Summary

Livingorganisms can survive in both natural, and artificial environmentprovided the right conditions are met. An aquarium is such a habitatconsisting of various biotic and abiotic factors ranging from plants,amphibians, fish, bacteria, soil, corals and much more. To assuresurvival of these organisms, some factors have to be put intoconsideration. Firstly, the design of the aquarium should have aproper filtration system that is made up of five essential partsintake, mechanical filtration, chemical filtration biologicalfiltration and outflow tank. By doing so, the water chemistry of thesystem is also maintained. Since the aquarium is inhabited by livingorganism, various metabolic processes such as photosynthesis occurwithin their systems. These processes may result in the production ofby-products that may affect the water chemistry. An example is CO2produced during respiration that affects the KH and bufferingconditions of aquaria. Hydrogen ions produced during the process ofphotosynthesis in addition to other sources may also affect the PHlevels of an aquarium. The general hardness of the water system mayalso be affected by the minerals present in the soil bed of theaquaria. Adjusting this parameter to an optimum level is the basis ofhaving real aquaria. Phytoplankton synthesizes their food throughphotosynthesis while fish and other animals feed on these plants togain nutrients. The nutrients such as proteins are recycled in theprocess called the nitrogen cycle, whereby ammonia from excretionwaste is converted to nitrite. Nitrites are converted to nitrates bythe aid of bacteria. Nitrates can then be absorbed by plants whichare ingested by fish and the cycle continues. The role of thenitrogen cycle is to get rid of the nitrogen intermediates suchammonia and nitrites, which can be deleterious to the livingorganisms within the aquarium.

Summary

Thesecond question explores the crisis faced by Belgian beer producer inthe Brazilian and American markets. According to recent reports, thecompany reported poor results for the third quarter of the year.These results were characterized by declining sales, revenues, andprofits, which affected its share price. This trend is attributableto the current economic crisis in Brazil, which is described by highunemployment and inflation rates, and falling wages for consumers.Using the consumer demand theory, people can only use the availablefinancial resources to purchase commodities that can give them ahigher utility.

Thefirst question addresses the issue of rising minimum wages in majorUS cities such as Los Angeles and New York. This has been a commontrend from the beginning of the year as many States raised theirminimum wages. In this regard, small businesses are facing increasingpressure because of the rising prices, which lead to declining profitmargins. This essay seeks to discuss the issue of minimum wageincreases in major cities during this quarter and determines theeffect of the increases on small businesses, workers and the labormarket across the country.

Thethird question is a case study that highlights the problem ofshortage of labor in American nursing homes. Nursing homes areessential because they provide care for the elderly and disabledpeople. The most common services that caregivers provide to theelderly and disabled people in nursing homes include eating, bathingand movement. This ranks caregivers in nursing homes as one of thefastest-growing occupations in the U.S. According to the article,nursing homes in the United States are experiencing hard times tryingto find workers who can provide direct care to the aged and disabledpeople in the homes is a sign of forthcoming retirements.

SUMMARY

Summary

Reading1: Historian’s Fallacies: Introduction

  1. of reading

Thereading posits three premises of history. There is a tacit knowledgeof historical thought. The logic of tacit can be made to reach alevel of awareness and that historical thinking has a capacity ofbeing refined owing to intelligence and purposeful application.Historical thought hardly relates with characteristics of formaldeductive inference. In actuality, it involves adductive reasoningprocesses of citing answers as evidence of happenings. Fundamentally,historians tend to ask open-ended questions about past occurrencesthat are answered with factual information

  1. Words I did not know in the reading

Paradigm-a distinctive example of something

Syllogism-a kind of reasoning whereby conclusions or viewpoints are derivedfrom assumed or given propositions or premises

Dialectic-endeavours of discussing or elaborating truthfulness of a givenmatter or subject under concern

  1. Questions that arose while reading the material

  • What are the Aristotelian syllogisms?

  • What are the Ramean dialectics?

  • What are the Boolean Equations?

  1. Quotes that strongly reflect what the “human condition” and what “civilisation” were like during this period.

“TheLogic of Historical Thought… is not a symmetrical structure ofAristotelian syllogisms, or Ramean dialectics, or Boolean Equations.”This quote got my attention because it implies that the humancondition and civilisation of the people of that time was a primitivecompared to those of today or modern times. The people were not soopen-minded.

Reading2: Handling Ideas: Fact and Idea: An Elusive Distinction

  1. of reading

Generally,and in commonplace settings, people always believe that “a fact isa fact”. However, it is important for people to consider that factsoccur owing to the interpretation of ideas, which are imageinferences. No wonder people keep on arguing in spheres likepolitics, family life, science, arts, forms of literature and evencasual conversations. Additionally, real facts are characterised byexpressions of conventional relations based on conventional termssay, for instance, person A was born on date B. it is also rationalto term ideas as suggestions that are over and above data that isnameable in contexts of conventional terms. A look at history showsthat it is founded on both facts and ideas.

