Summary and Question


and Question

Escobar (1987) presents the basic arguments that were used tocategorize countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America as“underdeveloped” or “Third World.” Subsequently, the authoroutlines the treatment that was meted out to these countries owing totheir classification. In his article, Escobar also examines how a newthinking code was conformed with regards to the social and economiclife in developing countries. Notably, these developments occurred inthe early period after the Second World War. Furthermore, Escobarhighlights how new modes of thinking were implemented in the economicpractices of Western countries. The author also investigated theinstitutional practices through which prosperity occurs. In thisregard, a proper research question concerns the measures adopted by“Third World” countries in response to such classifications.

On the other hand, Dos Santos (1970) proved that the significance ofqualitative changes within Latin American countries. In particular,the author showed that it was impossible for such nations to overcometheir dependence on developed countries such as the U.S. However,alterations in the external relations and internal structures couldplay a significant role in empowering Latin American countries.Furthermore, Dos Santos shows the systemic nature of dependence andhow it was perpetuated over several decades. In this respect, LatinAmerican countries were molded into an internal and internationalstructure that led to underdevelopment. Therefore, such nations weresomehow powerless to reduce their dependence on developed countries.A proper research question would seek to examine the terms andconditions under which debt and other forms of aid were sent to LatinAmerican countries.

Furthermore, Frank (1970) showed that the State had a fundamentalrole in asserting new rationalities. Therefore, many developingcountries were encumbered by harsh economic realities that led tofailure of public policies. In this regard, an appropriate researchquestion would concern the ways in which poorer countries can gainmore control over their economies.


Dos Santos, T. (1970). The Structure of Dependence. AmericanEconomic Review, 60(2), 231-6.

Escobar, A. (1987). Power and Visibility: Development and theInvention and Management of the Third World. CulturalAnthropology, 3(4), 428-43.

Frank, A. Gunder, A. F. (1970). The Development of Underdevelopment”In Imperialism and Underdevelopment: A Reader. (Robert Rhodesed.). New York and London: Monthly Review Press, 4-17.