Racismas Depicted in the play Othello

Racism is a critical element of the play Othello, a story ofthe “Dark Moor” who exhibits sexual jealousy in a whitecommunity. Throughout the play, the white race associates blacks withhideous acts and certain cultures that this essay points out(Robinson 50). Othello’s status as a dark-skinned foreigner makeshim vulnerable to racism. Racism, as depicted by Shakespeare in theplay, is similar to that which exists in the world today.

In the opening scene, Iago and Roderigo call him “the Moor.” Thisterm meant a Black Muslim. While Othello was a Christian, he receivedthe same animosity that Europeans showed to Muslims simply because ofhis black color. Muslims had invaded many areas in Europe, andthreatened the Europeans, hence the rivalry. Iago also freely usesthe term “Barbary horse” to call Othello (Shakespeare 1.1.110).This term means the famous horses from the Arab land. He alsoassociates black people with barbarism. Othello’s name isconspicuously absent in most parts of the play. The reader can onlyidentify him through racist terms that the author uses to describehim. This term implies that the black race does not even deserve tobe human. Roderigo also calls him “thick-lips,” a term thatcreates an ugly image in the mind of the reader (Shakespeare 29).

The reason why Othello becomes the most obvious victim of racism inthe play is his visibly alien color. He also bows to the pressures ofthe society by saying, “Rude am I in my speech, / and littleblessed with the soft phrase of peace” (1.3.81-82). This way,Othello openly declares that he is not worthy of his status, makingit easy for people to discriminate him. He makes himself even morevulnerable and noticeable as a black by marrying Desdemona, a whitegirl. This marriage is a taboo in the society, and it predisposesOthello to the bitterness of Senator Brabantio and other white men.From there the racism and hatred against him intensify. Brabantioeven claims that the “enchanted” her first to make her accepthim. When Brabantio learns that Desdemona was in the marriagewillingly, he is shocked. He is racist as he thinks it is impossiblefor a “Moor” to win over his daughter unless he uses witchcraft.Othello is confident and defensive of his marriage and remains closeto his wife (Stone 190). Just like in the play, today there is a lotof racism surrounding interracial couples. Some people doubt thecapabilities of men or women from other races.

While the society respects him for his military prowess and noblecharacter, he carries a culture that gives the people an opportunitya chance to exploit him due to racial stereotypes. Iago tellsBrabantio, “an old black ram is tupping his white ewe”(Shakespeare 1.1.87-8). When Cassio becomes Othello’s personalassistant instead of him, Iago gets back to Othello with insults. Hehas no regard for his position as the Lieutenant. Iago and Roderigohint that Othello and Desdemona’s children will be the ridicule ofthe community and will be a disgrace to Brabantio Othello tells himthat his daughter will be covered with a horse and that his nephewswill neigh to him (1.1.110-12). When Othello murders Desdemona,Emilia, her close friend, calls him a “black devil” (4.2.132).She says that Desdemona was fond of her filthy bargain. Here, shealso joins the rest in using racism terms on Othello.

Throughout the play, Shakespeare portrays the black race as one thatsets Othello aside from the majority white population in Europe.While representing the racial lines, Shakespeare is still keen toaddress that one’s identity does not affect their capabilities(Anouk 78). He describes Othello as a confident man who can lead themilitary. He also manages to woo a white girl and be a good husband.This is similar to the contemporary world. People of the minorityraces such as African-Americans have proven their white counterpartswrong by making groundbreaking achievements in music, sports,politics, and education amongst other areas.


Anderson, Anouk. Othello – A Racist Play? GRIN Verlag, 2009.

Robinson, Elaine L. Shakespeare Attacks Bigotry: A Close Reading ofSix Plays. McFarland, 2009.

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Barron`s Educational Series,2002

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice.First Avenue Editions, 2014.

Stone, James W. &quotBlack and White as Technique in Orson Welles’Othello. Literature/Film Quarterly 30(2): 189-93


Effectsof Increasing Minimum Wage to $15

Currently,there has been cries and request of workers across different statesin the U.S, as they demand an increase in their wages. A case inpoint has been so many of the fast foods that have adjusted soquickly to increase their minimum wage from $7.25 to $15 without evencutting down on their workforce (Pollin &amp Wicks-Lim, 2015).Nonetheless, not all the sectors have welcomed the move with some ofthe critics warning of the adverse effects. Owing to the mixedoutcomes, this paper aims at establishing the real effects ofincreasing the minimum wages. This paper argues that increase inminimum wages has positive effects.

Owingto the surge in living standards, increasing minimum wages is nobargain. Since 1938, the minimum wage has increased by 25 cents to$7.25. However, this value has still not matched with the cost ofliving mainly because of the inflation rates. Raising the minimumwage to $15 will be good news to workers though it will have itseffects (Bhorat, Kanbur and Stanwix 1404). As much as the increasewill ensure that the employees have more disposable income, there arealso negative effects as commodity prices and services rendered atsome of their workplaces will have to increase. Those opposed toincreasing the minimum wages assert that there are chances ofbusinesses being hurt, prices increasing and unemployment ratesincreasing. The positive impacts of the increase in minimum wages areso much than the negatives. As much as the prices of commodity andservices rendered will increase, the increase is modest (Bhorat,Kanbur and Stanwix 1416). For instance, raising the wage by 10 percent is only likely to increase the prices by 4 per cent. When theincrease happens, in the long run, there is redistribution thathappens towards the low-wage workers. In instances where the minimumwage is increased, usually there is a reduction in the turnover amongthe employees. The employer on the other hand will get to a positionwhere he or she experiences an increase in job tenure especiallyamong the low-wage workers (Lee and Saez 740). The two effects willresult in an increase in productivity and lower costs of turnoverthat affect the business.

Tofind the effect of increase in the minimum wage, a research focusingon a competitive labor market analyses the theoretical effect ofpolicy on optimal minimum wage. Out of this, two results emerge.First,the results show that even though the minimum wage results inunemployment it is not preferred at all by the government. It isquite undesirable given that it only happens when the government isputting efforts to redistribute the incomes especially of those whoget minimum wages.

Fromthe study, when the responses of labor supply happens along theextensive margin only introducing minimum wage and positive tax rateeffect among the low-skilled employees results into a state of Paretoinefficiency as it is considered not to be the best but second best.The results got confirm that minimum wages and the subsidies are thebest and they are complementary in nature. The effect of implementingthe policy, which targets the increment in minimum wage, is explored.

Inan attempt to find out the effect of the minimum wage, a study wasdone on the U.S fast food business. The study concentrated on findingthe effect of increase from the $7.25 to $15 each hour. In this case,the study focuses where the workforce has not been reduced at all.The study is carried out in two phases, which happens over a periodof four years. The study is in such a way that the government has toincrease the wages twice over the entire 4-year period. The firstincrement gets to $10.5 and then the second to $15. From this study,it emerges that businesses can adjust when an increase in the minimumwage is explored. From the study, it emerges that fast food industrycan end up in increasing the wage bill without necessarily reducingthe level of employment. Even though the study has mainlyconcentrated in the fast food industry, it can as well be applicablein other areas and industries (Scheiber 1). The fast food industryhas just been applied as a case example and is one of the mostappropriate as it includes the individuals who are among the low-wageincome earners. The results obtained from this study affirm that theincrease in minimum wages has so much positives compared to thenegatives. It is evident that even through increasing the minimumwages, unemployment does not occur(Scheiber1).


Themain audience for this topic is the state legislators who have thepower as local lawmakers to raise the minimum wage (Lopresti andMumford 1). They will be interested in the increase and the effectsthat it will have on economy and populace.


Fromthe findings of the study, it can be concluded that the positives ofthe increase outweigh the negatives that exist. From the fast-foodindustry, the results obtained from this study affirm that theincrease in minimum wages has so much positives compared to thenegatives. It is evident that even through increasing the minimumwages, unemployment does not occur. It is affirmed that increasingminimum wage does not lead to unemployment and hence increase inminimum wages has positive effects.


Bhorat,Haroon, Ravi Kanbur, and Benjamin Stanwix. &quotEstimating theImpact of Minimum Wages on Employment, Wages, and Non-wage Benefits:The Case of Agriculture in South Africa.&quot&nbspAmericanJournal of Agricultural Economics&nbsp96.5(2014): 1402-1419.

Lee,David, and Emmanuel Saez. &quotOptimal minimum wage policy incompetitive labor markets.&quot&nbspJournalof Public Economics&nbsp96.9(2012): 739-749.

Lopresti,John W., and Kevin J. Mumford. &quotWho Benefits from a Minimum WageIncrease?.&quot&nbspILRReview&nbsp(2016):0019793916653595. Retrieved from[Accessed 23/10/2016].

Pollin,Robert, and Jeannette Wicks-Lim. &quotA $15 US Minimum Wage: How theFast-Food Industry Could Adjust Without Shedding Jobs.&quot&nbspPoliticalEconomy Research Institute Working Paper Series&nbsp373(2015).

Rosenberg.,J. (2013). AP: As minimum wage marches toward $15, small businesses.Businessforafairminimumwage.Retrieved fromadapt[Accessed 24/10/2016].

ScheiberNoam. What a $15 Minimum Wage Would Mean for Your City. NewYork Times.(2015). Retrieved from


Last Name 2



Malariais a fatal disease of the blood. It is caused by a parasite known asplasmodium and is transmitted by a specific type of mosquito whichfeeds on human beings. Individuals who have acquired the diseasedevelop symptoms such as high fever and flu-like illnesses, and ifadequate medical intervention is not sought, death can occur.Although Malaria is a tropical disease, recent studies by the CDCestablished that there are about 1500 cases of Malaria beingdiagnosed in the United States annually (CDC 1). Consequently, peoplewho visit Malaria prone areas are also at a risk of being infected.Having adequate knowledge about causes of infection, signs andsymptoms and management strategies are thus very important in thefight against Malaria. This research paper will discuss malaria as adisease, its etiology, signs and symptoms and available treatment.


Malariais categorized as a disease of the blood. Majority cases of Malariainfections have been reported in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.In the United States, victims of Malaria have mostly been travelersand immigrants. According to the World Health Organization, in theyear 2015, there were about 214 million cases of Malaria, and amongthis population, about 438, 000 succumbed to the infections (Cohen,Jessica, Pascaline, Dupas and Schaner 4) . The mostly affectedpopulation include young children and pregnant mothers.

Causesof Malaria

Malariais usually transmitted when a person gets bitten by an infectivefemale Anopheles mosquito. This depends on whether the femaleanopheles mosquito’s previous blood meal had the parasite or not.If the mosquito had bitten an infected person and bites a new person,both victims acquire malaria. The female Anopheles mosquito usuallybites between 9 pm and 5 am when people are asleep. The CDC statesthat there are several species of malaria parasite. However, the mostcommon is Plasmodium falciparum and is found in Africa CDC 1). Otherspecies of the parasite include P. Ovale, P. Malariaea, and P. Vivax.Once the parasite has entered the human body, it lodges itself in theliver where it multiplies very rapidly. Two weeks later, the parasitebursts into the blood stream and it is from here that begin to infectred blood cells. This can cause anemia for some people, and in caseswhere the damages extend to the brain, it can result in cerebralmalaria which affects the functionality and operations of the brain.

Signsand symptoms

Someof the signs and symptoms of Malaria include fever, shaking chills,headache, tiredness and muscle ache. Other victims have also elicitedsymptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. In extreme cases,Malaria may cause jaundice and anemia because of the loss of redblood cells. Following an infection, one may start feeling sick 10-14days later.

InP. Vivax and P. Ovale infections, laboratory tests have indicatedthat some parasites tend to remain dominant in the liver for up to 4years after an infected mosquito has bitten an individual. Cerebralmalaria, on the other hand, is associated with life-long learningdisabilities, coma, and death. Although the above suggested signs andsymptoms can be used to know if one is suffering from Malaria, thesurest diagnostic tools rely on the microscopic examination for thepresence of the parasite. Following developments in biotechnology andmolecular biology, one can also use molecular techniques such as PCRamong others (Cohen, Jessica, Pascaline, Dupas and Schaner 4).

Treatmentoptions for Malaria

Treatmentof Malaria depends on many factors such as the severity of thedisease, species of the malaria parasite that has caused theinfection and the health status of the victim (Staines, Henry andKrishna 5). Some of the drugs that are used in the treatment ofMalaria include quinine, artemether-lumefantrine, doxycycline, andchloroquine. Drugs such as artemether-lumefantrine have serious sideeffects and should not be taken by pregnant mothers. Apart from themedical interventions, there are also some very effective preventivestrategies that individuals living in Malaria prone areas can use toprevent or reduce infection rates. First, for those living in endemicregions, it is highly recommended that one sleeps under a treatedmosquito net. This will prevent possible entry of mosquito and causecontaminations.

Additionally,studies have shown that mosquitos love to live in stagnant waters orbushy areas, it is therefore recommended that one gets rid of thesurrounding pool of stagnant water. There are also mosquitorepellants that one can also put on to keep away the organisms.Lastly, there is the need for mass education about Malaria becausemany people do not have an adequate understanding of the risk factorsand severity of the disease.


Itis evident that Malaria is a very serious and fatal condition thathas claimed thousands of lives in the United States and the world.The Malaria parasite is transmitted by the female anopheles mosquitowhich feeds on human being`s blood. Some of the effects or signs andsymptoms of the virus include joint pains, shaking chills, headache,and tiredness. In the management of Malaria, there are both medicaland non-medical solutions.


&quotCDC- Malaria – About Malaria – Faqs&quot., 2016. Web. 14 Nov. 2016.

Cohen,Jessica, Pascaline Dupas, and Simone Schaner. &quotPrice subsidies,diagnostic tests, and targeting of malaria treatment: evidence from arandomized controlled trial.&quot&nbspTheAmerican Economic Review&nbsp105.2(2015): 609-645.

Staines,Henry M., and Sanjeev Krishna eds. Treatmentand prevention of malaria: antimalarial drug chemistry, action, anduse.Springer Science &amp Business Media, 2012.


Last Name 2



Althoughlying is considered unethical, people still do it especially whenthey are faced with a very tough challenge and they have tocompromise. At times, lies go unnoticed, but if one is caught, theconsequences tend to be harsh (Hofmann et al. 8). I remember lyingabout parent-teacher`s conference being canceled, though it was ahard thing to do, I had my reasons and learned a lot from theexperience.


Wehad a communication folder that was neon green, and we would need tobring it home to our parents. I would hide the paperwork during thebus ride home and during dinner time when my dad would ask me howschool was I would tell him everything was good the teacher loves me.Since he was aware of the parent teacher’s conference, he wouldoften ask when it was scheduled. My response was always that, since Ihave been doing great and the teachers love me, they said that thereis no need of us meeting this month, perhaps the following month butluck was not on my side because he eventually became suspicious

Ilied because I was very much convinced that if my parents came, Iwould be in big trouble. My dad is very strict when it come to schoolwork and the fact that I had lied about the first parent teachers’conference meant that I would have to continue with my behavior. Atsome point, I tried working harder to have everything in place inorder, but my dad was too smart because soon my luck ran out and Iwas caught and they ended up putting me in summer school.

Thisexperience was an eye opener because it enabled me to learn about theimportance of honesty. I realized that lying is very complicated asone has to keep on remembering everything. I also learned that it isvery hard to lie to someone who is older because they always knowahead and have a lot of experience. I had learned my lesson the hardway.


Frommy experience about lying to my parents, I learned that we shouldalways be honest with ourselves and others. Lying is a shortcut, andone can easily get caught and get into trouble. I was happy that thisexperience allowed me to interact more and understand my parentsbetter.


Hofmann,Wilhelm, et al. &quotMorality in everyday life.&quot&nbspScience&nbsp345.6202(2014): 1340-1343.


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Tragedyin Oedipus the King

Aristotleclearly outlined some of the ingredients of a tragedy. He stated thata tragic story is an imitation of life, in that, it should berealistic and at the same time have a narrow focus. Aristotle wrotethat a classic tragic story should have one great and complete actionand various elements should contribute to the final tragic event. Thecentral characters in a tragic story, therefore, tend to possessgreat status and qualities but also have some weaknesses “hamartia(Young 3).” Oedipus the King is a tragic play written by Sophocles.Shortly after Oedipus was born, his father, King Laius was told hewas doomed to perish by his son’s hands. The Oracle had prophesiedthat Oedipus would kill his father and marry his mother. Although agreat leader, Oedipus succumbs to fate and upon realizing his deeds,he exiles himself after gouging his eyes out. It is evident from thereading that Oedipus the King is a classical tragedy story because ofthe main character, King Oedipus meets all the definitions of atragic hero.


