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“1984”By George Orwell

Chapter5 and 6

Inchapter five, the writer starts off in a public setting. Thecharacters involved in the chapter are used to bring out an aspect ofsocial interaction. When Winston meets up with his “friend” Syme,they go into a discussion that will eventually bring in morecharacters. There is an aspect of sarcasm in the way the word‘friend’ is written. This is a deliberate highlight as the textdescribes friendship as a hard thing to find anymore. The location ofthis particular chapter fits to the story such that, thecharacteristics of the subject of the story is revealed. This sectionadds weight to Winston’s views and opinions. It explains theimportance of language and the diverse ideas that different peoplehold. It encompasses the degree of ignorance that people have and howthe majority can be easily misguided. As the authority of Newspeak,Syme offers information related to publishing a new dictionary.However, Winston does not agree with the ideologies of Newspeak asdescribed by Syme.

Thefact that Syme is a promoter of Newspeak seems to disinterest Winstonbut he falls into a debate with him. The pressure to air his views onthe corruption of Newspeak is admirable. Winston is compelled toshare his thoughts though at the back of his mind he knows it isuseless to reason with Syme. The chapter seeks to note how misguidedNewspeak is. According to those promoting Newspeak, Oldspeak containsunnecessary words and too many shades of meaning. To elaborate, Symedescribes the opposite of the word ‘good’ as ‘ungood.` In hisdefense, Newspeak is easy to put together, and the range of thoughtrequired is narrow (pp. 29). This, therefore, gives the party thepower to ensure the citizens have no thoughts that go against itsleadership. The manipulation and control of the population draw thetheme of loyalty towards the party. Orwell strives to elaborate theamount of power the party has on its population. They have beensilenced to a level where language has been corrupted to avoid wordsof rebellion and independence.

Orwellbelieved that Newspeak was a threat to the independence of those inhis population. In chapter six, Winston falls victim to lust andmaybe love. When writing his diary his random thoughts of havingrelations with a prostitute bring the aspect of longing. Longing inthe sense of freedom to be with whoever he wanted. He thinks of hiswife Katharine who according to him was too observant of the partyand its rules. This fornication, however, was not much of adeath-punishment kind of crime (pp. 37). The party would instilpunishment on such offenders, but the primary goal was to prevent anyrelations that were ‘true.` The writer makes an effort to indicatethe kinds of ‘slavery’ the people were subjected to. Though theycould not see it, they were denied the simple pleasures such asdesire. The aim of this was to ensure that people only dedicatedtheir entire being to the party.

Thechapter demonstrates how the people’s minds were enslaved to thebeliefs and rules of the party. Winston is apparently appalled by hiswife’s dedication to the party. When it comes to matters ofintimacy, their relationship fell on different pages. In her view,Katharine was serving the party by trying to get pregnant. There wasno romance between them, and Winston is filled with rage when hedescribes a lack of intimacy in their relationship (pp. 38). Thedesire for privacy itself was labelled a ‘thoughtcrime,’ andWinston’s decision to act on his desires can be termed as a motifof rebellion.

Whilescribbling down in his diary, Winston hopes to feel some relief afterhis confession, but this does not offer him any comfort (pp.39).After writing down his defiant act, he still feels he has a void tofill. Visiting a prostitute who he realized is an old woman was acrime in his mind. It was a crime that Winston chooses to take partin no matter the consequences. The text seems to pit Winston in sucha position so as to draw the aspect of ‘free slavery.` Though hewas not caught during the crime, Winston still finds importance inconfessing. He has a choice to keep this atrocity to himself, but dueto the effect of being controlled by the party, even this rebelliouscharacter falls prey.

Orwellin this novel has made an effort to bring out the true nature ofthose in power during such regimes. He has, through this chapterdisplayed how language can be used as a weapon to silence apopulation. Language in chapter five is masked as a weapon to keepthe masses under loyalty by the elimination of words from theOldspeak. These words are excluded from the Newspeak so as avoidindependent thoughts. Syme described this as ‘duckspeak’ wherebythe people are only allowed to think certain thoughts. The novel putsinto perspective the lie that the people have been fed regardingNewspeak. The colouring of as the new, improved version of Oldspeakis a scheme. The propaganda displayed by the party goes beyondimagination. However, the writer notes the power this propaganda hadon the people. The party continues to succeed in its effort to havecontrol of people’s minds and in every aspect of their lives. Thispower goes beyond every boundary, and in his case, Winston finds itoutrageous that individuals have no freedom to desire and love.

