Vehicles of Social Stratification

Vehiclesof Social Stratification

Synopsisof how legitimization operates

Legitimizationhas several meanings depending on its use. However, it implies theprocess through which the social stratification system or a givenextent of inequality and such acts, as well as those people,considered the power elites in the society are acceptable to thegeneral population. The method ensures that obedience and thestructured imbalance are maintained. Social stratification enhanceslegitimation through such acts like selective exposure and favorableor unfavorable reinforcements among others. In the Western countries,it was shown through the permanent hierarchy where those consideredsuperiors had a significant amount of power, money, and prestige thanthose ranked lower in the social groups. It was seen in differentsectors like the social and economic classes that were classified aslower, middle, and upper. It is believed that this is the only waysuch nations can function at the recommended levels of proficiencyalthough this thought differs from one state to another. In someareas, men are ranked above women despite their racial equalitythough this condition is the reverse in others. The working classhardly moved up in the social category because of their productionmeans, but the rich ones continued to dominate those in the lowergroups, and this is how a status quo is maintained because of themanipulation and exploitation. The social stratification, therefore,differs from one society to the other depending on its type.

Economicforces

Theeconomic gaps between people were modest before the industrialrevolution period, but this changed after it. The richest countrieshad a higher income per person compared to the weak ones. However,the income distribution was skewed as the elite group dominated thewealth compared to the mass peasants but the colonial America wasexceptional in this observation. During the industrial revolution,the gaps were widened between the citizens of the particularcountries and themselves as well. There was income acceleration inthe Western Europe and America contributing to the increased distancebetween the states and the internal income disparities followed thesame trend. The workers in the industries were more productive andwere highly paid compared to those in the rural areas.

Thetax system changed rapidly in response to ensuring that the inequitywas narrowed down. The source of revenue for the governments changedfrom tariffs and excise taxes to the rising incomes that funded ahigher percentage of its spending. The taxes rose across all thenations, but usage varied considerably across them. For instance,America was interested in bringing mass education through theopportunity equality instead of income as most nations did. Massiveinvestments were made in primary schools to increase the chances ofprogressing to secondary level. Apart from narrowing down thedisparity, it also boosted the social mobility among its people.

Theregulation was introduced as another strategy to curb the inequalityamong citizens. Laws and regulations were set to dictate the minimumamount of salary that the workers should be paid, and this gave theunion powers to ensure that the rights of its workers were respected.All these efforts narrowed the disparities that existed among thecitizens compared to the previous periods before the emergence ofindustries. Despite this indication, the situation was differentamong the countries because inconsistency continued to thrive as somebecame more developed than others.

Socialforces

Theseforces have also played a key role in shaping the history of theWestern regions from the era of industrial revolution. The highstandards of living can be traced back to this period in someprominent countries like the U.S, Germany, and Great Britain. Theworkforce population changed as women and children were involved inthe economic activities that could generate income compared to theprevious periods where it was only men who could labor. The sametrend can be observed to the current time where both genders canequally work in any position if they have all the qualities needed.At the workplaces, there were disparities between the skilled andunskilled workers, and this determined what they were paid. Thehighest income earners are often educated and have a well buildsocial connections with those they are in the same category or abovethem an aspect that made them sustain the occupations of high status.Members of the same social class are majorly concerned on what theycan achieve in the society. They had distinct features that broughtthem together like their careers and educational accomplishments. Ifone had no such similarities, he would not fit that line ofdominance. This aspect is seen in the current world though there is alow level of interaction regardless of one’s background.

Thediscrepancies that used to exist concerning income have significantlyreduced even so not eliminated. The participation in the politicaldecision-making is open to all genders, and the entire population hasthe right to vote. Nevertheless, there exist a gap between the poorand the rich, but the advancing technology in these nations isextensively used to minimize it yet the situation is a completereverse in some countries. From the industrial era, the gap has beenwidening as those who earn highly have dominated almost half of theincome while the rest is left to the majority less earners.