  1. Unfamiliar words in the reading

Promulgate-to make something known very well to members of the public

Conventional-in accordance with how things are usually done in normal settings

Discourse-communication or debate about something in either verbal or writtenform

  1. Questions that arose while reading the material

  • Are the facts that express a normal relation in conventional terms the only pure facts?

  • Might there be some facts that are beyond human understanding?

  • Can the use of bad grammar lead to misunderstanding of falsehood as a fact?

  • Do fiction books have a capacity of presenting some hidden facts?

  1. Quotes that strongly reflect what the “human condition” and what “civilisation” were like during this period.

“Theonly pure facts in any kind of reporting are those statements thatexpress a conventional relation in conventional terms.” This quotegot my attention because it implies that the thinking capacity ofhumans has grown and developed tremendously a point well observed ifone compared the thinking patterns of ancient and mediaeval timeswith those of modern times. For instance, and at some point in thepast, people thought that the earth was flat and that the sun rotatedaround it. There was no conventional relation in that ideology orconcept.

Reading3: History Inside Out: The Argument

  1. of reading

Thereading focuses on disregarding the notion that European civilisationestablished a sense of historical advantage for the world as a whole.That it brought about some cognitive, spiritual and culturalenlightenment to people of all races and backgrounds. The readingdisputed the ideology that before the 15thCentury, Europe was a region that was the most progressive andadvanced in the whole world.

  1. Unknown words in the reading

Eurocentric-Observation of European culture as being pre-eminent

Diffusionism-Spreading over some large area

Mundane-lack of enthusiasm about something

  1. Questions that arose while reading the material

  • What were the tenets for a determination that Europe was the most advanced and progressive region in the world prior to the 15th Century?

  • Were there other ways for Europeans to share ideas of modernization without engaging in colonialism?

  • Did Europeans consider if people from other areas of the world cared about or even needed their modernization?

  1. Quotes that strongly reflect what the “human condition” and what “civilisation” were like during this period.

“Thebelief is diffusionism,more precisely EurocentricDiffusionism.”Speaking of the belief that European Civilisation is what broughtabout progressiveness and advancement to the rest of the world, thisquote got my attention because it shows that the people of the timehave become enlightened and that civilisation has grown and developedto its highest levels.

Reading4: APeople’s History of the World:Introduction

  1. of reading

Thereading informs that the author is in the business of offering truehistory to his audience. According to Harman (2008), the author, itis important to note that ordinary men and women that pursue commongoals in life are the main founding blocks of societies and theiraccomplishments that form the history of the world. The author traceshuman history from the earliest of time to modern times heindicates, “Historyis about the sequence of events that led to the lives we lead today.It is the story of how we came to be ourselves. Understanding it isthe key to finding out if and how we can further change the world inwhich we live.”&nbsp

  1. Unknown words in the reading

Holocaust-murder of people or destruction on a vast scale

Prejudice-unjust and unfair behaviour based on some preconceived opinion

Impoverishment-cause to become poor

  1. Questions that arose while reading the material

  • What was Brecht’s motivation for writing the poem?

  • Why would leaders and governments be against history?

  • Does cooperative effort by humans to make a living, as theorised by Karl Marx apply today?

  1. Quotes that strongly reflect what the “human condition” and what “civilisation” were like during this period.

“KarlMarx… pointed out that people have only been able to survive onthis planet through cooperative effort to make a livelihood, and thatevery new way of making such a livelihood has necessitated changes intheir wider relationships with each other.” This quote got myattention because it shows that people during Marx’s time were notexposed to capitalism as much as the people of today are.Civilisation was also low at the time. &nbsp

Reading5: Prologue

  1. of reading

Themodern world of today, one of capitalism, is characterised byselfishness and greed, racism, chauvinism, and wars. That was howevernot the case in the earlier times of establishment of humansocieties. The Homo sapiens’ history of more than 100,000 years isresponsible for the changes that human societies have witnessed.

  1. Unknown words in the reading

Bonobo- a relatively small chimpanzee found in the rainforest environments

Rudimentary– limited to core functions and principles

Pygmies– persons of very short stature found in some areas of Africa

  1. Questions that arose while reading the material

  • Exactly how long ago did people begin forming governments?

  • Do the “band societies” really deserve to be regarded as affluent communities?

  • When did Australopithecus live?

  1. Quotes that strongly reflect what the “human condition” and what “civilisation” were like during this period.

“Forsome unknown reason, members of this species gave up living in trees,as do our closest animal relatives, the common chimpanzee and thebonobo, and took to walking upright.” This quote got my attentionbecause it shows that human condition, as we know it, today has takena very long time to develop. Even so, humans, and animals as well,continue to improve and advance in ways that make life even betterfor them.

Reading6: The Neolithic Revolution

  1. of reading

TheStone Age, in its later parts (around 10,000 years ago), witnessedsignificant changes in human societies, the way they lived andthrived, especially in areas of the middle east. Weapons andornaments were made of stone or ground. There were many changes inthe structure of the societies most predominantly, however, thepeople dwelled in groups or villages but separate households. Arevolution marked a difference in lifestyle from that of hunters andgatherers. The people also began to grow food crops for consumption.