Workscited

Orwell,George. Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Novel. New York: Harcourt, Brace andCo, 1949. Print.

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GovernmentFunding of Congressional Campaigns

Recently,debates on whether money should be disbursed by the state to financethe congressional campaigns have taken center stage. There are thosewho suggest that it is a modest move since it would award equalopportunities to all while others claim that it brings a financialburden to the citizens. However, the funding should be allowedbecause it brings equality in addition to boosting the financialpowers of the less privileged candidates.

Throughthe government funding, the elections would be based more on issuesrather than money. Every candidate would be equal in the face of thevoters and no one would have a financial advantage over the other(Randonet al. 235).In addition, the manifestos will be the driving force duringcampaigns. Through the state funding, potential leaders will seizethe opportunity and discourage one entity or one group from havingmuch influence over a specific candidate.

However,government funding of congressional campaigns may lead to increasedtaxes since the citizens would be compelled to pay extra money duringcampaign periods to finance the activities. The move would beoppressive especially to the poor people in the country and alsolimit the generosity of the voter (Mayer1).Another disadvantage is that the citizens might not be supporting acertain candidate, but the taxes they have paid would go to thatperson.

Thefunding would fairly result in a Congress that parallels thedemographic of the Americans. The rationale for this is that theexpensive self-funded campaigns usually lock out many potentialcandidates especially from the middle class. Sicne money is used togarner popularity qualified candidates funded by the governmentwould have a uniform platform to sell their manifestos. Although thecomposition in the congress would not be equally composed of peoplefrom different age groups and economic levels, the observeddiscrepancies would reduce.

Finally,if I would not be required to raise all the necessary funding forcampaigns, I would consider the option of running for thecongressional seat. However, I would only pursue this afterdeveloping enough social networks and getting a positive nod from thepeople. The rationale for this is that although the government mayprovide the finding, the votes rest with the citizens.

WorksCited

RandonHersHey, Marjorie, and Paul Allen Beck. &quotPartypolitics in America.&quot(2015). Print.

Mayer,Kenneth R. &quotPublic Election Funding: An Assessment of What WeWould Like to Know.&quot&nbspTheForum.Vol. 11. No. 3. 2013.Print.

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Juvenilecrime

AnAnnotated Bibliography

Watkins,Heidi. Juvenile Crime. Detroit, Mich: Greenhaven Press, 2011. Print.

Inthis book, the issue of decision-making amongst young people is putinto focus. The text expounds on the different major choices youngpeople have to make in their daily lives. The book elaborates in aneasy context the challenges that the young people face while makinglife choices. It puts in perspective issues such as drugs andviolence. In a broad, yet flexible manner the book demonstrates waysto overcome such challenges. The target audience is mainly teens andthe youth. The choice of this age group is relevant as crime andviolence are experiences likely to face young people. To preventcrime or reform the youth, the text has used a calm tone. This is toapproach the audience in a soft way and not to judge them. The otheraudience for the book is the criminal justice system together withany other authority.

Usingfactual analysis, the information offered to the reader on crimeanalysis is educative to the reader. This kind of research data iscredibly done to offer data that will offer knowledge of the subjectto the reader. The use of descriptive images such drawings is a goodchoice to keep the reader more captivated in the read. These imagesare also a powerful tool in passing on critical data coherently. Theaim is to relay information in a captivating, accurate approach (JLC2016) the drawings, pictures on the rate of juvenile crime give aclear view of the subject. This makes this information from theelectronic source more informative and easy to grasp. In addition NAP(pp 384) compiled data and findings using this method. This style iseffective and makes the details from this source also manageable. Tothe reader, this kind of information can be bulky and therefore thismethod is convenient.