KingOedipus can be described as a tragic hero because his actions andtitle depict that he was a great man. Although he was the one who hadkilled his father unknowingly and married his mother, he wasdetermined and committed to finding the truth and cure the problembesetting his subjects. According to the Oracle, the gods were hungryat the King`s killer, and unless the perpetrator of the crime wasfound, his kingdom was going to suffer (Roche 6). However, asAristotle state, tragic heroes tend to be people of great charactersbut still have their weaknesses, in the case of Oedipus, his mainflaw overconfidence of what he knows. Additionally, he was carelessand disrespectful towards the gods. It is evident from the play thatafter he had become the king, Oedipus choose to ignore the foretoldprophecy and even after it was clear that he once killed a man, henever questioned if that could have been his father. Hisoverconfidence and lack of respect to the gods eventually lands himand Thebes in great danger from the plague.

Additionally,it can also be said that Oedipus is a tragic hero because he evokesboth fear and pity. From the begging, it is evident that Oedipus issuperior to an average person. For example, he is the only man whocan solve the Sphinx riddle. However, he still far from perfectbecause he is blind to the truth and decide not to believeTeiresias`s warning about his origins. Oedipus is branded a goodfather, but he is not the perfect husband. His character draws fearbecause as a king, Oedipus has a lot of authority over his subjectand can order for their prosecutions. On the other hand, what befallshim also draws a lot of pity because he did not choose his fate. Anindividual reading the play may feel pity because he was not givenfree will to choose the kind of life that he wanted to live.Immediately the Oracle had prophesied Oedipus fate, it was evidentthat all the events were just build ups to his eventual downfall.

Anotherelement of tragedy in the play is well presented in its atmosphere.It is evident that the play is characterized with very serious andfrightening situations. This has, in turn, created dramatic tensionin the mind of the reader. There is a lot of focus on fate and asAristotle emphasized, good tragedies always have some elements ofirony in them (Nevo 12). Everyone reading the play is very much awareof its outcome. The readers know that even though Oedipus wasadopted, he will eventually meet his fate. However, the hero himselfdoes not know, and this makes his actions to depict some form ofignorance. He attempts to change fate but does not succeed. It isevident from the play that Oedipus error is caused by pride and thiseventually lead to his downfall. He ends up killing his father, Laiusand marries his mother who was known as Jocasta.


Inconclusion, it is evident that Oedipus the King is an excellentexample of a tragic story. The main character, King Oedipus meetsAristotle’s definitions of a tragic hero. Tragedy stories accordingto Aristotle focused on a central character who was very powerful buthad some flaws. In many cases, the character would always be veryinfluential, but in the end, he or she eventually falls because ofhis or her fault. In Oedipus the King, Oedipus was the tragic hero.Despite being the King of Thebes and wanting the best for hiskingdom, it is evident that he is also ignorant and careless. Thegods through the Oracle had warned King Laius that his son would killhim and as a result, he ordered his wife to murder the child.However, through fate, Oedipus was rescued and brought up as anadopted child until he grew up and killed his father thus assuminghis throne. Consequently, Oedipus fails to listen to advice given andshows no respect to the gods. As a result, he loses his throne whenhe discovers that he was the one who killed his father and marriedhis mother.


Nevo,Ruth.&nbspTragicform in Shakespeare.Princeton University Press, 2015.

Roche,Paul.&nbspTheOedipus Plays of Sophocles: Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus,Antigone.Signet, 1991.

Young,Julian.&nbspThePhilosophy of Tragedy: From Plato to Žižek.Cambridge University Press, 2013.


Last Name 2


Storageand retrieval of memories in the human brain

Thehuman brain can encode, store and retrieve information. Retrieval ofMemories involves re-accessing of events and information which hadbeen previously encoded and stored in the brain. Memories are storedin the form of minute chemical changes at the points of connectionbetween neurons. Information in the brain is stored either asshort-term or long-term memories. This research paper will describehow the human brain store and retrieve memories.

Storageof memories

Encodingis the first step in the creation of memory. It ensures a sensoryinput is converted into a construct which can be stored within thebrain. A sensory input can either be visual, acoustic, tactile orsemantic (Breedlove et al. 3). Encoding can be affected byperception, attention, and emotion. Perceived sensory information isencoded in various parts of the brain. The cortex decodes thesensations. The hippocampus combines sensory information into oneexperience. Here, an input is classified as long-term or short-termmemory. After encoding, information is consolidated. Consolidation inthe process of stabilization of memory after it has been acquired.

Storagerefers to the retaining of memory in the brain. Information can bestored as a sensory, short-term or long-term memory. Information isfiltered so that the brain is not overloaded and ensuring that oneremains sane. Repeated information tends to be retained more thanthe the occasional ones. Repeated information is maintained in thelong-term memory. Unlike other forms of memories, the long-term onesare stored in the brain as groups of neurons that are programmed tofire in a similar pattern as they were initiated and experience(Proctor, Robert and Vu 6). The memory is stored in the brain areawhere it was generated. For example, the visual cortex neuronscontain information from a specific site. Memory in the brain isreconstructed from the elements scatters in the different parts ofthe brain through a process called encoding.


Retrievalof memories refers to the process of getting information fromstorage. The reason why people do not remember something is that itcannot be retrieved. During retrieval, the brain repeats the neuralactivity generated in response to the stimuli from the information. It occurs through an echo of brains perception about the event. Thereplay is not very identical to the original that is why recallingis mixed with an awareness of prevailing situations. Memories areaccessed through recall or recognition (Baars, Bernard and Gage 7).Recognition involves associating an event or an object to one that isalready in the memory. For example, recognizing a known face.Recalling means remembering event or object when it is not presentphysically. It involves recovering information from the memory. Forexample, remembering the name of someone you recognize. Recognitionis superior because it takes one step of a familiarity decision. Arecall is a two-step process including familiarity decision andchoosing of the correct information. Recalling involvesreconstruction and firing of the neurons involved.


Itis evident that memory storage is an ongoing process of thereclassification of elements due to the continuous changes in theneural pathways and parallel processing of information. The braincan store unlimited amounts of information. Forgetting is the resultof incompletely or wrongly coded information or due to problems ofthe retrieval system. The retrieval system should be fast forwardedto obtain a memory. Remembering is not different from thinking.Memories become smaller with time and new information is added to theold ones over time.


Baars,Bernard J., and Nicole M. Gage.&nbspCognition,brain, and consciousness: Introduction to cognitive neuroscience.Academic Press, 2010.

Breedlove,S. Marc, Neil Verne Watson, and Mark R. Rosenzweig.&nbspBiologicalpsychology.Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, 2010.

Proctor,Robert W., and Kim-Phuong L. Vu. &quotHuman informationprocessing.&quot&nbspEncyclopediaof the Sciences of Learning.Springer US, 2012. 1458-1460.


Heartof Aztlan

Inthe novel, Heart of Aztlan, the author portrays Albuquerque barriowithin the setup of New Mexico as a place where the urban, rural,political and religious realities and happenings of the societycoexist and integrate with each other. In this book, the magicrealism for which Anaya is well known integrates with insistent andcategorical showcasing of the predicament of workers separated fromtheir heritage and often fraught to survive unfamiliar and foreignculture. Owing to this background, the paper analyzes thesocio-political nature of the text. While carrying out the analysis,the paper brings out the message that Rudolfo Anaya sends to theaudience. The paper explains how and why the messages are politicaland the purpose of Anaya in writing the novel. The primary purpose ofAnaya writing this novel and the characters and the aspects of theplot that convey the socio-political messages that are within thebook.


Thevirtue of politics is portrayed clearly through the class strugglesrepresented in the text. The class struggles, in this case, comesonly when the text is evaluated in the context of thematic andstructural strategies that define and characterize the proletariandiscourse. Notably, the discourse must have a global link to theleftist, socialist and Marxist literary movements. This, in fact, isnot any different from the radical politics that he has always shownin his previous works. Through the class struggles, the tension, formand overall meaning of politics is distinctively defined. The textdiscusses the lengthy issues and strategies that define the classstruggles and ultimately the politics of class evident between theproletariats and the bourgeoisie. Some of the portrayals of politicsin this text include the work hazards, the involvement of capitalismand other power structures, unemployment, the presence of atrociousbosses, the presence of corrupt leaders in the union, mentorcharacters, the strikes as well as the conversion narratives.

Wherepolitics play, there is always a power which is a sign of leadershipand authority in an organization. Power has been represented indifferent ways in the text. First, the moon is a symbol ofextraordinary power to Henry(Perez11). Often, individuals feel good when they are accorded specialpowers. These special powers make the individuals feel safe. ToHenry, the moon is symbolic of a better place in the afterlife.Leaders prefer to have a better place after their struggles, in thiscase, a quite home and a loving family. Politics and the leadershipresponsibilities that accompany it mostly tie and chain individualsmostly to a specific schedule or timeline. Through the moon that istalked about, it seems that Henry was not competent in most areas butprobably realized that he was unhappy being chained and thus yearnedfor peace from his life. Therefore, Henry danced to the moon beforedeciding to sacrifice himself to the icy waters of the river.Politics is defined by certain traditions and characteristics. Forone to fully play politics he or she needs to show leadership skills.Perhaps, in this text, the author captures this when he captured thestatement of an older man at the baptism ‘To be a leader a man mustknow the traditions of his father, and I am afraid this newgeneration knows nothing of the old ways.” This statement is true,and it was clearly demonstrated in Albuquerque.

Thestrike is one of the struggles that define the politics of the class.In fact, strikes occur because of the clashes and friction betweenthe two classes, the proletariats and the bourgeoisies. When Anayauses the term snow in the book in reference to Clemente, there is anaspect of a strike that comes out. Anaya notes “Clemente laid downin a drunken stupor and allowed the snow to sap his life away(Hidalgo233).”In this case, snow is used to cleanse the guilt of Clemente and theguilt, in this case, is one of not leading a strike. Later, Crespinnoted that he acted as his baptism, meaning doing away with the oldand introducing the new part. This to some extent would mean the endof leading the struggles of the lower class. Even though politics ispart of the society, not everyone gets involved. There are those whodislike the politics as much as it is part of the society. A case inpoint is Father Cayo not taking a leadership role in the strikes.According to Father Cayo the church is not supposed to get involvedin politics. The father is contended with the much he does in thepulpit and fact he feels he does enough. In fact, according to FatherCayo, the strike would not be beneficial to all. Father Cayo notesthat “No one profits from revolution (Anaya 142).” This is verytrue as only the individuals who places themselves strategicallywould benefit from any form of strike or revolution among theworkers. In addition, to some extent, one may want to contradictdifferent position as Father Cayo as a note that different changesand tremendous ones always occur in times of revolutions.


Heartof Aztlan is a novel that revolves mostly around the social issues inthe community. Religion is one of the most social activities beingpracticed, and it involves, spiritual guide, a seer to support thecharacters handle the challenges they experience and to assist designthe spiritual wholeness, harmony, and peace that bring them anunderstanding of their purpose and identity. In Heart of Aztlan, thisreligious or spiritual guide focuses on Crispin. He is a blind poetwho penetrates through the life of the Chavez family at the pointwhen they experience the hostile environment of the Albuquerquebarrio(Herrera117).

Thestory is set around 1950 when Clemente Chavez and his family areforced to migrate from their much-loved farmland and move to Chicanosuburb in the city of Albuquerque where they find a house locatednext to the house of Clemente`s other children-in-law. Clemente thefirstborn immediately seek employment at the railroad and in theprocess he encounters Aztlan. Unfortunately, the condition of lifebecomes unbearable for the youngest son and in the bid to make endsmeet he becomes a drug addict and is eventually murdered. The rolesof the family responsibility also gradually shift to the middles sonJasón Chávez after his father becomes an alcoholic. Therefore, likehis father, he reveres the farmland they have left and facesdifficulty to adapt to the new environment.

Anothersocial issue that affects the community is poverty, which is mainlyportrayed by women. For instance, when Clemente was unable to cope upwith city life and support his family, he turned his blame to hiswife accusing her of taking responsibility from him and turned hissiblings against him. As a result, that situation forces his wife tocounter for the family for the time being. However, ironically,Clemente convert his focus to alcohol to numb his confusion and pain,until one night he is liberated from death by Crispín. Rescued bythe hero of Aztlán, Clemente slowly charts a different course. Eventhough he tend to be timid at first, he participated in the worker`sunions to uplift their working condition. Clemente was not anofficial for the workers he was fighting for but after the injury ofhis son Benjie he gets the privilege to become a leader. Besides,other women who portrayed in the novel experiences even hardship. Forinstance, two daughters Clemente are forced to become prostitutes tomake ends meet. With low-income family structure and lack ofeducation and parental teaching, they have no hope for the future.They are so short sighted to the extent that they only live for moneyand thus why they opt to trade their body in exchange for money. Themother becomes helpless especially after her husband become analcoholic and must take instructions from her middle son (Herrera115).

Itis also to argue that Crispin arrival changes the traditional dutiesin the family. In a typical set up the father is always the head ofthe household, while the mother becomes his deputy. Nevertheless,since Clemente could not cope up with the religion, capitalism, ortechnology of the city. Crispin steps in as the new leaders of thefamily, which in some communities it is considered, taboo(Hidalgo 221).From the example illustrated in this novel, it is evident that theenvironment and the living standard of the individual influencesocial issues.

Whilecarrying out the analysis, the paper has brought out the message thatRudolfo Anaya sends to the audience. The paper has explained how andwhy the messages are political and the purpose of Anaya in writingthe novel. The main purpose of Anaya writing this novel and thecharacters and the aspects of the plot that conveys thesocio-political messages that are within the book. From this novel,it is evident that there is the integration of Aztlan within thecontemporary structures of global capitalism and not the ethnicoppression as the case in the US mostly by linking myth and theinternational division of labor. In the end, Anaya has evidentlyturned the mythic text to a socio-politic narrative, which envisionsthe politics of love and class struggles.


Anaya,Rudolfo.&nbspHeartof Aztlan: a novel.Open Road Media, 2015.

Herrera,Aishih Wehbe. &quotPerforming masculinity, performing the self:Rudolfo Anaya`s Bless me, Ultima and Heart of Aztlan.&quot&nbspRevistacanaria de estudios ingleses&nbsp66(2013): 111-126.

Hidalgo,Jacqueline M. &quot“Faith and Social Justice Are So Connected inMy Book”: Scriptures, Scrolls, and Scribes as Technologies ofDiaspora.&quot&nbspRevelationin Aztlán.Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016. 213-260.

Perez,Daniel. &quotChicana Aesthetics: A View of Unconcealed Alteritiesand Affirmations of Chicana Identity through Laura Aguilar’sPhotographic Images.&quot&nbspLUX:A Journal of Transdisciplinary Writing and Research from ClaremontGraduate University&nbsp2.1(2013): 22.


Last Name1


Anannotated bibliography religion and theology

Backhaus,Knut. “Echoes from the Wilderness: The Historical John theBaptist.” In&nbspHandbookfor the Study of the Historical Jesus.Vol. 2,&nbsptheStudy of Jesus.Edited by Tom Holmén and Stanley E. Porter, 1747–1785. Leiden, theNetherlands, and Boston: Brill, 2011.

Johnthe Baptist spent a significant section of his life in thewilderness. Here, he preached about repentance and forgiveness in theJewish cities. His primary source of food was wild honey. The authorsstate that John the Baptist was the prime mover of Jesus movement.The book describes John as the Jewish Shadow man and Jesus Christ asthe true figurehead of cultural Protestantism. To an extent, theauthor claims that by baptizing Jesus, he inspired Christ. Thisarticle also makes references to the book of Mark and how the writerdescribed John as Jesus’ forerunner. It is evident from theauthor’s perspective that John sacrificed a lot for the sake ofChrist and Christianity as a whole. The climax of his work was whenhe baptized Jesus and also died for the truth.

Accordingto the author, John the Baptist was also not sure if Jesus was theComing one. However, in the Gospel of Mathew, his doubt is clearedwhen he sends some of his disciples to Jesus, and they come back withaccounts of the things that they have seen. The author also statesthat in the book of Luke, Baptism serves as Jesus` praying anddisclosure. Another critical point that one can learn from thereading is that John`s role is not only confined to the forerunner.Instead, he is described as a witness to Jesus` teaching. Thiscredible source will be used to show how the gospels depict John theBaptist’s character. It is evident that every gospel has a uniqueattribute about John. Understanding John’s character from differentwriters of the gospel can help one have a comprehensive knowledgeabout his relation with Jesus’ Christ.

Smith,Andrew Philip.&nbspJohnthe Baptist and the Last Gnostics: The Secret History of theMandaeans.Watkins Media Limited, 2016.

