kingdoms in China. According to &quotAncient China: Battle of Red Cliffs,&quot (2016), this battlewas fought in 208/9 AD during the winter between forces loyal to LiuBei and Sun Quan, who were southern warlords, and the army of thenorthern warlord Cao Cao. The rulers of the south were frustratingCao Cao`s efforts to conquer the south of Yangtze River seeking toreunite the Eastern Han dynasty territory. Regarding the numbersinvolved, the battle came to be termed as the largest naval battle inhistory. Although there are various debates and counter-debates aboutthe location of this fight, it is believed to have taken place alongthe southern bank of River Yangtze, southwest of currently Wuhan andto the north of Baqiu which is present-day Yueyang, Hunan.

Followinga period of political turmoil that existed at that time due to theimpending collapse of the Han Dynasty, several warlords fought forcontrol of china`s territories as illustrated by Tan, (2014). Thisbattle occured in three stages: an initial conflict and retreat fromthe Red Cliffs to the battlefields on the bank of River Yangtze, thena naval conflict and Cao Cao`s calamitous retreat along the HuarongRoad. In the initial stages, a plagued and demoralized Cao Cao armydue to forced matches was met by Sun-Liu’s force. Cao Cao and hisarmy retreated to the north of River Yangtze (Wulin). Then, afterpretending to surrender, divisional commander of the southern army,Huang Gai sent a squadron of ships improvised into fire ships. As theunit approached the northern army ships, they evacuated into smallerboats after setting their ships on fire (Tan, 2014). The southeasternwind carried those fire ships speedily towards Cao Cao`s fleet,setting it on fire. Cao Cao suffered massive losses regarding men,horses, and ships. Cao Cao was attacked again by the southern army inconfusion. Facing defeat, the northern army was commanded by Cao Caoto retreat along Huarong Road, but heavy rain hindered their retreat.The northern army gave chase until they got to Nan Commandery (nowJiangling County, Jingzhou). Disease combined with famine decimatedCao Cao’s army, and they were utterly defeated.

Theimpact of the battle

Thebattle of the Red Cliffs had a significant impact on the history ofChina. It delayed the uniting of China for many years as individualwarlords controlled individual territories, (&quotAncient China:Battle of Red Cliffs,&quot 2016). There was a prolonged period ofconflict in China which then culminated into the rise of the SimafaVily who overthrew the Cao family. Due to the weakening of thegreater China from this internal wars, it gave an opportunity to thenomads in the north to invade the country successfully and enslavealmost the entire Han population. These invasions also led to diverseraces sprouting from the Chinese people. The later creation of thesouthern states of Eastern Wu and Shu Han were as a result of thiswar. Liu Bei’s capture of Jing province confirmed the separation ofthe northern heartland of Yellow River from southern China. Thisevent also foreshadowed the axis of the north-south hostility thatwould persist for centuries. In the contemporary world, the ChineseState Council approved the renaming of the city of Chibi in Hubeifrom Puqi in 1998 (Radabaugh, Merchant, and Brown, 2013). Thisrenaming was in celebration of the battle of the red cliffs. The cityhas increasingly promoted tourism from the cultural activities heldthere. Even in film and entertainment, the battle of the Red Cliffshas also left an impact.

Workscited

AncientChina: Battle of Red Cliffs. (2016). Ducksters.com. Retrieved29 October 2016, from http://www.ducksters.com/history/china/battle_of_red_cliffs.php

Radabaugh,R. E., J. S. Merchant, and J. M. Brown. &quothow did thebattle of the Red Cliff impact the Modern world?&quot.RedCliff, Battle Mountain.&nbsp2013

Tan,Koon S.&nbspDynasticChina, 2014: An Elementary History.