Thebook goes into in depth information about the causes of juvenilecrime and violence. It explores these crimes and how juveniles areexposed to a life of crime. In an understandable manner, the textfeatures the kind of life these juveniles live before being exposedto crime. Exposure to crime at any age leads to devastating resultsaccording to the text. Crime is therefore indicated as a result ofwrong choices made by the subjects. However, the text does not bashthe audience but rather they are given some guidelines on how to dealwith these pressures. Supporting these young people also means thatthey will not venture into crime for comforting (Richards 2006).thissource tries to inform and also warn the society of the results ofneglect. The young teens according to the text fall into crime andviolence when no one seems to pay attention to them (MacGlone 2000).

Toexpound on the subject of juvenile crime Watkins’ text also toucheson how these offenders should be treated (pp. 96). The book speaks tothe relevant authority and society about handling the youngoffenders. The ways in which their cases should be handled is alsodiscussed. The criminal justice system should also play a role inensuring these young people get assistance. The appropriate course ofaction should be assisting teens to face these issues of crime.According to Vaughan (pp. 156) support in dealing with the challengesis the solution to ensuring the teens do not feel intimidated. Everyvolume of Watkins’ book includes a number of perspectives whichhelp the reader understand each angle of the text. This way, thepoint is passed across to the intended audience, including those inauthority. The book aims to bring out the aspect of responsibilitythat lies with the government and the society at large. It is aneducative piece that will enlighten those involved in these crimes onhow juvenile crime can be curbed with early intervention.

Incontrast, some of these juvenile crimes cannot be prevented (Finley150). The text demonstrates how juvenile crime has risen and howstern actions should be taken against the offenders. Despite thechallenges they face in relation to crime, the writer focuses on theextent of crime in American culture. It sets the criminal justicesystem as the core solution to juvenile crime. Besides ruining thefuture of the teens, juvenile crime is pictured as a vice thatinstills fear in the society (Tobias 2006). The source suggestsserious legal action is an effective way to deal with the menace.

Overall,Watkins has put into perspective the importance of preventing a crimethan dealing with its results. The text has relevance and perspectivein relation to juvenile crime and violence. It speaks to the youngpeople directly and in a way they would comprehend. Without attackingthe reader, the book seeks to pass on knowledge and inform the readerin a clear approach. This source correlates with the other sourcesbased on the subject matter.

Workscited

Finley,Laura L. Juvenile Justice. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2007.Internet resource.

&quotJuvenileLaw Center.&quot Youth in the Justice System: An Overview. N.p.,n.d. Web. 06 Nov. 2016.

&quotRead&quotJuvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice&quot at NAP.edu.&quotPatterns and Trends in Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice. N.p.,n.d. Web. 06 Nov. 2016.

McGlone,F. &quotYouth Crime.&quot Occasional Paper Family Policy StudiesCentre. (2001): 143-152. Print.

Richards,Kathleen. &quotThe Unmaking of a Justice System: Juvenile Arrestsand Detentions Are Down Across the Entire State : but Don`t AssumeThat`s Because Youth Crime Has Been Reduced.&quot East Bay Express.29.6 (2006): 13. Print.

Tobias,Janet, Laura R. Bar-On, and Michel Martin. Juvenile Justice. Boston:WGBH Educational Foundation, 2006.

Vaughan,Jenny. Juvenile Crime. Mankato, Minn: Smart Apple Media, 2012. Print.

Watkins,Heidi. Juvenile Crime. Detroit, Mich: Greenhaven Press, 2011. Print.

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Relationshipbetween stress and exercise

Stressis defined as a state when people feel they are under pressure in agiven situation. Stress could be emotional or mental. No matter thekind of stress a person may be undergoing, it is evident that stressis harmful. The health risks that come due to of stress can haveserious consequences if not handled promptly. As much as there areways to ‘treat’ stress, the most basic methods such as exercise,have shown more positive outcome. While stress affects the mind, italso has a negative impact on the physical state of the individual.There are numerous causes that result to stress,for instance, toomuch pressure. In case these causes are not acted upon in the rightway, pressure can be fatal. To deal with stress, exercise works as ameans to relieve tension while stabilizing a person’s mood. Whereasstress can be inevitable, it is important to exercise. This is afundamental program that helps to reduce stress while keeping fit andhealthy.