Accordingto this book, John the Baptist came before Jesus Christ to preparethe way. The authors narrate about the secret life of John theBaptist and how he openly criticized hypocrisy and injustice that wasrampant among the Jews leader. According to the book, John theBaptist ended up losing his life in pursuit of the truth. The bookmainly talks about baptism and relate it to the Mandaeans culture.According to Smith and Philip, the Mandaeans have weekly baptism atthe center of their religious life, and they believe that the founderof this practice was none other than John the Baptist. This suggeststhat in his days, John`s work was not only confined to Israel. It islikely that he traveled across the land to other regions.

Inproving if the above allegations of John the Baptist visiting theMandaeans and evangelizing to them are true, the authors firstacknowledge that John the Baptist was a forerunner to the Christianrevelation and was beheaded by Herod Antipas and Jesus was crucified.Towards the end, the authors state that the Mandaeans story is a truealternative history. For the research, this resource will be used toaffirm that even though John the Baptist’s work was to be theforerunner who would prepare the way for Jesus Christ, he alsoinfluenced other people to become Christians through Baptism. It islikely that John traveled to other places such as the current Iraq topreach and baptize people. This is why societies such have theMandaeans have baptism ceremonies and believe that the Baptistinstalled it to them and is thus a significant part of their life.

Taylor,Joan E., and Federico Adinolfi. &quotJohn the Baptist and Jesus theBaptist: A Critical Narrative Approach.&quot Journalfor the Study of the Historical Jesus&nbsp10.3(2012): 247-284.

Thisjournal article claims that John the Baptist was an enigmatic figurein the New Testament. The authors quote that John is the forerunnerwho described Jesus as the &quotLamb of God&quot (1:29).Additionally, he was also remarkable because called for repentanceand baptism in preparation for a coming figure who was stronger thanhim. The Journal states that since John the Baptist was the one whobaptized Jesus, their relationship was deep and has been of greatinterest to many religious scholars. The article also talks about thestatus of John. He is described as a widely esteemed man who wasunjustly killed.

Johnwas known as the baptizer or the Baptist because of his practice ofwater immersion as a sign of repentance. Additionally, John enjoyedother reputation as a teacher and a prophet of the Lord. John theBaptist preached on ethics and different dimensions of the law. Heopenly criticized immorality. The example given to show his stand onmoral issues was his confrontation with Herod Antipas which led tohis arrest and execution. The author acknowledges that even thoughJohn the Baptist encountered Jesus Christ only a few times in lifelifetime, the few opportunities that they engaged with each other hada lot of significance to Christianity. For the research, the journalwill be used to emphasize on the intense relationship that existedbetween John the Baptist and Jesus Christ. It will also be used toshow Jesus’ reaction to the news that John was dead. Lastly, itwill be used to affirm that John the Baptist`s role was critical tothe fulfillment of Christ`s mission on earth.


Backhaus,Knut. “Echoes from the Wilderness: The Historical John theBaptist.” In&nbspHandbookfor the Study of the Historical Jesus.Vol. 2,&nbsptheStudy of Jesus.Edited by Tom Holmén and Stanley E. Porter, 1747–1785. Leiden, theNetherlands, and Boston: Brill, 2011.

Smith,Andrew Philip.&nbspJohnthe Baptist and the Last Gnostics: The Secret History of theMandaeans.Watkins Media Limited, 2016.

Taylor,Joan E., and Federico Adinolfi. &quotJohn the Baptist and Jesus theBaptist: A Critical Narrative Approach.&quot Journalfor the Study of the Historical Jesus&nbsp10.3(2012): 247-284.


GroupProject-Top Gear (Season 15, Episode 2)

Asone of the leading British television series aired, Top Gear mainlyfocuses on motor vehicles with a bias on the motorcars. This paperseeks to provide the analysis of the Season 15, episode 2 of TopGear. The deeper meanings of the show and the manner in which itinteracts with the audience will form part of the analysis.

Theshow begins by offering the three presenters an opportunity to buy afour-door salon using a budget under £ 5000 (BBC 1). This is anexample of the daily challenges that individuals face in life. Atthis point, the show is evidently informative and entertaining whileoffering individuals with the opportunity to make rational choices.

Thechoice of the location from which the show is shot is a bare metalwarehouse. The warehouse looks like a car garage. The scene could beconstructed to represent a strong motoring influence particularly.

Thechoice of presenters as well as the clothes that they are putting on,adds aesthetic value to the show. Normally, the visual signs aredenotative and look like their referent. The leading presenter,Jeremy Clarkson is putting on a beige blazer, jeans and a shirt (TopGear, 2014). Individuals who have disposable income sufficient to getthe latest model don this kind of attire. The attire creates a clearconnection with the audience whose interest is likely to buy thelatest motor vehicles that feature in the show.

Theaudience in the show is mainly made up of men though very few of themhave t-shirts that portray their interest in cars (Top Gear). Forinstance, one of the male audience had a McLaren Mercedes Formula Onet-shirt on. Jeremy while referring to this person noted that “Peoplelike you go to track days (Top Gear, 2014).” From this, it isevident that the presenter is monitoring his community and can relateto them. In fact, the putting on of the t-shirt shows the level ofenthusiasm.


BBC.Top Gear. [online]. (n.d). Retrieved form [Accessed 4th November,2016].

TopGear. Top Gear. (2014). [online] Available at:&lt [Accessed 5th November 2016].



RhetoricalAnalysis of a Visual Medium

BatonRouge Orthopedic Clinic poster is a medical service advert. Themessage displayed is that the health care facility has extended thetime frame for its services to very late into the night. In the uppermiddle segment of the print, there is the company logo, which is acartoon image of a person who is assumed to be flying past the moon.A significant section of the poster is covered in blue, which isprobably an image of a large water body and rays from the moon. Theposter designer has also used very catchy phrases and has repeatedthe word late thrice. There is a clear display of the times which theclinic will be opened throughout the week. In the lower section ofthe poster, the designer has indicated the kind of services that theywill be offering and the qualification of their staff. Thisadvertisement is effective in its persuasive argument because theauthor of the brochure has used rhetorical techniques such as pathos,logos, and ethos and also connotations and donations.

Aimof the Visual Medium

TheBaton Rouge Orthopedic Clinic`s poster seeks to inform members of thepublic that it is now offering a unique kind of medical care.According to the print advert, they have extended their service timeuntil late at night. The Baton Rouge Orthopedic Clinic is aspecialized health institution that treats orthopedic patients. Whileother firms offering similar services close early in the evening,Baton Rouge goes an extra mile and guarantees its customers that itwill remain open for the better part of the night. The targetaudience for the advert is the working population affected orsuffering from orthopedic injuries and are committed during the dayand are only seek medical attention after work in the evening or veryearly in the morning. Regarding the genre and the media, this is abrochure advert.

Howthe claims are supported

Insupporting its claim, the author of Baton Rouge Orthopedic Clinic’sposter has effectively used ethos. For example, they have specifiedthe particular times that their clinic will be opened during theweekdays and on weekends. Additionally, they have assured theirclients that they will only be treated by qualified and verycompetent staff. It is evident from the image that the author assumesthat the audience is knowledgeable about orthopedic services becausethey do not emphasize on explaining what it entails. Lastly, noexternal sources have been used in the poster.

Analysisof the Medium

Thevisual medium is persuasive because the designers have effectivelyutilized as logos. The health sector is very delicate, and as aresult, anyone seeking medical attention will probably look for aqualified and licensed personnel to treat him or her (Berger 20). Itis evident that this component has been incorporated into the picturebecause they have acknowledged that their clinic is adequatelystaffed with physician and nurses who are skilled in orthopedicinjuries. Incorporating logics in visual medium help the advertiserto build credibility and acquire the trust of his or her targetaudience (Jensen 15).

Additionally,there is an element of pathos in the image. It is evident that byincorporating elements of pathos in the image, the designer aims atpersuading his or her target audience by connecting to thememotionally (Riff, Daniel, Stephen Lacy, and Frederick Fico 14). Oneof the unique things about the kind of services that Baton RougeOrthopedic Clinic is offering is that it targets those who arrivefrom work late but are usually unable to receive medical attentionbecause by then most community clinics are closed.

Tofurther persuade their target audience, Baton Rouge OrthopaedicClinic has also utilized connotations. The word “late” has beenused in the image three times to show emphasis (Jensen 21). It isclear that they want the public to know that they are unique in thatthey offer late night services. The emphasis on “Late” also makesthe name of the clinic memorable. The language used at the bottom ofthe poster especially the last sentence very convincing. The posterhas used the phrase &quotThe after Hours Clinic provides analternative to the Emergency Room or Urgent Care centers.&quot Manypeople do not like going to the emergency room as they believe thatonly serious and critical conditions require such attention, thedesigner is seeking to tap into their fear by offering an alternative

Lastly,some element of denotation has been used in the picture in that bluecolor has often been used when referring to the masses. The ripplingwater that has a cast image of the moon is a persuasive visualtechnique because it signifies masses and the night concepts.Additionally, it creates an impression that Baton Rouge OrthopaedicClinic is a cool place. Anybody looking at the poster willimmediately know that the clinic operates very late into the night.Additionally, since denotation often makes use of symbols, it can aswell be said that the clinic’s logo of a man sprinting past themoon seeks to emphasize on the whole aspect of late-night healthcare.


Theclinic’s poster has properly combined and used different rhetoricaltechniques such as logos pathos and ethos to persuade its audience toseek its services. Additionally, they have incorporated connotationsand denotation by including persuasive images. All these elementscombined creates an impression that Baton Rouge Orthopedic Clinic isa serene and calm place where patients can receive the best healthcare service.


Berger,Arthur Asa.&nbspMediaand communication research methods: An introduction to qualitativeand quantitative approaches.Sage Publications, 2015.

Riff,Daniel, Stephen Lacy, and Frederick Fico.&nbspAnalyzingmedia messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research.Routledge, 2014.

Jensen,Klaus Bruhn, Ed.&nbspAhandbook of media and communication research: Qualitative andquantitative methodologies.Routledge, 2013.



TITLE:Why donate blood?

THESIS:Saving lives must not involve jumping in front of bullets but simplydonating blood.


Excellentreasons why you should be a blood donor.

  1. Every 2 seconds someone needs blood.

  1. One common mistake people do is to think that only accident victims require blood, they are wrong. People with major surgeries or treatment like cancer therapy require large amounts of blood transfusions to live. (Bianco, Celso 6).

  2. There is no artificial equivalent for human blood, therefore, people who need but lack blood will likely die. This patient could be a relative, friend or spouse.

  1. You do not have to be a superhero to save lives every day.

  1. Donating blood even once saves three people. The blood is grouped into platelets, red blood cells, and plasma. All these three separate components will save a life (Clowes, Rebekah and Barbara M. Masser 13). These three people’s lives will be saved, and they might donate blood one day that will save you. Nothing feels better than knowing you saved three lives.

  2. Aside from transfusing blood to adults, blood is also given to infants. You can save an innocent soul. This innocent infant might turn out to be a surgeon that will save your life when you are older (Daniels, Geoff and Imelda Bromilow 12).

  1. Donate because you or someone you know will need blood at least once during their lifetime.

  1. It is a fact that one out of every three people will require blood transfusion in their lifetime. This statistic means that if you know at least two people, one of you will need a blood transfusion (Lefrère, Jean-Jacques and Bruno Danic 7).

  2. Save the life of a stranger today, and a stranger will save your life or your families lives tomorrow. Donating blood allows you to be saved in the blood banks databases, therefore, when you will require a blood transfusion, the hospitals will work extra hard to ensure that you receive blood due to your previous sacrifice (Rahm, Alanna Kulchak et al. 30).



(Rahm,Alanna Kulchak et al.)


Bianco,Celso. &quotDifficult Blood Donor Choices: Dance, Feast Or DonateBlood?&quot.&nbspRevistaBrasileira De Hematologia E Hemoterapia,vol 35, no. 4, 2013,&nbspRevistaBrasileira De Hematologia E Hemoterapia (RBHH),doi:10.5581/1516-8484.20130073.

Clowes,Rebekah and Barbara M. Masser. &quotRight Here, Right Now: TheImpact Of The Blood Donation Context On Anxiety, Attitudes,Subjective Norms, Self-Efficacy, And Intention To DonateBlood&quot.Transfusion,vol 52, no. 7, 2011, pp. 1560-1565.&nbspWiley-Blackwell,doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03486.x.

Daniels,Geoff and Imelda Bromilow.&nbspEssentialGuide To Blood Groups. Chichester,John Wiley And Sons, 2013,.

Lefrère,Jean-Jacques and Bruno Danic. &quotBlood Donation On Posters: AWorldwide Review&quot.Transfusion,vol 52, no. 6, 2011, pp. e1-e14.&nbspWiley-Blackwell,doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03422.x.

Rahm,Alanna Kulchak et al. &quotBiobanking For Research: A Survey OfPatient Population Attitudes And Understanding&quot.&nbspJournalOf Community Genetics, vol 4, no. 4,2013, pp. 445-450.&nbspSpringerNature,doi:10.1007/s12687-013-0146-0.




Outlineof Essay

  1. Thesis statement-

A-Transition sentence

  1. First topic sentence




D-Quote from the Ark of Bones Story

E-Quote from the A Credit to the Race story

  1. Second topic sentence




D-Quote from the Ark of Bones Story

E-Quote from the A Credit to the Race story

  1. Third topic sentence




D-Quote from the Ark of Bones Story

E-Quote from the A Credit to the Race story

  1. Conclusion as a topic sentence

Comparingand Contrasting “Ark of Bones” and “A Credit to the Race”

Ata time when racism was high in America, some Black people still triedto find jobs even in places that were owned by white people whileothers still stuck to their earlier ways of earning a living. Oneconsistent theme about black people’s lives during the traditionalera is that they were not showing support for each other. Some blackpeople who wanted to work and achieve something in life were notsupported by the rest of their race. This paper compares the “Arkof Bones” story by Henry Duma and that of “A Credit to the Race”by discussing the two themes as they are prevalent in the twostories.

Althoughfishing is presented as a means for black people to earn a living,they can also earn a living doing white collar jobs. In the ‘Ark ofbones’, the author is a skilled fisherman. He knows all the goodfishing spots and his skills are the primary means through which heearns a living. However, despite being black too, the author from‘Credit to a race’ relies on contemporary white collar jobs toearn a living. “Headeye,he never fish much, but I guess he knowed the river good as anybody.But he ain’t know where the fishin was good. Thas why I knowed hewas followin me.” (Dumas,1974, p. 1).““Start Monday morning,” Greespahn says, “and be on time.”(Kgositsile,1968, p.56).

Comparisonof the two short stories revealed that there is a recurring theme ofblack people not supporting each other in terms of work ordevelopment in both two stories. In the “Arkof Bones”, story the author realizes that his friend, Haedeyeis followinghim to the river and choses to mislead him. In “A Credit to theRace”, the author is ridiculed by his friends at the pub he goes todrink to because he works uptown where white people are dominant.“Thas why I was going along downriver stead of up,where I knowed fishin was good.” (Dumas,1974, p. 1). “Yeh,you been gone alright. I heard about you. Uptown, messin’ where yougot no business.” (Kgositsile,1968, p.58).

Thecharacter of the main authors in both stories is different. Theauthor of “Ark of Bones” is selfish while the author of “ACredit to the Race” is generous. When asked by a friend to buy herdrinks the author of “A Credit to the Race” buys her severaldrinks while the author of “Ark of Bones” refuses to show hisfriend the spot where fishing is good in the river. “I buy her adrink and leave” (Kgositsile, 1968, p.60). “Thaswhy I was going along downriver stead of up, where I knowed fishinwas good.” (Dumas,1974, p. 1).

Thetwo short stories discussed in the essay talk about the life of blackpeople during the traditional era but in different perspectives. Thecontrasting thing between the stories is the manner in which blackpeople earn a living. In “Ark of Bones” the black people are seento earn a living through fishing, while in “A Credit to the Race”they can earn a living doing white collar jobs. One of the commonthemes found between the two stories is the lack of support for eachother among black people. In “Ark of Bones” the author isridiculed by fellow blacks for finding a job uptown while in “ACredit to the Race” the author tries to mislead his friend so thathe may not end up being a successful fisherman.


Dumas,H. (1974).&nbspArkof Bones and Other Stories.Random House (NY).

Kgositsile,K. (1968). Black Writers’ Views on Literary Lions and Values.&nbspBlackWorld/Negro Digest,&nbsp17,10-58.


Last Name 2


Argumentfor Gun Control

Asof 23rdDecember 2015, a total of 12,942 people in the United States hadsuccumbed to gun violence. This could have occurred as homicides,murder, suicide or unintentional shootings. On the other hand, lessthan just a month after six adults and 20 children were shot andkilled at Sandy Hook Elementary school. A few weeks later, countrywas shocked by another killing whereby a 16-year-old high schoolstudent used a shotgun and wounded two people, and the list goes on.The above cases indicate that the issue of gun control is a seriousconcern and should be given the attention it requires. When it comesto the debate on gun control, some section of the population havealways stated that gun ownership is a constitutional right and shouldthus not be infringed. Consequently, other aggregates supporting theneed for gun control state that it has more harms than good. From anindividual`s perspective, there is a need for gun control because thefuture of the future of the country is at stake.


