Thephilosophy and the science of caring is based on four primaryconcepts that include the human person, health, the community, andthe nursing aspects. Jean Watson, in her works, describes a humanperson as a valued being that deserves to be taken good care of,respected, supported, and understood. She views man philosophicallyas a being that has been integrated fully. Health is described asthe highest degree of physical fitness, mental well-being, and commonoperations. Her explanation of the environment addresses the factthat nurses from time immemorial have existed in each community(Barker et al., 2012). She goes ahead to assert that the caringattitude has been passed down from one peer group to another throughthe professional nursing culture as an exceptional way of survivingwith the ever changing environment. This idea creates a base to lookat the theory of caring, the philosophical basis of the theory, howit is viewed, and the suitability of the world view.
JeanWatsons Theory of Nursing
Thetheory was first published in the year 1979. She asserts thatnursing’s primary focus is on the carative factors (Boyer et al.,2014). She goes on to argue that if nurses are to create humanisticviewpoints and value structures, there is still need for a strongarts background. Her science of nursing is based on sevenassumptions. First, she declared that caring could be demonstratedconclusively and exercised only at interpersonal levels. The theoryis made up of “carative” factors that satisfy the specific needsof various individuals. Besides, caring only complements curing, itis the central aspect of nursing and the environment presents aplatform to develop the potential and allows the person to make achoice of the best action to be taken at any particular point in time(Boyer et al., 2014).
Philosophical“Carative” Factors of the
Thereare ten “carative” factors in the caring model however, onlythree of them are philosophical. The first factor, on the rationalbasis, is the idea of the establishment of humanistic-altruisticpolicies of absolute values. This concept commences at a tender agewith certain values which are mutual between the person and theparents. The nurses learning experiences enhance benefits systems.
Anotherphilosophical basis is also the setting up the aspect of hope andfaith (Barker et al., 2012). In case the contemporary approaches havereached the limit, the nurse is likely to employ faith-hope to give asense of wellness through belief systems that can be understood bythe contextual patient. The third foundation is the nurturing of thesympathy of individuals self and that of other people. The nurseshould be aware of his feelings so as to foster his interactions in agenuine and positive way with the patients.
Worldviewand its Appropriateness
Theworld view of the theory has taken several dimensions. First,individuals have perceived this as an emphasis on the practice ofloving-kindness and self-control within the settings of caringawareness. This view is appropriate to the theory as it allowsindividuals to stay connected to the self, to others, and theenvironment (Lukose, 2011). It also nurtures the care for oneself andthe care for others. One also learns to realize vulnerability withininner self and in others. The theory has also been viewed as anadvocate of nurses’ authentic presence for them to sustain theunderlying belief systems of the self and the individual under care.This attitude is suitable as it allows one to respect the patient’sbelief system and empower him to have a feeling of hope.
Thediscussion has brought out clearly the concept of the theory ofcaring. However, the modern theorists have continually gone on withthe process of intensifying and refining this model. In fact, theyhave come up with a new worldview of the caring theory. They embracethe fact that knowledge has never been static and can be challengedfrom different angles. Nevertheless, the approach has remained thecenter of nursing.
Barker,P., Jackson, S., Stevenson, C., & Barker, P. (2012). The need forpsychiatric nursing: towards a multidimensional theory of caring.NursingInquiry,6(2),103-111.
Boyer,J. R., & Nelson, J. L. (2014).A Comment on Fry`s "The Roleof Caring in a Theory of Nursing Ethics". Hypatia,5(3),153-158.
Lukose,A. (2011). Developing a Practice Model for Watson’s Theory ofCaring. NursingScience Quarterly,24(1),27-30