Topic 2 Evaluating Recent Research

Topic2: Evaluating Recent Research

Polit,D.F., &amp Beck, C.T. (2013). Is there still gender bias in nursingresearch? An update. Researchin Nursing &amp Health, 36(1):75-83.

Politand Beck (2013) used a sample of 300 nursing studies publishedbetween 2010 and 2011 in four journals to investigate whether therewas gender bias in favor of female participants in nursing research.Females were overrepresented in nursing research and authors of thesestudies were biased again men. About 3 out of 4 participants innursing studies analyzed were females. Researchers in mixed-sexsamples in nursing studies overrepresented female participants. Allage groups of participants have a comparable mean percentage offemale participants. Results of this study are consistent with thosepublished five years earlier by same authors. Again, gender biasagainst men render results obtained in nursing research studies notgeneralizable.

HypothesesTested using t-test

AlternativeHypothesis (H1):female participants are overrepresented in nursing research studies

NullHypothesis (H0):female participants are not overrepresented in nursing researchstudies

H1:All age groups of participants do not have a comparable meanpercentage of female participants

H0:All age groups of participants have comparable mean percentage offemale participants

H1:Researchers in mixed-sex samples in nursing studies overrepresentfemale participants

Ho:Researchers in mixed-sex samples in nursing studies do notoverrepresent female participants

Theindependent variable is Nurse Researches and the level of measurementof IV: Ratio. Three hundred studies obtained from four researchjournals were analyzed to see how they affected the dependentvariable.

Thedependent variable is gender bias and level of measurement of DV:Nominal. Biases against male and bias in favor of female participantsin the study constitute the dependent variables. The study looked athow the independent (different studies) variable represents males andfemales as subjects in the published research.

Typeof Data and Test used for analysis

Researcherswere looking for differences in mean percentages in femaleparticipants in nursing studies.

One-samplet-test was employed to compare mean in percentage of femaleparticipants in the study against the mean percentage in USpopulation. One-sample t-test was used in comparing mean percentageof female participants for the male versus female lead authors.

One-samplet-test was used in comparing mean percentage of female participantsfor the 2010-2011 studies against 2005-2006 studies

Comment:t-test was appropriate for these three cases because researchers werecomparing means of two groups. Assumptions for t-test namelynormality of data, randomness of the sampling, scale of measurement,equality of variance, and adequacy of data size were met.

ANOVAwas used to test the null hypothesis: all age groups of participantshave comparable mean percentage of female participants.

Comment:ANOVA was appropriate for this case because researchers werecomparing means for more than three groups. All assumptions for ANOVAnamely independence of cases, equality of variances, and normalitywere met.

Thisresult of could have implication in nursing in that it will informresearchers to avoid gender bias in their studies. It has been notedthat researchers especially females are gender bias in favor offemale participants. It will also inform policy makers to be keenwhen generalizing the findings of nursing studies unless it isconfirmed that researchers were sensitive with issues of genderrepresentation in their study.


Polit,D.F., &amp Beck, C.T. (2013). Is there still gender bias in nursingresearch? An update. Researchin Nursing &amp Health, 36(1):75-83.