Oneof the main reason as to why there is the need for gun control isbecause they are not safe. More guns in the hands of the citizenstranslate to increased cases of homicides. According to statistics,every year, more than two thousand people die as a result ofgun-related injuries. The most affected population, as is depicted inthe cases, are mostly young adolescents and children (McGinty et al.3). In one of the reports released by the firearm regulation agency,the United States ranked top among all the other industrializedcountries in terms of weaker laws on gun ownership yet it had ahigher number of deaths involving the misuse of the weapons. Thestudy even noted that the number of deaths relating to guns was threetimes and higher in the US than Brazil and Jamaica which are knownfor gun related violence (Siegel, Michael, Ross, and Charles 6). Theweaker laws regarding gun ownership have made guns unsafe because thelikelihood of it landing in the wrong hands are high. Additionally,since members of the public are not adequately trained on gun usageand the possibility of misuse and unintentional shooting is alsohigh.

Gunsshould be controlled because they lead to high crime rates. MostMassacres make use of legal weapons. In the years between 1982 and2012, the United States experienced about 62 mass shooting. A furtherlook at what could have driven such astonishing numbers affirmed thatamong the 62 shootings, 49 were perpetrated using legal weapons(Siegel, Michael, Ross, and Charles 3). People with anger managementissues and those who are mentally challenged have often used thisavenue to pour their frustrations on innocent and unsuspectingAmericans. Still on guns and crime rates, a closer look at some ofthe countries that have enforced stricter gun control rules such asAustralia show that their efforts have proven to be fruitful becausethey have fewer deaths by firearms than the United States. TheAustralian government had begun working on gun regulation back thenin 1996 following a shooting which had killed 35 people. Since then,government statistics from the country indicate that firearm reportedhomicides have dropped by 59% within a span of 10 years (Jeffrey 1).

Availingguns to everyone increases the likelihood of violence in a community.One of the public health approaches to violence prevention is byensuring that it never take place in the first place and limiting thenumber of fatal injuries. When it comes to gun related violence, itis important to note that several factors could influence anindividual`s decision. Research, for instance, indicate thatsocio-structural factors such as high unemployment rates, politicalinstability, religious and ethnic hostilities and financial problemscan all influence violence (Jeffrey 3). It is therefore evident thatwhen guns are availed in such an environment and there are no strictlaws to govern its usage, injuries and even death can occur.Additionally, the use of a firearm is also influenced by individualfactors such as alcohol abuse, feeling of personal inadequacy andmental disorders (McGinty et al. 4). When a person continues toexperience violence at home, and he or she becomes angry, there is alikelihood that they may opt for a gun.

Guncontrol can help the government, and its security agenciesdifferentiate between a criminal and a normal citizen. This can beachieved by enforcing a ban which prohibits people from carryingtheir firearms on specific days, for example, public holidays,weekends and holiday because they are often associated with a lot ofhomicide cases. The government can then embark on a campaign aimed atinforming the people the new measures. In crime throne areas, it islikely that many criminals will not hide to the governmentdirectives. The police can go ahead and conduct a randomized searchon individuals during the selected days. In instances whereby aperson is caught in possession of a gun, the gun can be withdrawn oftaken to court. Those without the legal proof to own the firearms canalso be arrested. This will serve to deny high-risk users access tofirearms and will also make it difficult for members of a particulargroup to possess a firearm.

Thereis the need for stricter gun laws because what the country alreadyhas is enough and is difficult to manage. The Guardian newspaperstates that the United States has the highest number of guns in theworld. Americans are more armed that Russians, Pakistanis and peoplefrom Afghanistan. In fact, recent studies have also hinted that thegun situation in the United States is worse than in some of the LatinAmerican countries that are overrun by drug cartels (Siegel, Michael,Ross, and Charles 2).

Strictergun laws need to be enacted especially with the rise of globalterrorism. Unlike the way the society was many years ago when thesecond amendment was being enacted, there has been a lot of change inregards to political and religious ideology. The contemporaryAmerican citizen is faced with social challenges such as Islamophobia(Wintemute and Garen 1). In more than one occasions, homelandsecurity agencies have intercepted several crimes that could havebeen perpetrated by Americans citizen who are working together withthe country`s enemies. Local terrorism has now become a majorsecurity concern than Al Qaida. What this means to the country isthat as long as the regulatory laws governing gun ownership are stilllenient, the enemies of the United States can always find their wayinto the country and bribe some non-patriotic citizens thus leadingto significant loss of lives.


Thoseagainst the idea of gun control state that even such policies were tobe enacted, people would always have access to guns and the samecrimes would persist in the society. The only disadvantage would bethat some people would be more vulnerable than others. Theseindividuals also claim that the current laws are often poorlyexecuted and as a result, criminals can buy guns even when the lawsays that such sales should be prohibited. Instead of coming up newpolicies which are doomed to fail, the existing ones need to bestrengthened. Those opposed to gun control also say that “gunsdon’t kill people but people do.&quot This suggests that insteadof focusing on the gadget, special attention needs to be given todeveloping values and good morals on citizens and respect for the law(Jena, Anupam, Sun, and Prasad 3).

Arebuttal to above claims is that the future of the country is toogreat for its citizens to give up, Instead of leaving the bulk of thework to law enforcement agencies, citizens can intervene and ensurethat the provide adequate intelligence regarding illegal ownership ofguns. It is evident that as time goes and there is culturalintegration, some of the moral values are slowly being faded away,and innocent Americans will continue to suffer because of excess gunsin the society.


Itis evident that the government should enact policies to control gunownership in the United States. Although gun advocates argue thateven if prohibited, people will always have guns and that suchpolicies violate individual`s right to self-defense, from anindividual’s perspective, this is a defective analogy. Gun controlwill ensure that there are few cases of homicide. Additionally, as isthe case in countries where gun ownership is highly prohibited, therewill be a significant reduction in crime rates. Gun control can helpthe government and its security agencies distinguish between acriminal and a normal citizen and lastly, it will assist in thecombat against domestic tourism. Currently, more than 2000 Americansdie annually in gun-related incidences. Ignoring such statistics onlyserve to show that Americans are self-centered and do not care aboutthe future of their countries and grandchildren who will be left withnothing to defend. Additionally, with the level of financing that thenational government has put on home and security, personal gunownership only serve to protect the interest of a few and not thegeneral population. There is, however, the need to promote values andgood morals amongst citizens so that they learn to leave in peacewith each other and resort to peaceful methods of conflict resolutionas opposed to gun violence.


Bridge,Jeffrey A., et al. &quotSuicide trends among elementary school–agedchildren in the United States from 1993 to 2012.&quot JAMAPediatrics&nbsp169.7(2015): 673-677.

Jena,Anupam B., Eric C. Sun, and Vinay Prasad. &quotDoes the declininglethality of gunshot injuries mask a rising epidemic of gun violencein the United States?&quot&nbspJournalof general internal medicine&nbsp29.7(2014): 1065-1069.

McGinty,Emma E., et al. &quotNews media framing of serious mental illnessand gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.&quot&nbspAmericanjournal of public health&nbsp104.3(2014): 406-413.

Siegel,Michael, Craig S. Ross, and Charles King III. &quotThe relationshipbetween gun ownership and firearm homicide rates in the UnitedStates, 1981–2010.&quot&nbspAmericanjournal of public health&nbsp103.11(2013): 2098-2105.

Wintemute,Garen J. &quotThe epidemiology of firearm violence in thetwenty-first century the United States.&quot Annualreview of public health36 (2015): 5-19.


DatingHabits of Traditional University Students

Theresearch Question for this study will be: “Do male traditionalstudents have more dating partners compared to their femalecounterparts?”

Reviewof Literature

Iwill have to look for past literature regarding the dating habits oftraditional university students aged between the age of 18-21. Theliterature review will focus majorly on the number of dating partnersthis particular student have had based on previous studies. Theliterature review will also include other studies that touch on thedating habits of these particular students.

Definitionof variables in the Question

Genderis the dependent variable and Number of dating partners as theindependent variable.

Operationallydefining variables

Thevariables in this research study are gender and Number of datingpartners

  1. Gender

Thisis the sex of the student interviewed. It can be either male orfemale and it has a categorical level of measurement.

  1. Number of dating partners

Thisis the number of people that a particular student has dated for thepast 3 years cumulatively. This has a ratio scale of measurement

Formingthe hypothesis

Thehypothesis in this study is:

Nullhypothesis (H0):The number of dating partners of the male students is less or equalto the number of dating partners of the female students.

Alternativehypothesis (H1):The number of dating partners of the male students is greater thanthe number of dating partners of the female students.


Thisis the process of getting the data to be used to analyze the researchquestion. The method to be used is the survey research method. Thesurvey research method applied is a 10-question questionnaire that isused to collect data regarding the research question and other fewdating habits of the traditional university students. The reason forusing the survey research method specifically a questionnaire is thatit will enable the researcher to gather primary data. The datacollected is current, which will make the study up-to-date. Thequestionnaire will be administered through the student portal wherethe questionnaire will be attached in the university website and thestudents can be able to answer the questions anonymously. This ismeant to ensure that there are honest responses since the studentswill not shy away from sharing the information. The sample sizerequired for this study is 200 students with 100 being male and theother 100 being female.

Theadvantages of survey research methods are it is relatively cheap toconduct it compared to other research methods, the surveys can beadministered in many ways that include email, online, social media,paper surveys and face-to-face interviews which makes it veryflexible. Since the number of responses can be in plenty it meansthat by using the survey research methods one can infer the resultson the larger population (De Vaus 4). Hence, one is able to describethe characteristics of the population easily. The survey researchmethod also is dependable in that the anonymity of the survey ensuresthe respondents give more honest and valid responses.

Oneof the weaknesses of the survey research method is that it includesinappropriate questions in the survey. It is also not preferred whencollecting data regarding controversial issues compared to otherresearch methods like using focus groups as method has some level ofinflexibility in that the survey being used from the beginning andthe method of administering cannot be changed throughout the datagathering process (FowlerJr 20).


Theindependent samples t-test will be used to analyze the data by usingSPSS. The independent samples t-test will be appropriate for thisstudy as it is used to test if there is a difference between twomeans (Lowry 2). The mean difference in this case will be establishedfrom the number of dating partners of male and female traditionalstudents.

Writinga report

Areport will be written based on the results that are found in thedata analysis. The report has to be based on the research questionhighlighting the findings and their relevance to the current society.


DeVaus, David. Surveysin social research.Routledge, 2013.

FowlerJr, Floyd J. Surveyresearch methods.Sage publications, 2013.

Lowry,Richard. &quotConcepts and applications of inferential statistics.&quot(2014).


1.What is your current year of study of study?

2.What is your age?

3.What is your gender?

4.How Many dating partners have you had in the past 3 years?

5.What are the reasons for the answer given above?

6.What is the length (in months) of the longest relationship you havebeen in in the past 3 years?

7.What are the reasons for the answer given above?

8.Do you use any dating sites?

  1. No

  2. Yes

9.If so how often?

10.Do you believe it is easier getting a dating partner through a datingsite than in normal socialization?

  1. No

  2. Yes

Thankyou for participating.


TheCitizens United Supreme Court Decision

Inthe last six years since the Supreme Courts made the decision inregards to Citizens United, there has been the dominance of a largeamount of money over politics. Both the electorate and the politicalparties, as well as the other political stakeholders, have felt theeffects. This paper argues that theCitizens United Supreme Court decision is bad not only because itopens the floodgates for unregulated money in politics but alsobecause it elevates the influence and importance of outside interestsover the political parties.

Theamount that is spent on elections has increased since the inceptionof the law. More of the spending has increasingly been facilitated byfew people who harbor special interest have been funding theelections (Kennedy 1). This underscores the need to have a properpolitical party structure. The political parties have structures andways of raising funds for their activities. Through this, the partyideologies are no longer considered but the interest of a fewindividuals who fund the elections. Democracy in America has justturned to be a mockery as the financiers of the elections are left tohave more powers in regards to the country’s direction as comparedto the majority of the Americans who harbor different opinionsregarding the public policy as compared to the wealthy individuals(Kennedy 1).

Byhaving the financial control of the elections, the financiers gethold of most of the political powers (Kennedy 1). This makes theparty divert from the financing elections and advocating foraccountability within its structure. Currently, America is at a lowpoint where the financial interests control vast of the politicalpower, hence Supreme Court remains to be blamed for the campaignfinance decisions.

Theinfiltration of “dark money” into politics has undermined thestructures of political parties. The different office bearers withina political party are never given any consideration. This means thatsome of the roles played by the office holders are undermined too.This then implies that some of the party ideals that are communicatedby the different office bearers within the party are ignored (Kennedy1). In a way, the party is driven financially and not by ideals. Thehighest bidder determines the core decisions made within the party orat times ignores the party position. Indeed the Citizens UnitedSupreme Court decision has not been productive because it elevatesthe influence and importance of outside interests over the politicalparties.


Kennedy,Liz. TOP 5 WAYS CITIZENS UNITED HARMS DEMOCRACY &amp TOP 5 WAYSWE’RE FIGHTING TO TAKE DEMOCRACY BACK. Demos.(2015). Retrieved from[Accessed 7/11/2016]



TheUnited States has been spending so much money to fight poverty yet todate it remains one of the countries with the highest child povertyrates in most of the developed nations (Porter 1). It is documentedthat one in every five children in America is poor. Using theinternational standards that has the poverty line at one-half theincome of the families on the middle rung of the income chart, it isnoted that the level of tolerance of child poverty in the UnitedStates was more than 30 of the 35 countries that are in theOrganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (Porter1). Thispaper seeks to find out the reasons why child poverty is critical,reasons for child poverty, and effects of child poverty and offerrecommendations.

Settingthe poverty line at the approximately US $23,000 for a family made upof four members, the Census Bureau at the United States in 2011approximated that more than 16 million US children that live in poorfamilies. Poor children are known to start their schooling andacademics way after the affluent partners have done so. Owing tothis, they lose ground during the school years. The effectsacademically are negative as poor US kindergarten children are knownto have lower levels of reading and mathematics skills(Duncan, Kalil, and Ziol-Guest 27).In regards to their behaviors, they are less behaved as compared tothe more affluent ones. The trend and the habit are carriedthroughout as the children from the poor families proceed to completeless schooling, they earn less compared to the affluent ones andoften are less healthy. Currently, the U.S has a higher proportion ofpoor children compared to Norway or Netherlands or Russia. In fact,the percentage of the poor children is three times higher in U.S ascompared to Norway or the Netherlands(DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, and Smith 5).

WhyChild Poverty Matters

Povertyis a highly important issue to the American society as it can beconsidered as a national security matter, an economic security issueand moral issue (Walton 1). Poverty is always a threat to any societygiven that failure to invest in the children only means that thefuture will be doomed. It will all be failures and America will be acountry that individuals do not deserve. Notably, it is important tonote that competition in the global world is impossible when thefuture of the children is in jeopardy (Walton 1). Competition is notpossible when the majority of all races cannot read correctly at thegrade level. A case in point is the military failing to absorb mostof the 18-22 years old because they have health issues or rather theyare illiterate (Walton 1). This will mean that the super powerposition of the country will be at stake(Egger 1).The policies that have been set need to be revised to accommodate thechanges so that there is an active population in place. America needsto invest in the children to ensure that the wide gap that existsbetween greed and creed is reduced (Walton 1).

Reasonsfor the Child Poverty

PoorTax Policy

Thechild tax deduction is one such policy that is not entirely wellthought. Through this policy, families exclude $4,000 a child fromthe taxable income. In effect, the policy mostly avoids the poor.This policy costs the federal budget approximately $40 billion, butonly 1 percent of it goes to the poorest fifth of the population(Porter 1). This means that for every other poor family, the averagebenefit accrued from this tax policy is just $10.

Nonetheless,the $58 billion child tax credit is more progressive (Porter 2). Thischild tax credit reduces a tax bill by $1,000 for every child.However, most of the families that are in the bottom fifth areallocated only ten percent of the money. This then translates to anaverage of $120 annually (Porter 2). Usually, the tax credits resultin difference for most of the poor families as this helps to cut therate of child poverty by almost a third.

Forthe children whose parents do not work, they are likely not to haveany form of cushioning. These children are left to depend on the foodstamps mainly. The American safety net has very little to offer tothe children.


