TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE Subject

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TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE

Subject

Transatlantic Trade and its effect on Africa

Topic:Transatlantic Slave Trade

Purpose:To give an analysis of the effects of Transatlantic trade onAfrica’s political, economic and social structures.

I.INTRODUCTION

Attentionmaterial: Transatlantic Slave Trade involved forcedtransportation and deportation of free people from Africa and sold toEuropean colonies in North, Central and South America, and Europe1.The trade is the largest form of human trafficking regarding inhistory. The trade is also known as the triangular trade for it theinvolved movement of ships from Europe to Africa Africa to Americaand from America to Europe2.

Thesisstatement: In this paper, our discussion will focus on findingout the major impacts of Transatlantic trade to the African Continenton issues such as ethnic stratification, polygyny, and mistrustbefore and after the onset of the slave trade.

II.BACKGROUND

Historians have considered the slave trade as one of the greatesthuman tragedies in history, the largest deportation and also a majordetermining factor of the world economy during that period.

  1. The total number of slaves believed to have transported was close to 17 million3. This had a major impact on ethnic stratification.

  2. Transatlantic Slave had a wide spread of polygynous marriages.4

  3. Some of the political consequences of slave trade were widespread mistrust among people in the West African states

  4. After the Unites States passed a law in 1787, under Article 1, Section 9, Clause 1 of the U.S Constitution it abolished slave trade effective 1st January 18085.

  5. In the review of scholarly work, we shall focus on the works of Warren and Gillezeau, Dalton, and Leung and Nunn and Wantchekon.

III. SCHOLARLY REVIEW

A.John Dalton and Tin Cheuk Leung: Why Polygyny is more prevalent inAfrica from the African Slave Trade Perspective indicate some of theadverse effects of Transatlantic Trade to African social systems6.

(i)Similarities

  1. Polygyny rates were higher in Western Africa because More males were transported from Western Africa, leading to prolonged periods of abnormal sex ratios thus increasing polygyny rates in Africa.

  2. Results indicated a positive correlation between polygyny and the transatlantic slave trade in Western Africa,

  3. In support of Dalton and Leung, slave trade created skewness in sex ratio, and with time, the men that belonged to the economic and political elites increased the number of wives they married7.

(ii)Differences

  1. This study indicates that with the adoption of polygyny relations, the culture took roots in the society, hence presenting itself up to date.

  2. Dalton and Leung argue, that the practice became a norm after the onset of the slave trade.

  3. Dalton and Leung`s argument is that polygyny was embraced as part of the African culture however, it is hard to explain the existence of polygyny in Eastern Africa even before the onset of slavery8.

B.Nathan Nunn and Leonard Wantchekon : “Slave trade and Origins ofMistrust in Africa,” sought to identify the current differences inthe African continent9.

(i)Similarities

  1. The findings indicate that people who had their ancestors captured and enslaved do not trust a lot nowadays.

  2. in support Nunn and Wantchekon, these norms of mistrust intensified in the African societies with time, especially during the slave trade10.

  3. In support of Nunn and Watchekon, it was not uncommon for a neighbor or a relative to sell their own to slavery including close family members before the abolishment of the slave trade11.

(ii)Differences

  1. The significant impact of slave trade could be viewed from the individual’s internal factors, for instance, norms, beliefs, and values.

  2. Studies by Nunn and Wantchekon describes that the intensities of mistrusts developed due to betrayals among leaders during the slave trade.

C.A study on effects of Transatlantic Slave Trade on ethnicstratification in Africa by Warren and Rob Gillezeau aimed to examinethe long-run ethnicity development in Africa, by comparingethnicities in West African coastal region with the number of slavesthat left in equally sized parts12.

(i)similarities

  1. Slavery increased the numbers of ethnic groupings in Africa, and some of the reasons for this outcomes is the fact that slave trade was likely constrained in one geographical scope

  2. Backing up the argument is Warren and Gillezeau, ethnicities may have disintegrated the level of trust and solid forms of social interactions in West Africa during the slave trade.

  3. In support of Warren and Gillezeau, diverse ethnicities, distributed over a wide geographical scope is likely to have dragged economic development.

  4. In support of Warren and Gillezeau, it created political and military challenges and it became difficult to establish policies that govern behavior for extended periods of time13.

(ii)Differences

  1. The factor of the political authority that increased the incentive of distinguishing the insider from the intruder.

  2. The studies also established that causality ran from slaving to ethnic diversity.

  3. Their study evidently suggests that salience of ethnic identity was not just traditional, primitive or primordial but defined the role and the position of Africa in the modern world.