Stresscan be caused by most day-to-day activities. An average person islikely to be in a stressful situation each and every day. Situationswhich could be called less stressful have the capability of becominga serious state. It is the mounting of each small problem thatelevates stress levels. Everyone faces life stresses be it in theircareer, family or their surroundings at large. Having contact with anuncomfortable situation or people is a trigger that is enough tostress a person. Such encounters may be categorized as normal but arethe least of worries that affect someone eventually. These effectsare not only to the mind, but they also affect the body in asignificant manner (Malkin 47). With little or no realization, thesmall problems that cause stress mount into a huge problem.Approximately 70% of the population say they experience symptoms ofstress both physical and mental. It is the saddening to note thatsuch a large number of people are exposed to stress every day.Despite having different stress triggers, each and every one of thosesuffering from stress can either reduce or avoid stress. Activitiessuch as pressure complete certain tasks can be stressful. The body isbuilt to tolerate a certain level of stress and exceeding will mostlikely be harmful.

Lackof enough information on stress has also not favoured the effort toreduce stress. Without educating the public about stress, many morepeople will fall victims to the effects of stress. Lack of accurateknowledge means hinders those with a chance of avoiding stress. Majorlife changes either good or bad also cause stress. For example, awedding should be a happy occasion, but it causes so much pressure tothose involved. It all comes down to the kind of response towardssuch a stressful time. An unhealthy lifestyle can also contribute tostress levels (Malkin 46). This means that healthy life choices are agreat way to maintain control of the body. It is clear that healthissues are hindrances to a person’s progress and they are prone tostress. When health fails the ill tend to be fragile with the fear ofnot getting back on their feet. Fear pushes them to the pressure ofacquiring their health again and in time this leads to stress.

Amidstall the stress, measures are being taken to reduce and preventstress. Given that stress seems to be a part of life, everyone holdsa responsibility to manage stress. Life stress is experienced by mostin their daily life, and it is not by choice. To survive the stress,effort has to be made consistently. Exercise has become the easiest,natural solution to managing stress on a daily basis. As much thereare drugs to deal with stress and professional counselling methods,exercise causes no side effects. By exercising, there is the freedomto decide when to stop and when more effort is required. At the sametime exercising improves one’s self- esteem and health. As Malkinsuggests (pp. 44) exercising the body play a role in mental fitness,therefore, influencing stress levels. Science has found thatexercise, particularly aerobic walking has a significant effect onlowering tension and relaxing the mind. Stress in itself is anillness and should be dealt with as such. To get the best results ina healthy manner, walking fits the bill. It is a natural, easy andfree program that should be done for healthy living.

Aerobicwalking only requires a comfortable pair of shoes. The routine isindividual-based, and the result is rewarding. Despite being in goodshape by exercising, the mental fitness is incomparable. The body’simmune system improves while at the same time the mind stays at ease.Healthier benefits include reduced chances of getting a heart attack.Such exercise ensures the body’s cholesterol levels are put inbalance. This, in turn, prevents high blood pressure which causesstress. Other forms of exercise such as jogging also keep the bodyhealthy ensuring there is enough proof against diseases and a weakimmune system. Overall the effort put in when exercising is rewardedin the form of a calm, collected mood with no anxiety. The particularhormones stimulated in the brain when the body is active areresponsible for the relaxed sleep one enjoys. These chemicals act asrelaxants to the body which mean the individual has lesser chances ofexperiencing stress.

Inconclusion, stress may be a daily experience, one that could beunavoidable. Each day’s activity exposes people to stressfulsituations that may lead to serious effects if not properly managed.It is, therefore, crucial to devise ways in which stress can bereduced. An effective way has been through exercise. Commitment tohealthy living through exercise is the best way to reduce chances ofstressful episodes. Changes in a person’s life may cause stress,but the environment should not hinder one from achieving full controlof their lives. The benefits surpass the little effort needed whenexercising. There are methods devised to exercise in a more flexiblemanner, including aerobic exercise. The exercise provides for a lessdemanding activity while at the same time improving health. Healthand illness determine the level of contentment a person experiences.They feel at ease when they are healthy, hence reducing andpreventing stress. On the other hand, the disease affects thephysical and mental health of the person. To avoid such a situationthat could lead to fatal results exercising ensures a healthy life.Training through positive results has proven that stress ismanageable.

Workscited

Malkin,M. &quotAerobic Walking You Can Teach the Skills to Make Walking aTruly Aerobic Exercise.&quot Fitness Management. (2000): 44-47.Print.