Inabilityto Purchase Acquire Children Needs

Inan economic sense, the focus is on the buying capacity of money(Duncan,Kalil, and Ziol-Guest 29).For the families that lack the economic resources, they cannot be ina position to buy or even produce some of the important basic needsthat impart the development of their children. For the poor families,they cannot purchase the nutritious meals they cannot afford properhome care and better learning environments as well as the safe andstimulating neighborhood that has older children, higher qualityschools, and better education system (Duncan,Kalil, and Ziol-Guest 29).In fact, in PQ Press (904), the lack of children needs is stated tolikely result into crime as stated:

“Childrenwho are reared in poor families, more likely to fail in school, dropout of school, get arrested.”

Qualityof Family Relationship

Childpoverty only means that there are negative effects in regards to thefamily relationships. The quality of family relationships determinesthe quality of child upbringing. Poverty has detrimental effects onchildren. Poverty and economic insecurity for most of the parents arevery detrimental as it affects the mental health that is likely to beone of the reasons for low-income parents’ lack of parentingsupport. Owing to this, some of the parents are likely to bedepressed as well as their children. The depression and other kindsof psychological distress can significantly affect the interactionsbetween the parents and the children (Duncan,Kalil, and Ziol-Guest 29).

Thelow-income parents in comparison to the middle-class parents moreoften use the authoritarian and punitive style of parenting (Duncan,Kalil, and Ziol-Guest 29).Subsequently, they stand fewer chances of providing to the childrenopportunity for stimulating learning experiences in their homes.


Thereis a need to address the issues that concern child poverty in UnitedStates (U.S). One such way of dealing with the issue is from thepolicy viewpoint. The early childhood is mostly one such period wheneconomic deprivation is likely to compromise the health of thechildren as well as the employment opportunities. Owing to this,there is the need to have in place better policy measures to helpsolve the issues that arise which involve mainly deep and persistentpoverty among the children(CQ Press 921).

Thereis also need to check on the trends of poverty rates among childrenespecially deep poverty that occur early in childhood. Through this,the policy discussions concerning the children’s well-being can beproperly informed.

DoublingTax Credit

Oneof the ways is also to have a double tax credit for children to$2,000 for every child up to a certain age, the preferable age of 4years. Through this, there is a restructuring of the benefit thatmakes it flow to the very-low-income families. Currently, the creditis worth only $300 to a mother of two who earns $5,000 annually. Whenproperly restructured the value can get to $2,250, which will be morebeneficial as it will get approximately 1.5 million out of poverty(Porter 1).

Abolitionof Tax Credit

Gettingrid of child tax is a good way to tackle the problem as well as theabolition of the child deduction entirely. Upon abolition, thegovernment can then opt to provide a check every month of $250 forevery child in the country. This will ensure that there is minimumlevel of well-being (Porter 1). This is supported when ProfessorTimothy noted that:

“This&nbspis&nbspan&nbspold&nbspidea&nbspwhose&nbsptime&nbsphas&nbspcome(Porter 2).”&nbsp


Childpoverty is real in the U.S, and it remains a threat and nationaldisaster. Various mechanisms need to be put in place to address theissues. From the discussions, it has emerged that policy matters areof great concern as far as the solving the child poverty isconcerned. The effects of the child poverty are quite detrimental tothe wellbeing of any society and hence the need to address it. Anymeasure to have all children start life from the same script isequally significant. Child poverty remains a painful failure for theUnited States. There is for policies to be queried and changes madeas noted by Professor Shaefer:

“We&nbspmight&nbspbe&nbspcoming&nbspinto&nbspa&nbspmoment&nbspwhere&nbspthere&nbspcould&nbspbe&nbspsome&nbspcommon&shysensepolicy&nbspchanges,”&nbspProfessor&nbspShaefer&nbspsaid.&nbsp“There&nbspis&nbspa&nbsppolicy&nbspwindow&nbspthat&nbspwasn’t&nbspopen&nbspayear&nbspor&nbsptwo&nbspyears&nbspago (Porter 2).”


CQPress. “Child poverty: are out of wedlock births the rootcause?”(2011). Retrieved from [Accessed7/11.2016].

DeNavas-Walt,Carmen, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Jessica C. Smith. &quotUS CensusBureau, current population reports, P60-238.&quot&nbspIncome,poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States:2009&nbsp(2010).

Duncan,Greg J., Ariel Kalil, and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. &quotEarlychildhood poverty and adult achievement, employment andhealth.&quot&nbspFamilyMatters&nbsp93(2013): 27.

Egger,Robert. 5 Myths about hunger in America. (November 21, 2010).Retrieved from[Accessed 7/11/2016]

Porter,Eduardo. “Giving Every Child a Monthly Check for an Even Start.”NewYorkTimes.Retrieved from[Access 07/11/2016].

Walton,Beth. “Marian&nbspWright&nbspEdelman&nbsptalks&nbspchild&nbsppoverty”.Citizen-Times.(October 6, 2016). Retrieved from[Accessed 7/11/2016].


Last Name 2


Argumentativeessay against smoking in public places

Accordingto CDC, tobacco remains a major cause of preventable death globally.Research state that on an annual basis, smoking claim more than480,000 lives. Additionally, about 41,000 of these deaths are as aresult of passive smoking (Wildman, John and Hollingsworth 1). Apartfrom the health impacts, smoking also has a negative impact on theeconomy because it is estimated that the government spends more than$300 billion annually managing smoking-related conditions. With thesestatistics, many people have often expressed concerns smoking inpublic spaces.


Smokingin public areas should be banned.


Therehas been a lot of controversy regarding tobacco use in public spaces.Some section of the population support smoking in public areas whileothers have often disagreed with the idea of smoking in public andhave thus called on the government to ban such behaviors.


Smokingshould be prohibited because of personal health concerns. Researchhas established that smoking causes significant health problems onthe individual. For example, smoking tobacco us one of the leadingcause of lung cancer for both males and females. Additionally, chainsmokers are also at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular andmetabolic diseases such as Coronary heart disease and diabetesmellitus (Meyers, David and Neuberger 1). As if not all, they arealso likely to suffer from respiratory complications such aspneumonia, COPD, and tuberculosis. The frequency of smoking highlyinfluences susceptibility to these infections. It is thus evidentthat by banning smoking in public places, smokers will not smoke asoften as is the case when there are no laws prohibiting them fromsmoking anywhere.

Smokingshould be banned in public places because it does not only put thelife of the smoker at risk but also those around him or her. Credibleand evidence-based research indicate that passive smoking causesudden infant death syndrome and asthma in children (Christopher etal. 2). Additionally, there is enough proof showing that second-handsmoke can also cause lung cancer and other heart diseases as was thecase with the real smoker. The CDC states that a cigarette has atleast 250 toxicants and 50 of them are carcinogenic in nature. When anon-smoker is exposed to these toxicants, he or she can succumb totheir effects as is seen in some cases of cancer (Kalkhoran et al 4).This can also be interpreted to mean a violation of non-smoker`sright to a healthy surrounding because they are subjected to toxicfumes.

Anotherreason as to why smoking in public spaces should be banned is that itwill send a clear message to smokers that what they are doing iswrong and this will discourage smoking thus saving the lives of many.Since people know that smoking is addictive and they are not allowedto smoke in public, it will discourage non-smoker from starting tosmoke at all. Studies show that in countries where smoking in publicplaces has been banned, smokers have often thought about quitting(Huang et al. 3). It is, therefore, evident that banning smoking inpublic places will promote voluntary quitting because of theinconveniences that it causes on smokers. Additionally, one of thereasons as to why people many people indulge in smoking is because ofpeer influence. Banning smoking in public will thus eliminate peerinfluence as far as initiating smoking behavior is concerned.

Anotherreason as to why smoking in public should be banned is because ofenvironmental concerns. Cigarette butts account for millions ofwastes collected annually. Most smokers often do not dispose thesewastes appropriately and thus causing significant damage to thesurrounding environment. In fact, according to one study, sometraditional butts are made of cellulose acetate which does is notbiodegradable and thus pollute the land. The cigarette buds end up inrivers and bellies of fish which are consumed by humans (Wildman,John and Hollingsworth 6). This has been one of the leading causes ofsome gut infections because when one comes into contact with suchwaters, there is leaching of chemicals such as lead, arsenic, andcadmium into the aquatic environment.


Thoseagainst the idea of banning smoking in public places have oftenstated that it infringes upon their rights. They argue that smokingis a personal decision and no one should thus interfere.Additionally, they state that instead of banning smoking in public asan intervention to reduce the habit, concerned stakeholders, andgovernment agencies should explore other alternatives. For example,increasing the prices of cigarettes because such measures whichdiscourage people, especially the younger generation from smoking.

Critiqueof counter-argument

Itis true that smokers too have rights which should not be infringed.However, one important question that they need to ask themselves iswhether a non-smoker`s right to breath clean air should beconsidered. This is because when people smoke in public places, thetoxic fumes are not confined to the immediate surroundings of thesmoker alone. Non-smoker became passive smokers, and the effects arevery severe. It is evident that non-smokers should not be subjectedto these health risk. Personally, smoking in public areas should bebanned because it has more harms than benefits and by giving peoplean avenue to smoke, others will continue to suffer and feeluncomfortable. Additionally, it will also have a lot of adverseconsequences on the environment,


Inconclusion, it is thus evident that smoking in public places shouldbe banned. This is because it is associated with severe healthcomplications on the user and second-hand smoker. Examples ofpossible diseases resulting from smoking include congestive heartfailure, lung cancer, and pneumonia. Additionally, banning smoking inpublic will discourage non-smokers to keep off the practice. Thoseagainst the idea have often cited that it infringes upon theirrights, however, a critical question that they should answer iswhether non-smokers too have their rights.


Huang,Jidong, Rong Zheng, and Sherry Emery. &quotAssessing the impact ofthe national smoking ban in indoor public places in China: evidencefrom quit smoking related online searches.&quot PLOSone&nbsp8.6(2013): e65577.

Meyers,David G., MD, MPH, and John S. Neuberger, DrPH, MPH, MBA.&quotCardiovascular Effects of Bans on Smoking in Public Places.&quotTheAmerican Journal of Cardiology102.10 (2008): 1421-424. Science Direct. Elsevier, 2008. Web. 28 Oct.2016

Millett,Christopher, et al. &quotHospital admissions for childhood asthmaafter smoke-free legislation in England.&quot&nbspPediatrics&nbsp131.2(2013): e495-e501.

Kalkhoran,Sara, Torsten B. Neilands, and Pamela M. Ling. &quotSecondhand smokeexposure and smoking behavior among young adult barpatrons.&quot&nbspAmericanjournal of public health&nbsp103.11(2013): 2048-2055.

Wildman,John, and Bruce Hollingsworth. &quotPublic smoking bans andself-assessed health: evidence from Great Britain.&quot&nbspEconomicsLetters&nbsp118.1(2013): 209-212.


ReadingAssignment: “Pass the Hookah in Lotus Land”

Theironical yet ridiculous article, “Pass the Hookah in Lotus Land”by Rex Murphy has advanced criticism of the Vancouver to contrivancethe new anti-smoking by law (Murphy 1). Fromthe article, there is savage ridicule of social evil as depicted byMurphy’s views on the subject matter.The author ridicules the entire system and the laws that are to beput in place (Rosen and Keane 4). He affirms that he is not happywith the manner in which the counselors are not addressing thecritical yet significant social issues that characterize thecommunity including drug addiction and poverty. The author notesthat,

“Accommodationfor hookahs, a little ambiguity on the toy drugs of crack and meth,but a steel fence of regulation – even for those just passing through- on the last problem left in the city that is the only unflaweddiamond in a zirconian world (Murphy 1)”

Theaudience that is being addressed in this article is mainly made up ofindividuals who live in Vancouver or have knowledge of the place aswell as the “glowing’ reputation that is being taken note by theauthor. In regards to the people who live in Vancouver, the audiencetargeted mainly is the young individuals or the youth. This is takennote of the fact that the new anti-smoking bylaw will affect thecitizens in the near future. This audience (the youthful group) as itappears is not so much aware of the struggles of Vancouver at themoment.

Theuse of satire to ridicule the social evil in this society has beenachieved. The author notes that even though there will be strictrules to have smoking banned in the city, in the end, the governmentwill have “hookah” smoking areas known as the smoking parlors. Itis evident that even though Vancouver is to assist its citizenry, thedecision in place does not promote pluralism or tolerance of itspeople. Indeed, the measures to have the smoking by-laws as noted bythe author are just but a ridicule.


Muphy,Rex. Passthe hookah in Lotus Land.The Globe and Mail, 2009. Retrieved from

Rosen,Ralph M., and Catherine C. Keane. &quotGraeco-Roman SatiricalPoetry.&quot (2014).


Last name 2


Catholicunderstanding of creation stories

Thisreading is about understanding the creation accounts that are writtenin the bible. It seeks to explain what Christians should know toavoid interference by the technological world in which people arguethat man evolved. It is important to understand the Bible is areligious book written to help Christian understand more about God.The reading also provide guidance on how people should relate to eachother and with God. The fact that scientists refute biblicalteachings because it does not contain details about different speciesis incorrect (Catholicbridge.Com1). According to the reading, in understanding the story of creation andGod, It is necessary to change our perspectives about the forms andcontent of what is written in the Bible

Interms of the major theme in the reading, the article focuses onhelping people understand the different creation stories. It alsoexplains the difference between evolution and creation. There is achallenge to the intelligence behind the evolution theory. Evolutionviews organisms as machines, it tries to account for the mystery oflife. However, there is big difference proving that life is verysecretive. Theories like the “big bang” give unclear explanationsabout creation accounts. Understanding the Holy Scripture is crucial,it will help avoid temptations and prevent interference from theevil. The Bible is the source of guidance to Christian faith duringthis technological times.

Conclusively,this reading has helped me understand the reason why scientistsshould not question the creation story. This article teaches on theinner meaning of what is written in the bible. It encourages viewingof the Bible as a religious book which was written by people underGods control. From an individual’s perspective, this article is asimpler explanation of the creation story. It is a confirmation ofthe existence of a living God who had the power to create theuniverse and whatever exists in it.


Catholicbridge.Com&quotIn the Beginning….&quotA Catholic Understanding of the Storyof Creation and the fall&quot. 2016,


Last Name 2


Response# 1: Early childhood

Earlychildhood behaviors refer to the principles and facts that explainprocesses involved as a child matures to adulthood. It entailsphysical, cognitive and social-emotional development. One of theeducational theories in early childhood is perennialism whichprotests against secularization and over dependence on science andtechnology. Additionally, there is essentialism which states that thepurpose of schooling should be to train the intellect and teachculture and traditions. Other influences of early childhood educationinclude nature versus nature theories and political, social andeconomic factors. This paper is going to highlight out how factorssuch as education theories, nature versus nature and social,economic, political, and scientific issues influence society’s viewof early childhood since the 1900s.


Educationtheories have influenced early childhood education in that educatorshave shifted their focus to talent development and creativity. Inmany schools, once the teacher or any other personal identifies whatthe student is good at, he or she is often encouraged to pursue thatas a career. Additionally, with increased cultural integration majoreducational theories have now started to instill progressive ideas inchildren. Students are now being encouraged to discuss controversialtopics and practice self-discipline. Education theories have alsoencouraged personal awareness and challenging of status quo. Lastly,changes in educational theories have resulted in a student’scentered learning approach.

Thedebate on nature and nurture have often elicited mixed reactions. Thenature theory argues that behaviors such as intelligence,aggressiveness, and personalities are inborn and are passed fromparents to their offsprings in their DNA. Consequently, nurturetheory explains that personality traits are heavily influenced by theenvironment upon which an individual is living (Bornstein, Marc andBradley 12). Regarding their relationship to early childhooddevelopment, some people have often argued that traits such asintelligence (IQ) are determined by nature. For example, learnedparents are likely to give birth to children who are bright. Theyalso cite several cases and studies which have shown that aggressiveand criminal behaviors can be inherited.

Thenurture theory is the one that is mostly used in early education. Itargues that traits and qualities can be learned. This means thatteachers can instill positive behaviors such as honesty, self-esteem,and respect into their students. This is often achieved throughproper guidance and being good role models to the students. Thechildren thus learn by observing their elders and can distinguishwhat is right and wrong. Children are also taught about talentdevelopment and from an early start, they are trained to becomeartists, doctors, and musicians. The theories are related to eachother in that, all of them eventually influence behavior. Even if onehas the genes for height, if he or she does not have access to theright types of food, the trait will not be manifested in theindividual.

Howthe society views children havechangedover the course of time. Social factors such as parenting haveinfluenced society’s view of children. For example, children whoenjoy security from their parents and have a strong attachment tothem are usually easier to teach and relate to than others(Bornstein, Marc and Bradley 8). Additionally, economic factors suchas financial stability and parental income have also influenced earlychildhood education. Children who come from well-off families canhave access to better schools, and since they have the necessaryinfrastructures such as books and other stationaries, they are morelikely to be successful and score higher grades.

