TheTerms Nutrition and Metabolism
TheTerms Nutrition and Metabolism
Nutritionrefers to the food intake considered to sustain the dietary needsrequired by the body. Appropriate nutrition entails a well-balanced,adequate diet coupled with consistent physical activity since thecontrary results in mental and physical development impairment,immunity reduction, increased disease susceptibility, andproductivity limitations (Sherman, Rose & Makarchuk, 2016). Thebalanced diet entails macronutrients including, lipids,carbohydrates, and proteins and micronutrients such as minerals andvitamins. On the other hand, metabolism is the manner by which thebody uses food following digestion, absorption, and cell circulation.Further, the metabolism process takes place in two primary phases,anabolism and catabolism. Anabolism is the synthesis reaction thatbuilds up nutrient molecules to generate larger compounds andutilizes energy, while, Catabolism is the breakdown reaction, whichreduce molecules into small compounds for energy release (Patricia &José Félix, 2016). Anabolism occurring in distinct cells producesvarious compounds. On the contrary, catabolism creates energy inchemical and heat form. Chemically, heat undergoes transfer to ATP(adenosine triphosphate) molecules high-energy bonds. The ATP thensupplies direct energy to the cells energy-utilizing reactions.Simultaneously, it releases heat frequencies in small burst tofacilitate body temperature homeostasis. In this paper, I willdiscuss nutrition and metabolism in relation to the macronutrientsand micronutrients.
Lipidsinclude organic molecules such as cholesterol, fats, andphospholipids (Fardet & Rock, 2016). Their main functions aresteroid hormones and cell membrane building blocks, as well as, thecellular processes energy supply. The common lipid diets aretriglyceride saturated and unsaturated fats. The saturate fats aresourced from meat, milk, eggs, coconut oil, and palm oil. Their fattyacids lack double bonds resulting in saturated hydrogen. Conversely,the unsaturated fats entail nuts, seeds, and plant oils whose fattyacids have double bonds resulting into the availability of morehydrogen. Lipids also include cholesterol found only in plant cellsand phospholipids in every cell membrane. The lipid catabolisminvolves breaking down triglycerides into three fatty acids andglycerol where glycerol becomes a glycolysis intermediate and fattyacids are decomposed into two carbon units in beta-oxidation, whichundergo conversion into acetyl CoA (Sierpina etal.,2015). They are later introduced into the citric acid cycle torelease energy from the bonds. Lipid anabolism results in lipogenesisand the production of essential fatty acids that produceprostaglandins. According to Sierpina etal.(2015), insulin, glucocorticoids, ACTH, and growth hormones controllipid metabolism.
Carbohydratesinclude starch and sugar organic compounds, whose chemical bondenergy are utilized in cellular process powering. They includepolysaccharides like cellulose, glycogen, and starch, disaccharidessuch as sucrose, and monosaccharide including glucose. Glucose is themost metabolized carbohydrate, which enters a cell and undergoes achemical reaction with ATP resulting in phosphorylation that producesglucose-6-phosphate (Sherman, Rose & Makarchuk, 2016). It alsoresults in glucogenolysis that converts glycogen into glucose formetabolism.
Proteinorganic compounds have multiple human cell functions with enzymes asthe most significant metabolism regulators, keratin as structureproteins, hemoglobin for transport, albumin for storage, and myosinfor movement (Fardet & Rock, 2016). Amino acids form the proteinbuilding blocks. Starvation results in tissue wasting as tissueproteins become energy sources. Protein sources are either completefrom fish, dairy, and meat or incomplete from corn. The proteinanabolism and catabolism occur concurrently but at distinct rates indiverse tissues. The overall protein gain equates its loss forming adynamic equilibrium that causes nitrogen balance due to the highnitrogen content in protein. According to Sierpina etal.(2015), nitrogen equilibrium occurs when nitrogen income is similarto nitrogen exertion. Negative nitrogen balance relates to starvationwhile positive nitrogen balance associates with pregnant women,growing children, and athletes. A number of enzymes control theprotein metabolism the growth hormone and testosterone stimulateprotein anabolism, the thyroid hormone activates catabolism oranabolism and glucocorticoids aid in the catabolism process (Patricia& José Félix, 2016).
Vitaminsare needed in limited quantities and attach to coenzymes. They aremolecules, which the body cannot synthesize. Vitamins are classifiedinto fat-soluble and water- soluble. The fat-soluble ones are VitaminA, D, E, and K and the water-soluble ones are Vitamin C and B (Fardet& Rock, 2016). Further, minerals normally attach to enzymes toenhance their functions and they aid with other body-related chemicalreactions.
Therelationship between nutrition and metabolism is significant suchthat the body develops nutrition and metabolic disorders. The may bein form of inborn metabolism errors causing illnesses such asphenylketonuria, other condition complications includinghyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, as well as, diabetes mellitus(Sherman, Rose & Makarchuk, 2016). The disorders associated withthe two terms may also include bulimia and anorexia nervosa.
Tofacilitate metabolism, one must ensure that they eat the appropriateamount of food required to provide both heat and chemical energy.Further, individuals should focus on consuming balanced meals topromote their health and prevent the conversion of glucose into fator protein conversion into energy. Once this is done, nutrition andmetabolism will balance so that people remain healthy and avoid anyform of disorder.
Fardet,A., & Rock, E. (2016). The healthy core metabolism: A newparadigm for primary preventive nutrition. TheJournal Of Nutrition, Health And Aging,(3), 239
Patricia,S., & José Félix, P. (2016). Metabolismo y nutrición delpaciente en estado crítico / Metabolism and nutrition in thecritically ill patient. RevistaColombiana De Cirugía,(2), 108
Sherman,P. M., Rose, K., & Makarchuk, M. (2016). Perspectives inPractice: Refreshed Strategic Plan 2015-2018 for the CIHR Instituteof Nutrition, Metabolism and Diabetes. CanadianJournal Of Diabetes,
Sierpina,V., Levine, L., McKee, J., Campbell, C., Lian, S., & Frenkel, M.(2015). Nutrition, Metabolism, and Integrative Approaches in CancerSurvivors. SeminarsIn Oncology Nursing,31(EmergingIssues in Cancer), 42-52