Understanding the Causes of Gun Violence — Annotated Bibliography

Understandingthe Causes of Gun Violence—Annotated Bibliography

Rosengart,M. (2012). An evaluation of state firearm regulations and suicidedeath rates. InjuryPrevention,77-83

Theresearch article by Rosengart (2012) acknowledges the rampant natureof gun violence and postulates various accounts for the problem. Theauthor notes that gun violence is linked to irresponsible gundealers, trade, and inadequate training in proper gun handling. Thesefactors have led to violence, increased number of youth deaths fromdomestic arguments, increase in accidents involving guns and suicidecases. The article also argues authorities have failed at preventingillegal gun trade across borders enabling youths to access them. Theauthor suggests that more strict laws should be enacted to preventfree gun trade and ensure firearm manufacturing companies adhere tothe standards that are stipulated in the Industrial Acts guns.

Thisarticle is relevant because it offers insights that that can beemployed in conceptualizing the causes of the rampant gun violence,

Hoskin,A. (2012). Household gun prevalence and rates of violent crime: Atest of competing gun theories. CriminalJustice Studies,125-136.

Hoskin(2012) discusses that gun violence is rampant, linking it to violentmedia content. Transitions in the behavior of teen can be noticeablewhen they are inclined into these programs. Youths are driven intoadopting different characters in those and even play their role. Byplaying the&quot bad guys&quot role in these plays and video games,violent characters are nurtured. Poor temperament control blendedwith guns for youths can hence be catastrophes. The author recommendsthat parents should take full responsibility in ensuring parentalguidelines are observed to shape the mental growth of their children.Besides, video game programmers should create different level ofgames that suit different age groups, limiting violence in the media.

Thisarticle is relevant because it does not only identify the mediaviolence as a course of gun violence among the youth but alsoprovides some recommendations to address it. It also invites thediscussion on whether it truly holds that media violence is to blamefor the problem.

Kasprzak,J. (2013). The scope of Illegal Possession of Weapons in Poland andCharacter Study of a Perpetrator of this Crime. InternalSecurity,147-158.

Kasprzak(2013) discusses the role of drug abuse in exacerbating gun violence.The author points out drug barons are using guns as their sources ofsecurity against their competitors and the authorities. Youths are,in most cases, employed by these groups to carry out distributions oftheir merchandise, ending up being addicts of dangerous drugs forinstance crack and alcohol. Moreover, most incidences of gun violencehave been linked to drug abuse that impairs victims` judgmentcapacity causing to lose their temper and control. This way, theybecome so vulnerable to engaging in gun violence.

Thisarticle is relevant to the topic because it discusses one of thefactors that are widely argued to be the cause of gun violence.

Hood,M. N. (2012). Citizen, defend thyself: an individual-level analysisof concealed weapon permit holders. CriminalJustice Studies, 22(1),73-89.

Hoodand Neeley (2012) question the implementation of laws concerning gunlicensing and related prosecutions, asserting that they have donelittle in averting gun access. Juveniles are exposed to gun handlingat very young ages. Accidents involving minors` have been on theincrease because of children easy access to guns. Besides, the authoris disappointed that prosecutions have been ineffective by lettingperpetrators scot-free. The author recommends that practitioners incrime control, lawmakers, educators, criminologists, andcommunity-based organizations should be put up to sensitize thesociety on gun use and enact strict regulations to prevent gun accessand misuse.

Thisarticle is relevant because it offers insights that can be employedin conceptualizing the causes of the rampant gun violence.

Valle,J. (2012). Revisiting Licensed Handgun Carrying: Personal Protectionor Interpersonal Liability? AmericanJournal of Criminal Justice,580-601.

Valle(2012) discusses the importance of public education in supporting andencouraging non-violent behavior and attitudes among the youth mainlydue to their narrow scope of understanding concerning handling guns.The author acknowledges the intervention has proved to be effectivein fostering awareness. Long-term family and public educationprograms should be included as part of the strategies of reducing gunviolence. Gun safety modules should also be taught at both school andcommunity levels to help develop community awareness on the use ofguns and possession of firearms.

Thisarticle is relevant to the topic because it addresses some of thefactors that are perceived to cause gun violence, and providespotential remedial factors.

Chapman,S. S. (2012). Australia`s 1996 gun law reforms: faster falls infirearm deaths, firearm suicides, and a decade without massshootings. InjuryPrevention, 12(6),365-372.

Chapman(2010) acknowledges that the gun violence is a critical socialchallenge that warrants attentions because of the far-reachingimplications it has on the society. The author points out thatillicit gun trades together with moral decadence have contributedsignificantly in exacerbating gun violence. Therefore, authoritiesshould enact laws to govern communities that practice dangerouscultures.

Thisarticle is relevant because it identifies and discusses some of thecauses of gun violence.