Politicalfactors such as government policies and legislation have influencedsocieties views of children in that, students now have their rightsand cannot be subjected to harsh treatment by their teachers.Scientific factors such as knowledge of genetics have enabled peopleto modify genes so that they can have children with specific traitsand manage some childhood diseases.


Inconclusion, it is evident that education theories, nature versusnature and social, economic, political, and scientific issues have adirect impact on early childhood education and how the society viewsthese aggregates. For example, education theories state that schoolsshould instill appropriate behavior. While the nurture theoriesemphasize the teacher`s role in disseminating knowledge on the child.Lastly, social factors such as child-parent relationship alsoinfluence learning.


Bornstein,Marc H., and Robert H. Bradley eds. Socioeconomicstatus, parenting, and child development.Routledge, 2014.



Ibelieve that the social environment that people grow in can have mucheffect on their personality. I began feeling that there was too muchsocial pressure being directed towards me since I discovered myparents were conservatives. They regarded their traditional notionsas the ideal, and being born in a country whose bounties areunfettered I had developed into a conflicted individual who wantedto be a rebel. I felt the desire to take a leap of faith, but,despite the want, remained habitual. Since my early childhood, I havebeen an inquisitive and multifaceted individual who dreamt ofemulating the likes of the highly extolled Voltaire, Aristotle, andGalileo Galilei.

Exposureto strenuous lifestyle from an early age taught me to beself-dependent. I was born in a third world country where Iexperienced the aftermath of a civil war. As a result, I was moldedinto austere individual, wired not only to survive, but also tothrive. I feared to live a regular life of impoverishment, and thecontentment of tilling the barren lands as ordinary individuals do.As a result, I always question the significance of traditions,religion, and education. I have learned to be flexible therefore, Iblend in well in any community. Unlike my parents, I am aninquisitive person who wants to make historical achievement byassociating with anyone with promising ideas that could help in thetransformation of the world into a better place. I desire to be anatypical individual who challenges the modern notions of the society,assumes numerous roles, and is articulate in playing them out. Ireadily embrace change, as well as read widely to stay informed onthe positive changes happening across the globe.

Manypeople are cocooned in their rigid culture hence, makes no effort tolive a distinguished lifestyle. However, I made a decision to choosea different path that would not be limited by my parents, customs ormy childhood background. For instance, three years ago we set out fora pilgrimage to Mecca, in Saudi Arabia. In the entire journey, as youwould expect from conservative parents, my folks were mainlyimpressed by the city for its religious significance. On thecontrary, I was attracted to the architecture and the way millions ofpeople from across the globe trekked several miles to theirdestination without realizing whether it was either day or nighttime.I am an inquisitive character with an interest in a wide range oftopics, including literature and physics, and my restrictiveenvironment has not curtailed my curiosity to explore new subjects.

Presently,I am skilled in a wide range of fields, which I have gained theexperiences through volunteering in numerous institutions and events.Besides, attending school in the vibrant New York City has enabled meto meet individuals with interests scattered in different fields. Asa student, English teachers who are aspiring musicians and formerengineers have mentored me. Moreover, I have had an opportunity tomeet people with my kind of spirits. I have also drawn inspirationfrom ambitious individuals with a high determination of breaking thestatus quo of their childhood environments. For some people, I haveread about their personal life stories, but I have met otherspersonally. I believe I have what it takes to achieve success inlife, and in a different path from my parents since I amunconventional. Besides, I am an avid researcher who is wellinformed of career path.

Insummary, diehard parents, who struggled to understand the value ofbeing atypical, have raised me. Fortunately, I have met individualswho ooze of multipotentiality and continually push the boundariesbeyond the usual limit. These people have inspired and motivated meto become a person who holds multiple positions, and I am capable ofmaintaining them. However, I have realized that I need to findsomething that I love, which is a focus that appeals to my innerfrondeur, as well as permits me to take advantage of my multifacetednature.


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Inclusivelearning is the solution to solving America’s education problems

Someof the ways of improving the country`s education system includepromoting regional equality, shunning racial discrimination andformation and implementation of strict policies. In Michelle Rhee`sarticle titled “PuttingKid`s first,&quothe gives another solution to the education crisis in the UnitedStates. Rhee specifically focuses in schools that are located inlow-income neighborhoods and state that when it comes to gradeimprovement and better academic results, the students should be giventhe priority during decision-making processes. Michelle Rhee suggeststhis because students know what they want and can easily identifywhat will be of benefit to them. However, to do this, Michelle Rheealso state that the kind of school leadership is also critical ifthey are to improve. Rhee gives examples of schools that have beenable to succeed and record high grades because they had the bestteachers who motivated their students to set higher goals and worktowards attaining them. It is evident from the reading that MichaelRhee believes inclusive leadership is the most efficient solution tothe current education problems in the United States.

Personalreaction to the article

Froman individual’s perspective, Michelle Rhee’s views are very validand should be implemented by schools in the United States. Forexample, his findings that the media has negatively impacted learningoutcomes among blacks are very accurate. Most media channels in theUnited States tend to be biased when it comes to news broadcasting.They often focus on the negatives and very little time is accorded toairing some of the good things that are happening among thispopulation. This form of negativity tends to discourage good teacherswho from teaching in such schools. However, as Michelle Rhee puts it,even students who come from the low-income neighborhoods know whatthey want, and if they have the right teachers to inspire andchallenge them, they can perform very well and compete equally withother students equally. Michelle Rhee’s article is thus a goodpiece because it records the actual words and cases that heintervened as the head of New Teachers Project (NTP). Iwholeheartedly agree with Michelle Rhee that provided students havequalified and motivated teachers who firmly believe in them, factorssuch as racial background and financial status of the students doesnot affect the learning outcome because everyone will do his or herbest.


MichelleRhee suggests that the best ideas usually come from students. Theauthor quotes that, “when children begin to get what they want fromschools, they start to drive change and suddenly, their expectationof the school and teachers also increase (Rhee, 129).” In thiscase, he gives an example of a middle school in one of thehighest-poverty stricken wards in the city. According to hisresearch, the school was performing very poorly, and less than 16percent of the total student population knew how to read and do gradelevel Math. However, after Principal Jordan joined and startedinvolving the students in school activities, there was a significantimprovement in learning. From an individual`s perspective, PrincipalJordan adopted an inclusive learning and teaching method because itencouraged students to participate and influence decisions. Thelong-term impact of this was that there was high compliance rateamong the students because they were the ones who had come up withsome of the rules (Henry 4). Instead of developing strict policiesthat make students feel like schools are prisons. Similar initiativesshould be promoted because they encourage students to learn.

MichelleRhee also suggests that the type of leadership and teachers that theyhave influenced how they perform in class. The author quotes in thearticle that, “many students are usually far-reaching about wantingto learn from the best (Rhee, 133).” Here, he gives the example ofwhen he visited one high school announced only to notice that whileone class was nearly empty, the other was full. All the responsesthat he got from the students indicated that they had alreadycategorized teachers and many thus wanted to be associated only withthe best. In fact, in some situation, Michelle Rhee states thatstudents would even consider abandoning one school and overcrowdingon the other to show how serious they were with education. The aboveobservation by Rhee is very accurate because everyone wants to learnfrom the best. Assigning unqualified teachers to teach students notonly discourage students from taking the specific classes but alsopromote absenteeism and eventually school drop outs. Learning fromthe best teachers has its benefits. For instance, they believe thatthe same knowledge that the teacher possesses will be passed to hisor her students. Additionally, there is the pride that comes with thename, and this gives students the confidence to compete equally withothers.

MichelleRhee also suggests that establishing good relations with the studentscan motivate them and thus improving their grades. The author quotesthat. “Students tend to meet the low expectations of someone ofdoes not think that they will amount to much” (Rhee, 136).” Mr.Rhee gives the example of Mr, Bett who had established a very strongrelationship with his students. According to the article, Mr. Bettwould often great his students every morning and went an extra mileto memorize their names. The students, in turn, felt appreciated andalways wanted to come to school. They interpreted Mr. Bett`scharacter to mean that he believed in them and they were thereforeobliged to do their best and improve their grades. From anindividual’s perspective, I believe that teacher to studentrelationship is usually a key element in learning. If the two do notwork together, the teacher will have a difficult time teaching thestudent. Some of the ways of strengthening this relation includeinvolving students in decision making and being kind andunderstanding.


Inconclusion, it is, therefore, evident that inclusive learning is thesolution to solving America’s education problems. Michelle Rheebelieved that by putting students first, they were likely to becomemore involved in learning and this automatically translated to betterlearning. According to Michelle Rhee, some of the ways of motivatingand encouraging students to perform well in their studies includeinvolving them in decision making, employing the best teachers toteach and manage learning institutions and also to establish goodrelations with them. If such suggestions are successfully implementedin Americans schools, it is evident that there would be significantimprovements in student`s performance.


Giroux,Henry A.&nbspEducationand the Crisis of Public Values: Challenging the Assault on Teachers,Students, and Public Education. Counterpoints: Studies in thePostmodern Theory of Education. Volume 400.Collegeof Alameda

MichelleRhee. Waitingfor superman (PuttingKid’s first):How we can save America`s failing public schools.PublicAffairs, 2010.


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Accordingto the world health organization and the CDC, Malaria claims morethan 600, 000 death annually. The most affected population areusually children and pregnant women. Malaria is caused by a parasitecalled Plasmodium which can infect the red blood cells. The vectororganism is the female anopheles mosquito. Malaria has mainly beenconsidered a tropic disease and is more prevalent in Africancountries where it has continued to claim thousands of lives despiteglobal and local interventions being implemented (Staines, Henry andKrishna 2). Even though malaria is considered an African disease,Americans need to be more educated about the way it is transmitted,because if contracted, it can cause serious illness and even death.

Modeof transmission

Malariais caused by a parasite known as Plasmodium. The five species of theparasite are Plasmodium ovale, vivax, falciparum, malariaea andknowlesi (Catalani et al. 3). Among these species of Malaria, themost prevalent and severe one is Plasmodiumfalciparum. Oneof the most common ways through which the parasite is transmitted isby the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito.

Oncein the body, the parasite is able to multiply in the bloodstream andliver of the infected person. If another female anopheles mosquitobites the infected person, it can carry the parasite to another body.Apart from the usual mosquito bites, there have also been variousinstances whereby the disease has been transmitted by bloodtransfusion. In emergency cases where urgent blood transfusion isrequired, people have often been given contaminated body fluids thusresulting in malaria.

Sinceone of the major travel destination for many Americans tourist isAfrica, it is evident that they ought to be knowledgeable about themodes of transmission so that they can protect themselves frompossible infections. People who travel to countries where malariaoccurs are at a higher risk of receiving blood that has the virus,and since their immune system is not used to such infections, it isevident that the resulting impacts can be severe and cause death(Chiodiniet al. 5).Additionally, American mothers who visit the United States whilepregnant also risk infecting their children with the parasite.Research has indicated that Malaria can be passed from mother to thechild and with the weakened immune system, the likelihood ofmiscarriage is very high.

Signsand symptoms of Malaria

Someof the signs and symptoms of Malaria infections include fever whichmay come and go. There is a general feeling of malaise or unwellness.Individuals suffering from possible Malaria infections also complainof appetite loss and profuse sweating. Since the parasite is used toinvading the red blood cells, one of the diagnostic tests for malariainvolves close examination of the cells. Malaria patients tend to beanemia and abdominal pains.

Clinicaldiagnosis of malaria is usually based on the signs and symptoms ofthe disease. The health officer in charge may look for signs such asfever and weak joints. The most commonly used diagnostic method isthe rapid diagnostic test. The confirmatory diagnostic test forMalaria is, however, microscopy. In this case, the laboratorytechnologist uses Giemsa blood smear and look for the Plasmodium inthe red blood cells.


Americansneed to learn more about Malaria so that they can understand how thedisease is managed. Some of the preventive measures that can beadopted to manage malaria cases include vector control whereby oneuse chemicals that can kill Mosquitos Currently, organophosphates andcarbonates pesticides are used to control malaria pesticides.American tourists visiting Africa should always seek travel medicineadvice before arriving at their specific destinations. For example,it is recommended that one should take prophylaxis drugs (Aborah andSamuel 8).

Someof the available medications that are used to treat malaria includeDoxycycline and Artemisinin derivatives. Additionally, one can alsotake Chloroquine, Quinine, Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and Mefloquine.It should, however, be noted that some of these medications have beencontraindicated for specific conditions and drugs. For example,Artemisinin derivatives are not recommended for pregnant womenbecause it increases the likelihood of giving birth to deformed orteratogenic children (McGready et al. 3).

Understandingabout Malaria is important because in some cases, symptoms of thedisease may extend beyond the usual seven days period afterinfections. There have been cases where the symptoms have taken up toa year developing entirely. In this case, one should always ensurethat they adhere to the suggested medication to prevent possibleresistance by the parasite.


Inconclusion, it is evident that Malaria claims thousands of livesannually and effective mechanisms need to be put in place to ensurethat the disease is managed and statistics reversed. The causativeagent of malaria is Plasmodium falciparum. Female anopheles mosquitosprovide a suitable vector for the parasite because it feeds on humanblood and thus providing an avenue for Plasmodium to be transmittedfrom one person to the other. The common signs and symptoms ofMalaria include joint pain, general body weakness, and fever. Malariacan also cause anemia. There are treatment and control measures thatcan be used to manage malaria. Research recommends the use ofantimalarial medication and mosquito repellants.


Aborah,Samuel, et al. &quotThe use of non-prescribed anti-malarial drugsfor the treatment of malaria in the Bolgatanga municipality, northernGhana.&quot&nbspMalariaJournal&nbsp12.1(2013): 1.

Catalani,Caricia, et al. &quotmHealth for HIV treatment &amp prevention: asystematic review of the literature.&quot&nbspOpenAIDS J&nbsp7(2013): 17-41.

Chiodini,P. L., et al. &quotGuidelines for malaria prevention in travelersfrom the United Kingdom. London.&quot PublicHealth England, July 2013&nbsp(2013).

McGready,R., et al. &quotAdverse effects of falciparum and vivax malaria andthe safety of the antimalarial treatment in early pregnancy: apopulation-based study.&quot TheLancet infectious diseases12.5 (2012): 388-396.

Staines,Henry M., and Sanjeev Krishna, eds.&nbspTreatmentand prevention of malaria: antimalarial drug chemistry, action, anduse.Springer Science &amp Business Media, 2012.



Whenwriting any literary work, there arise weaknesses and strengths ofthe authors. Any of the strengths or limitations can either occur inregards to the theme, literary devices used or even structure. Thispaper carries out a comparative analysis of three texts(TheTrouble With Wildernessby William Cronon, BlackMen in Public Spaces byStaples Brent and Sightinto Insight by AnnieDillard. Theanalysis affirms that there is comparison in the authors’deconstruction of individual’s perception of the world as astrength and the overall assumption that the perception of world isskewed is the authors’ greatest undoing.


Oneof the strengths of the three texts (TheTrouble With Wildernessby William Cronon, BlackMen in Public Spacesand Sightinto Insight by AnnieDillard) is that they are used effectively to assess the relationshipbetween human perception and the world. Of great significance is thatthe manner in which the audiences see the world is challenged. Theworld is represented in a positive light in comparison to howindividuals see it. In the book, TheTrouble With Wildernessby William Cronon, the philosophy of human relationship withwilderness has been reshaped. The author portrays wilderness asholy, pure and pristine different from the common perception of man(Cronon 11). In the book, BlackMen in Public Spaces,the narrator captures the misconception of the public towards them.The non-black audience is challenged in regards to the manner inwhich they perceive blacks. Brent Staples, who is an African-Americanman, has been mistaken for a criminal on numerous occasions due tohis race (Staples 5). The first instance is when he scared a youngwhite woman at night and was accused of being a mugger, rapist oreven worse. Notably, in this text, the perception of blacks due totheir race is deconstructed. The demystification is evident whenBrent notes that young blacks are overrepresented as perpetrators ofviolence. Just like the first text, in this narrative, there is a bitof misconception with the Caucasians having certain misconceptionsregarding African American with them assuming that they are allcriminals even in cases where they show that they are good.

Inher work, Sightinto Insight, AnnieDillard deconstructs the perception of physical things through thecontrast of literal aspect with the spiritual aspect. The author doesthis constructively by using personal anecdotes, allusions, andvisual imagery. In life, there are things that are hidden fromindividuals, which they can see, or not depending on their viewpoint,physical or spiritual. The author notes that “I used to take apenny of my own and hide it for someone else to find (Dillard 646).”In this instance, the penny is representative of the small gifts thatnature hides from an individual. In this case, there is a showcasingof a new way of an individual not only seeing, but also thinkingabout the world in relation to the manner in which humans perceiveit. Evidently, the main theme is a key strength across the threetexts. The discussions made have been enough to prove the point.


