TIMSSComparison Study

TIMSSComparison Study

TheTrends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is usedto measure the shifts in the achievement in mathematics and scienceat the fourth and eighth grade in different countries thatparticipate in it globally(Mullis et al., 2012).Additionally, TIMSS also is used to monitor the curricularimplementation and ascertain the right and promising practices usedto deliver instructions. Carried out every 4 years, TIMSS has beenused in evaluating mathematics and science subjects since 1995 withthe cycle covering the years 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015.

ThroughTIMSS, a lot of background information is collected to help in makingcomparisons in the trends in achievement(Mullis et al., 2012).The trends in achievement are made in regards to the differentsystems of education, the organizational approaches of schools andthe instructional practices applied. TIMSS is used to support andpromote the secondary analyses that are aimed at improvingmathematics and science at fourth and eighth grade. TIMSS is tailoredin a way that it takes into consideration the curricula of the twosubjects within the countries that take part in the educationsystems. From the study, the degree to which students have graspedthe mathematics and science concepts and skills comes out. Some ofthe information that is collected through this system to show thetrend includes information curricula, the education policies that areenforced, information on teachers and students. After the collectionof the information, an individual can then carry out comparisons ofthe different educational contexts that relate to the student’sachievement.

WhyGifted and Talented (New York State)

Thegifted and talented students are those known to have highercapacities that need to be taken through the education programs thatmainly target their abilities (National Association for GiftedChildren, n.d). The programs meant for these individuals are in a waythat they challenge students who are in a normal classroom setup.These programs are setup in a way that they are quite enriched andneed fast learning to enable students be progressive in school. Thetotal number of those who are termed as gifted is 41,630. Theproportion of students who get gifted educational services include59.7% Caucasian 9.9% Hispanic Asian 15% African American 13.5%Native American 0.5% and Disabled 3.1% (National Association ofGifted Children, n.d). One of the noteworthy things is that New Yorkis never given any funds even though it has one of the highestnumbers of gifted and talented students.

Differentpolicies have been drafted to help in supporting the gifted andtalented in this state. One of the policies is the accelerationpolicy, which sets conditions for promotion. According to thispolicy, promotion done is dictated by proficiency. The othersignificant aspect is the excellence gap that is not wide among thedifferent ethnic communities that are found in New York. At theadvanced stage, the scores stands at 9% for Whites, 3% are HispanicStudents, and 2% are blacks (National Association of Gifted Children,n.d).

Comparingthe performance of New York State on average, there are fifteenstates that performed better than it. On country level, this statecould be ranked the 30^{th}as the 29 states had a higher proportion of students performing atthe same level on the 2005 PISA mathematics exam.

WhyMathematics and Science

Formost of the education systems globally, Mathematics and Science areused as yardstick for measuring the proficiency level of students.Often, the gifted and talented students are in a position to masternecessary and complicated skills and show ability to understand someof the complex issues in regards to curriculum, an aspect that iswidely acknowledged and known to be with Mathematics and Science(Fraillon, Schulz & Ainley, 2013). Therefore, the level of capability of students can be tested in bothMathematics and Science. Also, some other different skills can alsobe tested and some of the skills include skills in self-directedlearning, thought processes, ability to research and communicationskills which is required to develop innovative products. ThroughScience, students can comprehend the issues that relate to the worldin totality and the interactions that accompany them as guided by thediverse cultures.

DataAnalysis

Year2011

TheTIMSS average scale is 500

4^{th}Grade

Science

Finland |
570 |

Belgium |
509 |

France |
– |

USA |
544 |

NCES.,(n.d).

Mathematics-4^{th}Grade

Finland |
545 |

Belgium |
549 |

France |
– |

USA |
541 |

NCES.,(n.d).

8^{th}Grade

Mathematics

Finland |
514 |

Belgium |
– |

France |
– |

USA |
509 |

NCES.,(n.d).

Science

Finland |
552 |

Belgium |
– |

France |
– |

USA |
525 |

NCES.,(n.d).

*Race*

Witha view to the results that were obtained from 1996 through to 2011,the number of whites has been on the increase. However, the number ofAsians has been on the increase since then.