Altheimer,I. (2012). Do Guns Matter? A multi-level Cross-National Examinationof Gun Availability on Assault and Robbery Victimization. WesternCriminology Review Vol. 9 Issue 2,9-32.

Altheimer(2012) stresses on the lack of faith towards agencies mandated withthe task of enforcing the law, further recognizing that lapses inenforcing the law have motivated significant growth of armed gangs.The perpetrators mainly have been relatives and friends of thevictims of gun violence. Delayed court cases have caused anxiety,frustration, and anger to victims. In some cases, victims aretriggered to acquire firearms and carry out revenge missions that canresult to continued violence. The author encourages that the societyshould rethink current enforcement interventions. Satisfactory movesby courts in the handling of related cases ought to be concluded ontime to earn trust from the communities.

Thisarticle is relevant to the topic because it discusses one of thefactors that are widely argued to be the cause of gun violence.

McIntosh,JL &amp Drapeau, C. (2012). &quotU.S.A.Suicide: 2010 Official Final Data&quot. suicidology.org. AmericanAssociation of Suicidology.2(2):34- 37

McIntoshand Drapeau (2012) suggestthatcontinued sidelining of the youth by most governments through few jobvacancies, limited youth funding, massive corruption, non-involvementin decision-making and leadership has marginalized the young people.Therefore, youths have been forced to live in poverty despitespending long hours on manual jobs with little pay. Low educationalachievements , single parenting, and economic hopelessness have onlyescalated the engagement of the youth in guns to make ends meet. Theauthors recommend that the government institutions should give theyouth enough financial support, education and create jobopportunities to avoid losing children to gun violence.

Thisarticle is relevant because it stresses the importance of engagingyouths in governmental and general support to initiate their economicgrowth.

Vittes,K. A., Vernick, J. S., &amp Webster, D. W. (2013). Legal Status andSource of Offenders` Firearms in States with the Least StringentCriteria for Gun Ownership. InjuryPrevention 19.1,26-31.

Vittes,Vernick and Webster (2013) acknowledge that possession of firearms byone teenager group can act as the stimulus for peer groups to counterthe cycle of fear by acquiring guns for the sake of defense. Theirpeers absorb youths in the cultures influencing them to purchasetheir personal guns for self-defense. The author stresses thatgovernments should put up drug enforcement agencies and laws that arespecifically aimed at taming gun possession.

Thisarticle is relevant because it introduces the role of peer influencein encouraging gun possession and violence.

Miller,M. &ampHemenway, D. (2011). &quotFirearm Prevalence and the Risk ofSuicide: A Review&quot. Harvard Health Policy Review. ExploringPolicy in Health Care (EPIHC). 2(2): 29–37.

Millerand Hemenway (2011)discusses that teenagers are less likely to adhere to the necessaryrestraint in handling lethal firearms, for instance, rapid-fireassault weapons. The author argues that youths often possess littlesense concerning the value of life because they lack the ability tounderstand how their actions can affect an entire community. In thisregard, the author recommends that parents with guns should ensuretheir children do not access them.

Thisarticle is important to the topic because it stresses on the role ofparents and guardians on preventing minor from handling firearms.

References

Altheimer,I. (2012). Do Guns Matter? A multi-level Cross-National Examinationof Gun Availability on Assault and Robbery Victimization. WesternCriminology Review Vol. 9 Issue 2,9-32.

Chapman,S. S. (2012). Australia`s 1996 gun law reforms: faster falls infirearm deaths, firearm suicides, and a decade without massshootings. InjuryPrevention, 12(6),365-372.

Hood,M. N. (2012). Citizen, defend thyself: an individual-level analysisof concealed weapon permit holders. CriminalJustice Studies, 22(1),73-89.

Hoskin,A. (2012). Household gun prevalence and rates of violent crime: Atest of competing gun theories. CriminalJustice Studies,125-136.

Kasprzak,J. (2013). Scope of illegal Possession of Weapons in Poland andCharacter Study of a Perpetrator of this Crime. InternalSecurity,147-158.

McIntosh,JL &amp Drapeau, C. (2012). &quotU.S.A.Suicide: 2010 Official Final Data&quot . suicidology.org. AmericanAssociation of Suicidology.2(2):34- 37

Miller,M. &ampHemenway, D. (2011). &quotFirearm Prevalence and the Risk ofSuicide: A Review&quot. Harvard Health Policy Review. ExploringPolicy in Health Care (EPIHC). 2(2): 29–37.

Rosengart,M. (2012). An evaluation of state firearm regulations and suicidedeath rates. InjuryPrevention,77-83

Valle,J. (2012). Revisiting Licensed Handgun Carrying: Personal Protectionor Interpersonal Liability? AmericanJournal of Criminal Justice,580-601.

Vittes,K. A., Vernick, J. S., &amp Webster, D. W. (2013). Legal Status andSource of Offenders` Firearms in States with the Least StringentCriteria for Gun Ownership. InjuryPrevention 19.1,26-31.