Acrossthe three texts, the authors tend to claim that the perception of theworld is skewed and that people do not support it. This is a weaknarrative as skewed perception does not translate to a lack ofsupport to the concept of preservation of the ideals that individualsdo not believe in. In fact, reviewing the work of William Cronon TheTrouble With Wilderness,it is critical to note that the people’s skewed view of wildernessis not based on the ability to experience comfort and in a way doesit mean that people do not support the concept of wildlandpreservation. In a similar fashion, the notion that the author makesin the book, BlackMen in Public Spaces,that blacks are misinterpreted and mistreated in their neighborhoodsdoes not in any way mean that there are few blacks that are treatedwell. The author of the entire work fails to showcase the readers thegood side of the entire story. Through Annie Dillard using hispersonal instances and first person narrative does not in any way getto a generalization point. Therefore, the perception of the authorshould not be taken to apply to every other individual.


Fromthe essay, it is evident that the core strength across the essays isthe effective challenging of human perception towards the world. Thethree authors have deconstructed human’s perception towards theworld comprehensively. On the other hand, it appears that the claimof the authors in the three texts is not fully backed up hence adisadvantage. The claim that the perception of the world is skewedand that people do not support is a weak narrative. This skewedperception does not translate to a lack of support to the concept ofpreservation of the ideals that individuals do not believe in.


Cronon,William. &quotThe trouble with wilderness: or, getting back to thewrong nature.&quot&nbspEnvironmentalHistory&nbsp1.1(1996): 7-28.

Dillard,Annie. &quotSight into Insight.&quot&nbspPopularWriting in America&nbsp(1974):247-51.

Staples,Brent. &quotBlack men and public space.&quot&nbspLifestudies&nbsp(1992):2-32.



Growthof San Antonio City

The guest speaker talks aboutthe population increase in San Antonio city and tries to review thereasons that might be leading to this kind growth. The increase isexperienced more in the south than in the north, west, or northeast.Most people are moving to the southern side of San Antonio as it isthe zone with major developments. The other sides of the city aresmaller and have no room for further development. It is the otherreason that makes the investors to opt for the south. San Antonio asa city is growing, and there are no boundaries to restrict thepopulation increase.

The speaker envisages thatwhen the growth reaches border lines, there are chances that livingstandards will equally be more expensive. It is hard to convincepeople to abandon the southern side since they see it as the mostviable place to raise families. The region has better schools andother important social amenities. Moreover, a new development planhas street projects that are foreseen to act as future crucialcharacteristics that will attract more population. The city councilis also yet to start taking part in the improvement by its 2017annual budget. Proper planning in terms of transport will entice morebusinesses. However, the speaker holds that the city residents musthave good educational qualifications so that they can secure jobs inorganizations.

In a nutshell, the speakerbelieves that if there is something to be done to change the city,then it needs to involve improvements in the street and itstransportation system. Improving this aspect will mean that morepeople may be able to use bus services. Transport system would beimportant because of its capacity to influence organizations to puttheir firms in the city.

Work Cited

FionaDogla. Growth of San Antonio City. 2016. October 29, 2016



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Cross-CulturalDifferences in education between China and Canada

Theadvent of technology has affected human interactions because theworld has become a global village. It is easy for people to travelacross geographical borders and communicate with each other acrossspace and time. However, what the technology has failed to do is thatit has not facilitated better communication across differentcultures. Education is one of the things that have brought peopletogether. In the present world, people travel across continents topursue education. However, even with these movements, culture tendsto influence how people perceive education (Bleidorn 2). To have aneffective cultural integration, efforts must be made to develop ashared meaning. This research paper evaluates education systemsbetween China and Canada and also compares their educational approachto that of the United States.

Educationsystem in China and Canada

China’sculture is thus very conservative, and as a result, they are educatedto be fictile followers. China has a very long history that can betraced back to 5000 years ago. As a result, its education system isbounded by old cultural practices such as Confucius teachings.According to the country`s governing laws, every citizen must attendschool for a minimum of 9 years, and this is usually calledcompulsory education and is funded by the government.

InChina, there is a lot of emphasis on team spirit and comprehensiveabilities of the child and this is why there is a very high schoolattendance rate. Parents believe that when their children succeed ontheir exams and others fail, it may be because he or she has cheated.Instead, Chinese attach more attention to normalization of behaviorand self-conditions. This is because China is a socialist country.

Canada’sis a capitalist country, and education is funded by the federal,provincial and local government. Being a capitalist nation, it isevident that there is a lot of emphasis on personal effort as opposedto teamwork. Individuals are judged based on their personality asopposed to that which is exhibited by their friend. Education inCanada is thus divided into primary, secondary and post-secondary.Individuals below the age of 16 years are required by theconstitution to go to school.

Anothereducation culture in Canada is that they encourage rationalism. Canadians believe that everyone has a responsibility in a child`supbringing. Parents take their children to school and leave them tothe teachers. The teachers must be properly trained and licensed toteach before they are employed. Parents only have control over theirchildren after they have left school.

Comparisonof education system between China and Canada

Beforehighlighting the cross-cultural differences in education betweenChina and Canada, it is important to note that the two countries havedistinct social structure. In China, for instance, the society isvery formal and hierarchical while in Canada, it is informal. Asindicated earlier, China`s education system emphasizes on teamworkwhile that of Canada focuses on individual efforts. This also meansthat there is a lot of emphasis on self-image and personalreputation. Research has shown that countries which emphasize onindividual efforts are more innovative and creative than those thatvalue teamwork (Van Schaik et al. 8). This means that a lot ofinnovations are expected from countries such as Canada than China.Consequently, another major difference is seen in in the quality ofeducation offered. Canada’s system is quality based while China’sis exam oriented.

Howthe culture perceives the practices of other countries

Astudent who visits Canada or any other European country may find ithard to cope with their education system because of the culturaldifferences. For example, since China`s education is exam based, heor she may perform very well in academics but fail in creativecourses and field related activities. Additionally, Chinese studentsmay also find it hard associating with those from Canada because theyare self-centered. Regarding whether the other countries would acceptany of the cultures, I believe that since they are usually developedover an extended period, doing away with one and adopting a new onemay be very hard. People have to see the benefits of the otherculture and evaluate it critically to determine if it is morebeneficial (Wood, Van and Wilberger 6). Efforts to bring the twopractices together will likely result in cultural conflicts unless itis integrated slowly for an extended period.

Comparisonof China and Canada’s education culture to that of the UnitedStates

Canada’seducation system is quite similar to that in the United States. Inthe US, the education culture is centered on personal efforts andthus promotes creativity and innovation. Consequently, in China,parents and the government pays more attention group performance, andstudents are always encouraged to succeed as a team. This has, inturn, resulted in less creativity because most of the students onlywant to pass their exams.

Personalreflection on culture and education

Froman individual’s perspective, China`s cultures empower the teacherso much than the student. The teacher is very superior andunapproachable. However, in the United States, there is a lot ofemphasis on equality and the teacher is thus very friendly. Theteacher always gets to have the final say, and the students cannotquestion what he or she has said. Personally, I believe that Americaand Canada’s education system is more beneficial and gives itsstudents an additional advantage because it also stresses onextra-curriculum activities and talent development.


Educationis a cultural phenomenon which is used to reflect the culture of anation. Both Chinese and Canada education systems have theiradvantages. Consequently, the two countries can learn a lot of thingsfrom each other to improve their education cultures. The fact thatmany Chinese people go to countries such as the United States andCanada to pursue higher education is an indication that there is theneed for social integrations to promote friendship and mutualunderstanding between these countries.


Bleidorn,Wiebke, et al. &quotPersonality maturation around the world across-cultural examination of social investment theory.&quotPsychologicalScience&nbsp(2013):0956797613498396.

VanSchaik, Saskia DM, Paul PM Leseman, and Sanne K. Huijbregts.&quotCultural diversity in teachers` group-centered beliefs andpractices in early child care.&quot Earlychildhood research quarterly&nbsp29.3(2014): 369-377.

Wood,Van R., and Joshua S. Wilberger. &quotGlobalization, CulturalDiversity and Organizational Commitment: TheoreticalUnderpinnings.&quot&nbspWorld&nbsp6.2(2015).


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Descriptionof expansive vision of Divine revelation

Thisarticle is about God’s revelation His people. The full revelationof God was completed by Jesus when he commissioned the apostles topreach the good news of salvation to everyone. According to thearticle, the apostles were to continue teaching what they had learnedfrom Jesus Christ by word of mouth. The gospel was to be kept aliveand taught until the second coming of Christ, hence the apostleshanded over the authority to teach to the bishops. The article statesthat with the help of the Holy Spirit, bishops will be able tounderstand the realities and the words that are written in the holybook. After being inspired by the Holy Spirit, Bishops would preachabout the holiness of life and nature faith (Wicks 1). According tothe teachings, the church is the bride of Christ. It should becommitted to preserving the sacred tradition and scripture.

TheOld Testament mainly focus on the Israelites and commandments whichGod gave to Moses. It is evident that most of the teachings were inpreparation for the coming of Christ. Consequently, the New Testamentis a manifestation supplement the old one and depict God’s love toeveryone in the world. The New Testament’s gospels are divinewitness to the mystery of salvation of man. According to theteachings, the word of God was made flesh, meaning that it took humanform through Jesus Christ and dwelt amongst people. Jesus affirmedthe Kingdom of God on earth, manifested His will through deeds andwords, died, resurrected, and ascended into heaven. He sent a helperwho was the Holy Spirit. All clergy must study the sacred readings tonourish their spiritual life and lead a holy life.


Thisarticle teaches on three major themes the revelation of God, thesacred scriptures and traditions and the handing over of the church.According to the article, invisible God revealed Himself to the menwhom He loved. God came to live among men so that they couldunderstand Him better. It is evident that God human beings out oflove, but they sinned and strayed from His teachings. God hadpromised to save His people, so he spoke through the prophets andlater sent His son Jesus to live among them and teach them about thedivinity of God.

Onemajor theme is that God inspired the writers of the holy book.According to the article, the sacred scripture was written by men whowere chosen by God. Being that God Himself inspired the writers ofthe Bible, everyone should acknowledge that it is a book of truth andit has no error. However, since the Scripture was authored by Godusing the human fashion, interpreters should be able to find out whatGod wanted to manifest. This is what is known as the interpretationof the word of God. Additionally, it is evident from the readingsthat the Church should be a unifying factor for all Christians.

Conclusively,there is a lot to be learned from this article. It teaches the basicsof the revelation to the Christian faith, the sacred scriptures, themystery of salvation and the church. It is a summary of the majorteachings contained in the Bible. The majority of questions regardingthe holiness of the Bible have been addressed in the article. From anindividual`s perspective, this article teaches Christians more aboutGod`s love for human beings. It can help boost one`s faith andunderstanding of the scripture. It has also helped understand certainnorms in the Catholic Church like the ordination of priests andbishops.


Wicks,Jared. &quotVatican II on Revelation—From Behind the Scenes.“TheologicalStudies&nbsp71.3(2010): 637-650.


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Inan increasingly intertwined global society, it is important to learnall there is to know about each other as this leads to improvedrelations. Narrations about people’s cultures, traditions, andbelief have been a subject of interest for many authors over time.The society learns about these unique features through the eyes ofthe author. Additionally, professional authors provide valuablelearning sources for students. James Welch and D`Arcy McNickle areexamples of individuals who have contributed to literature byproviding books that offer both entertainment and knowledge to thereader. The paper presents a comparison of theHeartsong of Charging Elk andthe Wind from an Enemy Skyby the two author respectively. It seeks to show that there wereintercultural conflicts following America’s western expansion asseen through the eyes of these two authors.

TheHeartsong of Charging Elk

Thisbook is a fascinating account of cultural interaction that revolvesaround the life of Charging Elk who hails from the Oglala SiouxNative American tribe. After his people are displaced, he joins anart group, and this allows him to journey through the whole ofAmerica and later finds himself in France. In one of hisperformances, he gets injured and is left behind and now has toremake his life all over again. With no literacy knowledge andinadequate skills in both English and French languages, Charging Elktries as much as he can to fit in this foreign society. Throughouthis struggle, he holds on to memories of traditions of his peoplewhich he practiced while living in the American plains. Heeventually falls in love with a French woman, but all the challengesthat he had gone through could not have prepared him enough for allthat he was about to face. His life turns for the worse as heencounters betrayal from those he trusted. The books narrate thechallenge in the life of Charging Elk and the impact they had on therest of his life.

TheWind from an Enemy Sky

Thisfictional tale revolves around the ways of the Little Elk people, anorth-western tribe, through the eyes of Antoine, who is a grandsonof the tribal leader. The author narrates the tale of a communitytrying to resist the advancing white civilization throughdemonization. The differences between the two races have been welldepicted by McNickle through characters that conform to verydifferent ideologies. Also, the author shows an aspect of the warmcultural practice and religion beliefs of the Indians. The two sideslearn to understand and live with each other harmoniously, buthistorical issues threaten to dissolve this state leading to aculmination of what had been envisioned in the mysterious two sleepsdream.

Similaritiesbetween the two books

Thereare several similarities between the two books as pointed out in thesection below. Firstly, there is an aspect of Native Americans tryingto hold on to their cultural values at a time when White man`scivilization threatens to erode such practices. In his venture,Charging Elk tries to hold on to the traditions of his native peopleeven when immersed in an entirely different society. On the otherhand, the Little Elk people are faced with a similar challenge astheir conflict with the white man their view, they hadto hold on to their ways at whatever cost as evidenced by this quote“If I walk in hard shoes, the ground won’t reach me. Then Iwon’t be Indian (McNickle 167).” The crossing of cultures in bothbooks shows how much each side, be it the Native Americans, whiteAmericans or even the French, want to uphold the identity that isgiven to them by their traditions.

Anothersimilarity between these two books is on the impact of languagebarriers on how different cultures interact. In the Wind from anEnemy Sky, there is confusion when the community demands to learnwhat happens to Bully. Ifthey don’t understand the language or our legal procedure, theymight act foolishly or get hurt (McNickle, 81).” This leads to alot of avoidable conflicts that occur as a result of poorcommunication. In the Heartsong of Charging Elk, language barriersappear as an obstacle when Charging Elk meets Madeline. This has beencaptured well in is quote “of course, Charging Elk did notunderstand anything but the occasional figure, but he shared in aconfused way her good humor (welch 214).” The difference inlanguage further solidifies each culture to its ways, and this hasbeen well captured by these two authors.

Thirdly,the books are similar in that there is a search for justice after thedeath of a white man. In the Heartsong of Charging Elk, the authortells of the tribulation of Charging Elk in the French justice systemfor killing a man who sexually assaulted him. Though he had a reasonfor committing the crime, the justice system is only interested inlocking him up. This leads to his incarceration for 12 years. In theWind from an enemy sky, the author narrates how the quest for justicefor the death of a white man threatens to destabilize the volatilerelations that exist between the Indians and the Euro-Americans. Thisis especially evident when the leaders refuse to hand in theindividual responsible for murder arguing that he could not be judgedusing the white man’s rules.

Thebooks are also similar in the way they portray the superiority of thewhite man. In Welch’s account, the overcoming of the Oglala Siouxtribe by the colonial forces was something that the natives could notprevent. Additionally, while in France, Charging Elk is amazed by theinfrastructure that he witnesses in his new home. Their supremacy isevident from their ways of transportation to the manner in which theycare for their sick. Similarly, McNickle portrays an image of a rivalthat the Indians could not match. While at the dam, Bull shoots roundto the wall of the white man’s dam as a show of helplessness as heknew that the advancement of the white man’s agenda into the nativelands of his people was unstoppable. This has been captured in thequote “we knew the white man was too strong for us, we couldn’tfight him, so we began to fight among ourselves, and we blamed HenryJim (McNickle, 85).”

Anothersimilarity between these two books is on intercultural conflicts. Inthe Heartsong of Charging Elk, the author shows the challenges thatCharging Elk faced as he tried to understand the culture of theFrench. He especially could not understand why red meat was a luxuryin this developed nation whereas it is the staple food for hispeople. Additionally, he is taken aback by the difference between themedical care applied in the white man country and natural wayspracticed by his people. In Wind from an Enemy Sky, the author showshow the practices of the Little Elk people and the way they differwith those of white Americans. These cultures differ in terms ofreligion and religious objects, dispute resolution and even withregards to leadership. These differences made it difficult for themto integrate and exist harmoniously. The differences have beencapture in this quote “[. . .] here he was an outsider, trying tofind his way inside (McNickle 46).”

