Experiencesof Mormons and Ghost Dancers
The firstGhost Dance was developed by a dreamer who was known as Wodziwob. Itwas started in 1869 and was later spread to other tribes inCalifornia and Oregon. The dance was then transformed to other cults.The second one was then started by Wovoka, a son to Tavibo, who wasone of Wodziwob’s assistant. Wovoka was influenced by the Mormons,the Indian Shaker Church and the Presbyterians (Mooney, 2012). Wovokahad a vision where he died and went to Heaven. He then spoke with Godand he was told to teach people about new dances and also deliver amillennial message. Indians from other tribes now came to learn fromWovoka. He was then taken to be the new messiah as he had inflictedstigmata on his hands and feet.
Asmore Indians from other tribes came to learn from the new messiah,the number of Ghost Dancers increased as the cult spread as far asMissouri River, northern Texas, Canadian Border and the SierraNevada. As the cult spread to Sioux it coincided with the risingSioux outbreak and it was thus wrongly blamed. The outbreak thuscaused the massacre of Ghost Dancers at Wounded Knee. The Mormonsalso face violent persecution and pushed to Missouri. Their homeswere also burned and a number of them were massacred (Mooney, 2012).
It is thusclear that America nation was very strict on cults and gave themlittle freedom. People of different religions were not welcomed tothe country and they were treated differently by the government. Thenatives discriminated, suppressed and even massacred the newreligious sects.
The GildedAge refers to the period in which iron and steel industry grew andmore immigrants started working. There was a rise in the steel andiron production and the demand for other resources like timber,silver and gold improved the United States transport system. Therailway system was also improved with the transportation of steel andiron. As the industry improved, a lot of wealth was created and thisled to a number of changes in the workforce. During this period, theworking population faced a lot of violence as the workers and theindustrialists fought over the workplace control.
TheAmerican workers responded to these changes in the workforce byorganizing the first American labor union and organizing strikes.When the workers realized that they did not stand a chance in theirstruggle with a combined force of the industrialists and UnitedStates government, they decided strong labor unions. Previously, theworkers did not have any union and thus, the formation of theNational Labor Union in 1866 helped in organizing successful strikes.The union also united workers of different races, ethnicities,occupations and genders. They also campaigned and lobbied forrestriction of child labor and 8 hour a day.
TheAmerican workers sought to gain some control over their working livesby fighting for social and political reforms. The workers united andfought to gain control by organizing long and violent strikes. Theyalso left the traditional political parties and started one of theirown which helped them to push for changes in law. The labor unionsand reformers also experimented with different organizations andpolitical approaches to seek some control over the lives of theworkers.
Progressivismexpanded democracy in several ways. It allowed for more democracy byproviding more chances to people and allowing them to exert moredirect control over their governments. They ways in which it expandeddemocracy are as follows
Firstly,the progressive reformers introduced the seventeenth amendment. Thisenabled people to elect senators directly. Before this amendment, theselection of the senators in the United States was carried out bystate legislatures. This act, therefore, gave more democracy topeople since they now had the ability to select senators directly.
Another wayin which progressivism expanded democracy is through initiatives andreferendum. These acts gave people the freedom to vote directly onseveral things. The initiative and referendum also gave people thefreedom to vote directly on proposed laws. They also gave people theability to directly control the government.
Theprogressive reformers also introduced recalls. This refers to apolitical process that provides voters with the power to removeofficials who were elected before the term of the official haveended. For the voters to recall an official, they must first passaround a petition to garner support from most people and then proceedto vote.
Mooney,J. (2012). The Ghost-Dance Religion and Wounded Knee. CourierCorporation.