U.S-Grade4 Mathematics

Eventhough there was increase in the number of students who undertook theprogram across the different races, it is worth noting that the majorincrease was for Blacks and Whites in U.S with the populationincreasing by 7% and 4.6 respectively. For the Hispanics, there wasan increase though by 1.3%.

Grade8-Mathematics

Also,across the races, the number of students undertaking this proficiencytest has been on the increase right from the year 1996 to 2007 withthe increase being higher among the Blacks being by 8%, Whites 4.5%and Hispanic 1%.

*Socio-EconomicStatus*

Grade4

Thesocio-economic status of individuals is measured by the ability ofthe student to have the National School Lunch Program. Notably, forthe students scoring at advanced level, their number increased from5.6% in the period of 1996 to 2007. On the other note, students whocould be accommodated free and reduced-price lunch, the numberincreased to 1.5%.

Grade8

Itwas noted that the number of students who scored at the advancedlevel increase by 5.7% and those who would suit the free orreduced-price the number increased by just 0.8%.

Gender

Grade4

Comparingthe results from the year 1996 to 2007, there is increase in thepercentage of male students who scored at advanced level. The numberincreased to 6.6% by 3.9 points while for the female students therewas a rise to 4.5% by 2.7 points (Foy, Arora & Stanco, 2013).

Grade8

Fromthe year 1996 to 2007, the percentage of male that scored at advancedlevel rose to 8.1% by 3.8 points (Foy, Arora & Stanco, 2013). Forthe female students there was increase to 5.9% by 2.9 points. It isevident that the proportion of the male students has remained highercompared to female students in regards to mathematics at both gradelevels. Given that the percentage of male students has increased tooquick compared to the female students, the excellence gaps betweenthe two groups have grown by 1.1 points in Grade 4 and 1 point inGrade 8.

Conclusion

Inregards to the results that have been noted above, it is evident thatFinland has outperformed all the other countries in the years thatshe participated. There are several reasons for this trend and one ofthem is issue that education at the primary stage has largelyconcentrated on changing the learning methodology in most of theschools(Gonzales et al., 2008).The change has seen most of the educators taking training in scienceand even more of them acquiring Masters program. Ideally, there hasbeen shift in the science-based curriculum from the traditionalaspect of just learning to the experimental aspect andproblem-oriented approach mode.

References

Fraillon,J., Schulz, W., & Ainley, J. (2013). International computer andinformation literacy study: Assessment framework.

Foy,P., Arora, A., & Stanco, G. M. (2013). *TIMSS2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 1:International Version of the TIMSS 2011 Background and CurriculumQuestionnaires*.International Association for the Evaluation of EducationalAchievement. Herengracht 487, Amsterdam, 1017 BT, The Netherlands.

Gonzales,P., Williams, T., Jocelyn, L., Roey, S., Kastberg, D., &Brenwald, S. (2008). Highlights from TIMSS 2007: Mathematics andScience Achievement of US Fourth-and Eighth-Grade Students in anInternational Context. NCES 2009-001. *NationalCenter for Education Statistics*.

Mullis,I. V., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., & Arora, A. (2012). TIMSS 2011international results in science. *ChestnutHill, MA: Boston College*.

Mullis,I. V., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., & Arora, A. (2012). *TIMSS2011 international results in mathematics*.International Association for the Evaluation of EducationalAchievement. Herengracht 487, Amsterdam, 1017 BT, The Netherlands.

NationalAssociation of Gifted Children. (n.d). New York and Gifted Education.Retrieved from www.nacg.org [Accessed 24/10/2016].

NCES.,(n.d). Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study.Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/timss/table11_2.asp [Accessed24/10/2016].

NCES.,(n.d). Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study.Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/timss/table11_5.asp [Accessed24/10/2016].

NCES.,(n.d). Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study.Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/timss/table11_4.asp [Accessed24/10/2016].

NCES.,(n.d). Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study.Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/timss/table11_3.asp [Accessed24/10/2016].

TheNational Center for Research on Gifted Education (NCRGE –__http://ncrge.uconn.edu__)