IV.BODY

A. Polygyny

Polygynywas part of the African culture even before the onset of the slavetrade.

  1. Structured and traditionally ruled societies existed in Africa that dictated social interactions.

  2. The society embraced polygyny for it was a sign of wealth and power amongst the rulers in the community14.

  3. Before the onset of Transatlantic, the demographic distribution of people in West Africa was well balanced, and traditional marriages took place15.

B.Ethnic stratification

Beforethe onset of the slave trade, the issue of ethnic stratification didnot exist in Africa.

  1. Africa was stable economically due to trading affairs that took part on the continent and in overseas countries such as India, China, and the Middle East16.

  2. Slavery slowly and permanently destroyed the original economic systems within the continent17.

  3. The greedy and naïve African leaders of that period collaborated with Europeans in exchange for manufactured goods through the signing of dirty deals that became a norm thus creating mistrust.

  4. The shipment of people had lasting consequences including ethnic stratification in the continent.

  5. The loss of ethnic identity and the onset of ethnic diversities may have turned around the political fate of Africa18.

C.Mistrust

Mistrustexists in any social society, and it has adverse effects onpolitical, social and political developments.

  1. 1.Mistrust existed in the kingdoms around Africa even before slave trade began19.

  2. Leaders, targeted each other’s kingdoms for slaves hence breaking the trust that they had on one another during the slave trade.

  3. Social and family ties were strong in Africa before the onset of the slave trade, but with love for wealth, people betrayed one another20.

Conclusion

In conclusion, though slavery was abolished during the end of the18th century and beginning of 19th century, it is evident that theworld has not healed from its effects especially the Africancontinent. Transatlantic Slave Trade changed the fates of the threecontinents that were involved. Up to date, Africa is still strugglingin political, economic and social dimensions and it might take anextended period for it to recover its ancient glory. Europe, on theother hand, enjoyed flourishing industrial age, and massiveaccumulation of wealth. America, on the contrary, developed rapidlyespecially the British and the French colonial states. South Americabecame a rich agricultural hub, due to suitable farming climates,while North America grew commercially. However, this trade has beentermed as one of the most hostile human right violation in historyfor not only did people enslaved forcefully, but also several of themdied during shipment, and even under the hands of their slaves theysevered due to harsh living conditions and inhuman treatment.

Bibliography

Primarysources

&quotBBC- History – British History In Depth: Africa And The TransatlanticSlave Trade.&quot 2016.Bbc.Co.Uk.http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/africa_article_01.shtml.

Besley,Timothy, and Marta Reynal-Querol. &quotThe legacy of historicalconflict: Evidence from Africa.&quot American Political ScienceReview 108, no. 02 (2014): 319-336.

&quotFactsAbout The Slave Trade And Slavery | The Gilder Lehrman Institute OfAmerican History.&quot 2016. Gilderlehrman.Org.http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/slavery-and-anti-slavery/resources/facts-about-slave-t&quotSlaveryTimeline 1400-1500 – A Chronology Of Slavery, Abolition, AndEmancipation&quot. 2016. Brycchancarey.Com.http://www.brycchancarey.com/slavery/chrono2.htm.rade-and-slavery.

&quotSlaveryTimeline 1400-1500 – A Chronology Of Slavery, Abolition, AndEmancipation&quot. 2016. Brycchancarey.Com.http://www.brycchancarey.com/slavery/chrono2.htm.

&quotTheHistory Of The Transatlantic Slave Trade – International SlaveryMuseum, Liverpool Museums.&quot 2016. Liverpoolmuseums.Org.Uk.http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/ism/slavery/.

&quotTheImpact Of Slave Trade In Africa&quot. 2016. Inmotionaame.Org.http://www.inmotionaame.org/migrations/topic.cfm?migration=1&amptopic=9&ampbhcp=1.

&quotTheSlave Trade – A Historical Background.&quot 2016. Bl.Uk.http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/campaignforabolition/abolitionbackground/abolitionintro.html.

&quotTheTransatlantic Slave Trade.&quot 2016. Inmotionaame.Org.http://www.inmotionaame.org/print.cfmjsessionid=f8302536341478078767421?migration=1&ampbhcp=1.

&quotTransatlanticSlave Trade | United Nations Educational, Scientific And CulturalOrganization&quot. 2016. Unesco.Org.http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/slave-route/transatlantic-slave-trade/.

Secondarysources

Dalton,John T., and Tin Cheuk Leung. &quotWhy is polygyny more prevalent inWestern Africa? An African slave trade perspective.&quot EconomicDevelopment and Cultural Change 62, no. 4 (2014): 599-632.