Lastly,the books are similar in the way they present the plight of theNative Americans. In both accounts, these communities are presentedas victims of an imperialist agenda by European immigrants who wantto take over their land through any means possible. Here the authornotes, “It occurred to Bell that Charging Elk was not a citizen ofthe United States. Because of the treaties, the Indian tribes weretheir own nations (Welch 80).” In both scenarios, they are afraidthat the influence of the white man`s culture will erode theircultural beliefs and practices by forcing all the native to abide byforeign ways. Their plight to stop this from happening puts both theLittle Elk people and the Oglala Sioux tribe on the defensive hencethe strained relations.

Differencesbetween the two books

Havingestablished the similarities between these two books, there are alsosome differences to be evaluated. Firstly, the narratives by thebooks emanate from two different perspectives. In the Heartsong ofCharging Elk, the author expresses the plight of cultural clashthrough the view of a single native Indian who finds himself in aEuropean country. His struggles show the challenges experienced whenthe European culture mixes with Indian practices. This is welldepicted in his workplace where he struggles to understand the Frenchenvironment. In the text, the author writes “he had never workedwith women, and he had never had a woman boss. […] all his previousbosses had been men (Welch 265).” However, the Wind from an EnemySky tells a tale of a small community that has come into contact withEuropean-American. Their struggle is one of trying to ensure thattheir ways are not completely eroded by the ways of the foreigninvaders.

Thebooks also differ in the fact that the characters are exposed todifferent forms of violence. In McNickle’s account, there is a lotof confrontation where people end up being killed by gunshots. Theviolence is as a result of natives trying to defend what they believeis their heritage from destruction. However, in Welch`s account, theviolence is at an individual level. Charging Elk is sexuallyassaulted by a homosexual criminal, and he retaliates by killing hisviolator. This is a different form of violence than the one whichmanifests in the Wind from an Enemy Sky.

Thirdly,the books also differ in regards to the general message of theauthor. In the wind from an enemy sky, McNickle seeks to provide thereader with an account of the challenges that were faced by NativeAmericans who were believed to be an obstacle to the expansion of theUnited States. These communities had their heritage completelystripped-off either by disregarding their treasured sites,interfering with the ecosystem or forcefully moving them toreservations and thus leaving their lands behind. However, Welch inhis book tries to portray the struggles of a person trying to hold onto his cultural values, while at the same time seeking to resistbeing completely integrated into a foreign culture. Though in bothbooks there is an aspect of holding on to cultural practices, thesetting of each narrative presents different challenges for the maincharacters.

Lastly,these books differ in terms of education opportunities andintegration prospect. As noted earlier, both authors present a casewhere European culture is being forced on Indians. However,structures put in place to aid in this drive are not the same.Charging Elk is forced to integrate into the new society without anyinfrastructure to aid him in this endeavor. He is not provided withan avenue to learn, but is forced to adapt and educate himself on theways and language of the French. However, the Little Elk people havebeen availed with institutions such as schools and religious placeswhich are vital resources for anyone willing to integrate into thenew culture. These resources play a vital role in enabling the whiteman to integrate these natives into his way and culture.


Fromthe above discussion, it is evident that authors are a vital part ofthe society as they use their work to educate others on issuesaffecting the community. This is as both authors depict the plight ofNative Americans that were caught in the way of the US expansionpolicy. Therefore, it is important for stakeholders to avail enoughresources which will ensure that all those that want to contribute tothe society through literature can do so without encounteringchallenges. This step will play a vital role in not only availingmore learning resources for students but also ensuring that culturalpractices are preserved for the benefit of future generations.


McNickle,D`Arcy. Wind from an Enemy Sky. San Francisco: Harper &amp Row,1978. Print.

Welch,James. The Heartsong of Charging Elk: A Novel. New York, NY [u.a.:Doubleday, 2000. Print.


SongRhetorical Analysis

Fundamentally, many songs bearsimilarities and differences, and the extent of these disparitiesdepends on whether the compositions in question belong to the samegenre, or convey a similar message. Inherently, songs can becompared effectively by assessing each of their individual elements.This paper presents the rhetorical analyses of ForYou byKenny Lattimore and SpendMy Life with Youby Eric Benet featuring Tamia, as well as their comparison.

Song 1: For Youby Kenny Lattimore

Kenny Lattimore’sFor You from the album Kenny Lattimore was recorded in1996 and has been one of the most popular love songs of its age.Primarily, the piece is about love, where the singer promises to lovea spouse for eternity obviously, the artist holds his lover in veryhigh esteem given the promises he lays into the song. In theselyrics, the singer uses imagery to help the audience relate to thedepth of his love for the spouse in question. The line ‘for you Ishare the cup of love that overflows’ shows how the artist employssymbolism to address the spouse. Here, the audience is expected tounderstand that a cup that overflows means that the contents will notdeplete and he is willing to share it with her. In reality, thecontent of the metaphorical cup is love, which the singer intends toshare with the spouse.

Another device used in the song is a short rhyme scheme to stress themessage in the song. Lines such as &quotEvery note that I play,Every word I might say, Every melody I feel, Are only for you andyour appeal’` (Kenny) show the rhyme scheme in the song whichaudiences will notice. Rhyme schemes will always be noted byaudiences and they make it easy to sing along for enthusiasticaudiences. In this case, they also stress the intentions of theartist and the dedication he professes for the spouse. On the samelines used for the rhyme scheme, the term &quotevery&quothighlights the alliteration chosen by the artist to add some fun andcharacter in the song. The term appears in the 22nd 23rd,24th, 26th, and 27th lines and asaforementioned, audiences will capture this literary device. In thesame way, these group of lines outline the successful use of pathosto evoke emotion within the audience. People will automaticallyrelate to what the singer is saying given the words he chooses. Otherlines that show the use of pathos in this song include &quotFor youthere are no words or ways to show my love&quot (Kenny). Inherently,this line evokes the feeling of love.

Song 2: Spend MyLife with you by Eric Benet featuring Tamia

Eric Benet’s ASpend My Life with You was released in 1999 from the album A Day inthe Life and it features Tamia. The song is about love and itinvolves a collaboration where a man and a woman seem to be engagedin dialogue about their love. Benet begins by professing his love forthe woman, and the woman responds by doing the same. Afterwards, theyare engaged in exchanging their feelings for each other. The targetaudience for this song includes people currently in love or thosethat might be in the process of discovering love.

Notably, thesingers use alliteration to in some lines to express their feelingsfor each other, which makes the song easy top relate to by theaudience. Lines such as &quotCan I just see you every morning when Iopen my eyes, Can I just feel your heart beating beside me, Everynight, Can we just feel this way together, Till the end of all time,Can I just spend my life with you&quot (Eric) outlines the usage ofthis device. Another device in the song is the use of imagery in theway the artists sings, &quotCan you run to these open arms&quot(Eric). In this case, the audience can easily relate to the singerawaiting the spouse to run into his open arms, and this will speak tothe emotional side of the audience. Here, the singer alsosuccessfully uses pathos due to the purpose of the song and he use ofother devices such as imagery to help the audience relate. Throughoutthe song, the two singers respond to one another’s words in a piecethat speaks to the audience.

Comparisonbetween the Two Pieces

Both songs speakabout love and the relationship between two people while oneinvolves a single artists professing his love for the spouse, theother involves two artistes engaged in dialogue. Both songs willappeal to audiences that are already on love and those that mightwant to fall in love since they show the good side of love. In thequest of delivering this message, the artists use different literarydevices and rhetoric to appeal to the audience in a unique way.Artists would like their songs to have a lasting effect on theaudience whenever they listen to them. In these two cases, the use ofpathos ensures this goal is accomplished with the careful choice ofwords that people can relate too. Other literary devices such asimagery and alliteration enhance the usage of pathos as they help theaudience process the message from the songs with relative ease.Another device, rhyme scheme, is also used on the first song, and itsuse enhances the rhetoric quality intended by the artist.


&quotKennyLattimore Lyrics – For You& N. p., 2016.Web. 28 Sept. 2016.

&quotEric BenetLyrics – Spend My Life with You&quot.& N.p., 2016. Web. 28 Sept. 2016.


Last name 2


Thetell-tale heart-outline

Inhis work, thetell-tale heart,Edgar Allan Poe provides an interesting yet educative short storyabout predicament faced by people who tend to be isolated and oftenbecome mad because of their loneliness.

Thesisstatement: Itseeks to show the psychological contradictions that are associatedwith mental deterioration and paranoia in the society.

Thetell-tale heart

Forone to understand the themes and characters, it is important toanalyze the content of the passage. The story revolves around thelife of a man who is focused on proving that he is nervous and notmad.


Thereare several themes portrayed throughout the story. Firstly, there isthe theme of love and hate.

Theother theme covered by the story is that of the self and alter ego.Throughout this passage, characters create alternate and oppositeversions of themselves whenever they have an internal conflict.

Thirdly,there is the theme of mortality. The issue of death has beenpresented as a mystery in this story.

Fourthly,there is the theme of time. Time is a factor that has been highlyreferenced in the story.

Theother theme present in the narrative is that of a home. Throughoutthe story, the author continuously expresses some sense of anxietytowards what is perceived as home.

Lastly,there is the theme of guilt and consciousness.


Firstly,there is the narrator. The passage presents him as a dreadfullynervous individual, mentally and physically ill and also paranoid.

Theother character in the passage is the old man. The author presentsthe character through the skewed view of the narrator which alsomakes him a mystery.

Thirdly,there is also three policemen. There is very little reference to thepolicemen in the story. However, the fact that they showed up almostimmediately after they were called indicates that they werecommitted.

Lastly,there is the character of a neighbor. Similar to the police, theneighbor plays a minor but significant role.


Theabove analyses provides significant knowledge on how the societyviews mental deterioration and paranoia. The demonization of theconditions and it being termed as madness makes it impossible forvictims to get help.


Poe,Edgar Allan, Charles Baudelaire, and Albert Anderegg. &quotTheTell-Tale Heart.&quot (2013).


Last Name 2


Nicotinetesting for employment

Accordingto the CDC, tobacco smoking claims the lives of about 480,000Americans annually (CDC, a 1). Additionally, the government spendsmore than $300 billion in direct health expenditure every year.However, despite these high figures, the numbers of smokers havecontinued to rise. In the year 2014 for instance, nearly 17 out of100 adults aged above 18 years were tobacco addicts (CDC, a 1). Basedon these figures, about 40 million adults are currently smoking inthe United States. The government has initiated several measures suchas heavy taxation of cigarettes to curb smoking. Companies and largecorporates are also considering adopting several policies to reducethe numbers of smokers in workplaces. One of the policies that havecreated a lot of controversies is regarding nicotine testing inworkplaces. This essay affirms that introducing the idea of nicotinescreening is a great initiative towards anti-nicotine campaigns.


Oneof the argument to support nicotine testing is because of the healthimpacts of tobacco smoking. Research has confirmed that prolongedsmoking habits have adverse effects on the smoker (Qaseem et al. 2).Smoking is associated with several health conditions such as lungcancer which is a leading cause of death in the United States.Additionally, it is linked to bladder, liver, larynx, bronchus andstomach cancers. Smoking is also responsible for respiratory diseasessuch as chronic bronchitis, asthma and congestive chronic obstructivepulmonary disease (Qaseem et al. 3). Other health risks associatedwith smoking include stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy and pretermdeliveries (CDC, a 1). It is evident that if companies enforce thislaw, it will discourage people from smoking and workers will behealthier. Additionally, those who are already drug addicts will findmore reasons to stop smoking.

Anotherreason to support nicotine testing in workplaces is that the smokingalso affects non-smokers. Scientific research states that non-smokersare also at a higher risk of developing lung cancer and othersmoking-related disorders. In fact, recent studies have confirmedthat passive smoking increase the risk of developing lung cancer byup to 30% (Liu, Jiang, Li and Hammond 2). Apart from cancer, theyalso suffer similar adverse effects of smoking such as prematuredeaths as a result of respiratory infections among others. It is,therefore, evident that by allowing chain smokers to interact withnon-smokers freelyexposes morepeople to risks of developing lung cancer, asthma, and relatedproblems.

Smokinghabits encourage wastage of time and have adverse impacts on theenvironment. Nicotine which is an active ingredient in cigarettes cancause addiction. Although major cigarettes manufacturing firms haveoften claimed that the nicotine is used as a flavoring agent,research state that if regularly taken, the substance can causeaddiction. Chain smokers tend to smoke more than oncea day,and some even take several unscheduled breaks to smoke. These smokingbreaks have a lot of adverse effects on productivity because they arespending time which could have been used to do important office jobsmoking (Liu, Jiang, Li and Hammond 4). The resultant impact of thisis reduced productivity and decline in profits. Consequently, thosewho smoke tend to have bad breath which can make interaction withother colleagues in the workplace uncomfortable.Thiscan result in poor communication and confusion at workplaces. Thosewho smoke at workplaces like on building rooftops also pollute theimmediate environment, and this can damage the image and reputationof the firm.

Nicotinetesting in workplaces can discourage smoking habits, and this canhelp build a positive image of the company. According to the worldhealth organization and the UNEP, smoking produces ten times more airpollution compared to other Medias such as gasoline and petroleum(Voigt 5). Recent concerns about global warming and rising sea levelhave made people more aware of the need for environmental protection.It is, therefore, evident that many people will love companies whichpromote environmental protection compared to those that show minimalregards to the environment. With such a good brand image, it isevident that such companies will likely enjoy high sales and customerloyalty and this will eventually translate into good profits. Smoking is one of the leading cause of accidents in the UnitedStates. Nicotine testing will thus deter people from smoking and thusensuring that the country has enough labor force. According to CDC,the annual number of deaths each year as a result of smoking is morethan that caused by alcohol use, HIV/AIDS, and illegal drug usecombined (CDC, b 1). Additionally, when it comes to the issue ofsmoking both men and women are affected. With such a trend, it islikely that in the future, the country may lack strong and ablepeople to drive its ambitions and make the United States asuperpower. Ensuring that everyone who works or is looking foremployment is screened for smoking is, therefore, a sure way ofensuring that the country has a bright future and there will be ahealthy society. Additionally, since some road accidents are usuallyas a result of distractions caused by the desire to smoke or thepractice itself, it is evident that by ensuring that people refrainfrom smoking many lives will be saved.


Thereare people who believe that nicotine screening is not a greatinitiative towards anti-nicotine campaigns. For example, tobaccocompanies have often claimed that nicotine does not cause addiction.In fact, they claim that the substance is included as an excipientbecause of its flavor properties. Additionally, they state that suchlaws go against the constitution because smoking has not been bannedand since it is also a personal decision. It is obvious that thecompanies do not usually expect the smokers to quit smoking fully. Asignificant section of the population also believes that such lawsare discriminatory against smokers. There could be many other factorsthat could contribute to absenteeismat the workplacesuchas lack of motivation and reduced salary among others. Such groupsalso cite other concerns like childhood obesity and alcoholism whichought to have been given a lot of attention (DC and Edward Group 1).Since smoking does not interfere with a person`s work because he orshe can resume normal work after a break, it is unfair for addicts tobe subjected to such treatments in their workplaces.


Itis evident that the idea of nicotine screening for employment is agreat initiative towards anti-nicotine campaigns because theadvantages outweigh the disadvantages. For example, smoking can causehealth problems such as cancer, asthma, and poor vision.Additionally, the effects of smoking are not confined to the users.Non-smokers are also at a higher risk of developing health problems.Implementing nicotine screening policies shows the organization`scommitment to safeguarding the environment against pollution. Lastly,by encouraging nicotine testing in workplaces, fewer lives will belost through road accidents.


CDC,(a) – Fact Sheet – Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States -Smoking &amp Tobacco Use&quot.&nbspSmokingand Tobacco Use,2016,

CDC(b). Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults — the United States,2005–2014&quot.,2016,

DC,Edward Group, and DACBN. How alcohol affects the Gut Microbiome.Cleansing &amp Detox Articles. Dr.Groups Natural Health &amp Organic LivingBlog, 9 Aug. 2016. Web. 22 Oct. 2016.

Liu,R., Jiang, Y., Li, Q., &amp Hammond, S. K. An assessment of healthrisks and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke in Chineserestaurants and bars.&nbspPloSone,&nbsp(2014) 9(1),e84811.

Qaseem,A., Wilt, T. J., Weinberger, S. E., Hanania, N. A., Criner, G., Vander Molen, T., … &amp MacDonald, R. Diagnosis and management ofstable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical practiceguideline update from the American College of Physicians, AmericanCollege of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and EuropeanRespiratory Society. Annalsof internal medicine,&nbsp155(3),(2016) 179-191.

Voigt,Kristin. &quotEthical concerns in tobacco control Nonsmoker and&quotnicotine&quot hiring policies: the implications of employmentrestrictions for tobacco control.&quot Americanjournal of public health&nbsp102.11(2012): 2013-2018.