  1. Unknown words in the reading

Premium– incentive or reward

Ecology-study of how organisms relate with one another in an ecosystem

Lineages– descent from certain ancestor(s)

  1. Questions that arose while reading the material

  • Were there any human societies that were agriculturalists before New Stone Age?

  • What food crops did the people of the Middle East plant during Neolithic Revolution?

  • What were weapons made of before the Stone Age?

  1. Quotes that strongly reflect what the “human condition” and what “civilisation” were like during this period.

“Onoccasions, the spread of crop raising and herding led to one finalsignificant change in social life—the first differentiation intosocial ranks.” This quote got my attention because it shows thatproperty is a central element that leads to classes and divisions insocieties during Neolithic Revolution and it remains like that today.

Reading7: The first civilisations

  1. of reading

Thefirst civilisations in the world were still not existent more than5,000 years ago. Among the very first forms of civilisation were at“Egypt and Central America, the ziggurats (staged tower temples) ofIraq, the palace of Knossos in Crete, the fortress at Mycenae inmainland Greece, and the grid-planned 4,000-year-old cities ofHarappa and Mohenjo-Daro on the Indus.”

  1. Unknown words in the reading

Edifices– large and imposing forms of the built environment

Prestigious– of high social status

Stockpiles– loads of goods and or materials

  1. Questions that arose while reading the material

  • How were ages of the edifices determined?

  • How did the people at the time deal with crop failures due to diseases?

  • What mechanisms were used to preserve foodstuffs stored in sizeable buildings?

  1. Quotes that strongly reflect what the “human condition” and what “civilisation” were like during this period.

“Thestorehouses were the first temples, their superintendents the firstpriests.” This quote got my attention because it implies that evenat the time, the people had knowledge of and reverence for God andreligion. The storehouses indicate that civilisation was slowly beingestablished.

Reading8: The first civilisations

  1. of reading

Ascivilisation took shape, people started to gain and keep wealth forthemselves and their families. Urban societies came into being, andthere were social classes of the rich and the poor. Racism alsoentered into play as the people of colour were treated as slaves andof the lowest class.

  1. Unknown words in the reading

Commoner-ordinary member of society

Peasants-low-status members of society that acted as labourers in farms

Precarious-uncertain

  1. Questions that arose while reading the material

  • When exactly did slavery begin?

  • Had the people stopped all activities of hunting and gathering?

  • Were peasants allowed to go to war?

  1. Quotes that strongly reflect what the “human condition” and what “civilisation” were like during this period.

“Armedforce is most effective when backed by legal codes and ideologieswhich sanctify ruling class power by making it seem like the sourceof people’s livelihoods.” This quote got my attention because itmeans that the people at the time had established administrativeorgans of governments. This implies that civilisation had alreadybeen established.

Reading9: Chapter 4: Women’s oppression

  1. of reading

Withcivilisation, spreading widely and people focusing on gaining wealth,the men in the societies took dominance over women. The people had ahigh regard for family status at the time, which was vested on themales. The resultant effect is that the women were observed assubordinates to their male counterparts they were always underminedand oppressed.

  1. Unknown words in the reading

Polarisation-division into sharp and contrasting groups owing to some beliefs

Subordination-making others be of lower rank

Exacting-placing significant demands on an individual’s skill or ability

  1. Questions that arose while reading the material

  • Why would the women fall back on retaliation against oppression?

  • Was the oppression of the women a very widespread phenomenon?

  • Was there abuse of peasant women by aristocratic women?

  1. Quotes that strongly reflect what the “human condition” and what “civilisation” were like during this period.

“Themethods used by the exploiters to buttress their rule began to eat upa major portion of society’s resources.” This quote got myattention because, in it, there is an apparent similarity in theconditions of the time and those of now. Governments misuse theirrole as exploiters, engaging in expenditures that did not serve theinterests of the locals but those of their own.

Reading10: Chapter 5: The first dark ages

  1. of reading

Humancivilisation brought about greed and pride among the ruling class andaristocrats. There was a great need to compete and show might andpower. The cities and regions engaged in warfare and succumbed as aresult. Instances of civil war also had the same effects of socialdisruption and destruction of development agendas.

  1. Unknown words in the reading

Monuments-a large form of the built environment

Scholasticism-theology and philosophy of traditional doctrine

Admonitions-offer of a warning

  1. Questions that arose while reading the material

  • Why would the people not call for the establishment of democracy?

  • Why would the ruling class want more and more control over lands and individuals?

  • Why would the ruling class not come together to form larger unions for the achievement of peace?

  1. Quotes that strongly reflect what the “human condition” and what “civilisation” were like during this period.

“Aruling class that had arisen out of advances in human productivepowers now prevented further progress.” This quote got my attentionbecause it indicates that civilisation kind of made people,especially the ruling class, to be obsessed with a need of showingcapability and capacity.

References

Harman,C. (2008).&nbspApeople`s history of the world: from the Stone Age to the NewMillennium.Verso Books.