Deconinck,Koen, and Marijke Verpoorten. &quotNarrow and scientific replicationof ‘The slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa`.&quotJournal of Applied Econometrics 28, no. 1 (2013): 166-169.

Fenske,James. &quotAfrican polygamy: Past and present.&quot Journal ofDevelopment Economics 117 (2015): 58-73.

Nunn,Nathan. &quotCulture and the historical process.&quot EconomicHistory of Developing Regions 27, no. sup1 (2012): S108-S126.

Nunn,Nathan, and Leonard Wantchekon. &quotThe slave trade and the originsof mistrust in Africa.&quot The American Economic Review 101, no. 7(2011): 3221-3252.

Whatley,Warren, and Rob Gillezeau. &quotThe impact of the transatlanticslave trade on ethnic stratification in Africa.&quot The AmericanEconomic Review 101, no. 3 (2011): 571-576.

Whatley,Warren. &quotThe transatlantic slave trade and the evolution ofpolitical authority in West Africa.&quot Africa’s Development inHistorical Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2014):460-488.

1&quotFacts About The Slave Trade And Slavery | The Gilder Lehrman Institute Of American History.&quot 2016. Gilderlehrman.Org. http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/slavery-and-anti-slavery/resources/facts-about-slave-trade-and-slavery.

2 &quotThe Slave Trade – A Historical Background.&quot 2016. Bl.Uk. http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/campaignforabolition/abolitionbackground/abolitionintro.html.

3 &quotThe Impact Of Slave Trade In Africa&quot. 2016. Inmotionaame.Org. http://www.inmotionaame.org/migrations/topic.cfm?migration=1&amptopic=9&ampbhcp=1.

4 &quotBBC – History – British History In Depth: Africa And The Transatlantic Slave Trade.&quot 2016.Bbc.Co.Uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/africa_article_01.shtml.

5 &quotThe Impact Of Slave Trade In Africa&quot. 2016. Inmotionaame.Org. http://www.inmotionaame.org/migrations/topic.cfm?migration=1&amptopic=9&ampbhcp=1.

6 Dalton, John T., and Tin Cheuk Leung. &quotWhy is polygyny more prevalent in Western Africa? An African slave trade perspective.&quot Economic Development and Cultural Change 62, no. 4 (2014): 599-632.

7 Nunn, Nathan. &quotCulture and the historical process.&quot Economic History of Developing Regions 27, no. sup1 (2012): S108-S126.

8 Fenske, James. &quotAfrican polygamy: Past and present.&quot Journal of Development Economics 117 (2015): 58-73

9 Nunn, Nathan, and Leonard Wantchekon. &quotThe slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa.&quot The American Economic Review 101, no. 7 (2011): 3221-3252.

10 Deconinck, Koen, and Marijke Verpoorten. &quotNarrow and scientific replication of ‘The slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa`.&quot Journal of Applied Econometrics 28, no. 1 (2013): 166-169.

11 Nunn, Nathan. &quotCulture and the historical process.&quot Economic History of Developing Regions 27, no. sup1 (2012): S108-S126.

12 Whatley, Warren, and Rob Gillezeau. &quotThe impact of the transatlantic slave trade on ethnic stratification in Africa.&quot The American Economic Review 101, no. 3 (2011): 571-576.

13 &quotThe Transatlantic Slave Trade.&quot 2016. Inmotionaame.Org. http://www.inmotionaame.org/print.cfmjsessionid=f8302536341478078767421?migration=1&ampbhcp=1.

14 Fenske, James. &quotAfrican polygamy: Past and present.&quot Journal of Development Economics 117 (2015): 58-73.

15 Whatley, Warren, and Rob Gillezeau. &quotThe impact of the transatlantic slave trade on ethnic stratification in Africa.&quot The American Economic Review 101, no. 3 (2011): 571-576.

16 Besley, Timothy, and Marta Reynal-Querol. &quotThe legacy of historical conflict: Evidence from Africa.&quot American Political Science Review 108, no. 02 (2014): 319-336.

17 &quotThe Impact Of Slave Trade In Africa&quot. 2016. Inmotionaame.Org. http://www.inmotionaame.org/migrations/topic.cfm?migration=1&amptopic=9&ampbhcp=1.

18 &quotTransatlantic Slave Trade | United Nations Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organization&quot. 2016. Unesco.Org. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/slave-route/transatlantic-slave-trade/.

19 Nunn, Nathan, and Leonard Wantchekon. &quotThe slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa.&quot The American Economic Review 101, no. 7 (2011): 3221-3252.

20 Nunn, Nathan. &quotCulture and the historical process.&quot Economic History of Developing Regions 27, no. sup1 (2012): S108-S126.