Ultrasound Physics Description

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Theuse of ultrasound for cardiac imaging is not known to be affected byadverse biological effects which the sonographers must be able toaddress to avoid worsening of the situation in the patients. Thereare different types of biological effects that include thermal andnon-thermal. In thermal, the biological effects of ultrasound energyare related to the production of heat. As a sonographer, to ensurethe safety of the patients, I would reduce the exposure time whichthe client is being exposed to thermal (Miele, 2013). Non-thermalbiological effects come along as a result of mechanical forces thatare independent of thermal effects. As the light goes through thebody organs, the intensity reduces due to the many obstacles on theway. As a result, attenuation occurs.

Attenuation involves the loss of energy of a beam of radiant andultrasound simply because of absorption, scattering and beamdivergence. To avoid the loss of energy, high intensity should beapplied but with limited time to avoid harming the patient. Threeprocesses are involved in the attenuation which includes reflection,absorption and scattering (Miele, 2013). Reflection involves thesound wave being bounced back after heating a smooth service.Reflection can be specular or diffuse. In specular reflection, thesound is reflected in a singular direction. Scattering occurs atinterfaces involving structures that are of small dimensions anexample being the red blood cells (Miele, 2013). Absorption occurswhere sound strikes the boundary of two different tissues at anoblique angle. The accuracy of the image is therefore, not accuratewhen such aspects are evident. The image to be analyzed requires toaccurate for the best results. Highest frequency is the option to theattenuation challenges that will provide images to the depth of thestructures.


Miele, F. R. (2013). Principles of vascular ultrasound physics. InNoninvasive Vascular Diagnosis (pp. 29-43). Springer London.