Socialstratification

Becauseof technology, most societies have advanced, and their socialstratifications have become sophisticated. The industrial revolutionincreased the rate of production notwithstanding the technology ledto more notable cases of inequality. The working environments havebeen demarcated due to the division of labor creating moreprofessional positions that have drawn a clear line that existsbetween those who receive the highest, and the respect accorded tothem as well as the lowly paid and the minimal honor they are given.There used to exist different dimensions of bias between oneindividual and the other, and the extent seems to have increased.Stratification, therefore, extends past those who have and themajority who lacks.

Inthe political stratification, despite the differences that may exist,the elites in this category have an influence on making decisions inthe industrialized societies and how the surpluses should beapportioned. This group is very open to the elites who have aninterest in joining it through the multiple channels it has and thevarious electoral systems that can accommodate them. Among theWestern countries, the politicians and economic elects have a robustsymbiotic connection, but they can sometimes differ when it comes tothe control of economic surplus as the opinions usually vary. Theamount of power that is acquired by the by the large blocs thatrepresent the ordinary citizens differ. Nonetheless, currently, giventhe level of productivity, all parts of the population share theeconomic surplus and its benefits to some extent.

Theincomes, just like wealth vary widely among the citizens especiallyin states like U.S and Canada though they are adequately equalcompared to the contemporary nonindustrial societies. Concerningmoney, the differences have a close connection to the age of anindividual because as they grow older, they continue to accumulatemore resources. The occupational stratification arises because theworkers in the industrial civilization’s income and wealth aremainly determined by the positions they hold.

Educationalstratification is one of the opportunities that the Westerners havemade an effort to expand. Formal education is a privilege that allthe children enjoy regardless of their background though there areinequalities from the way these resources are utilized. There areother factors like the family resources that can determine the amountof education that an individual can receive. The educationalachievement differences can be reflected up to the functional systemas some vacancies are only preserved for those who hold specificqualifications. Currently, its benefits can be seen due to theconnection that exists between education and income. For instance, inAmerica, the highly educated people earn to a range of three timesmore compared to the less education.

Racialand ethnic stratification is a result of the divisions that exist inthe Western societies. For example, in the US, there is no unitybetween the European Americans and the Africans who reside there.This has an effect on the benefits that humanity gets as some willget less while others enjoy more. Age and sex stratification are seenalmost in every society a prejudice that shows the geneticdifferences. The cultural norms make these variations clearer asthere are instances where women are lowly paid than men. Currently,this trend has changed as the payment is based on the education andskills that one possesses.

Vehicles of Social Stratification

VEHICLES OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION 7

Vehiclesof Social Stratification

Vehiclesof Social Stratification

Thedevelopment ofsocietyhasdifferent changes that impact on the community in variousdimensions. The progress of the society is,therefore,prone to modifythe way of life of people and make them have differentsocial groups and economic blocks. In the western world, differentevents ledto the development of the communities. The industrial revolution wasmarked with variouschanges and led to the significant change in the society. Through therevolution, communities developed models of making goods and productswhich would help them ina variety of ways(Lenski,2013).Thus, with the outreach of the revolutions, there rose differentsocial classes,social and economic changes. The social classes were notably broughtabout by the wealthyclass of social elites who had the factors and invented differenttools to work.

Thereare variousforces on the other hand that drove the need for a change in thecommunity. These changes are remarkable in how they affect thecommunity in an efficient manner. Some of the forces that broughtabout the modificationin the communities include the social changes, economic changes andsocial stratification of the community. These alterations remarkablychanged the way of life and perceptions towards different things inthe society. Thus, these instances ameliorated the perception ofindividuals on the issues which they underwent. Moreto the point, the western world developed and evolved differentmodels of these forces to help them with entering new dimensions ofthe society (Emmenegger,2012).Through the instances, the industrial revolution, therefore, createda chance for the various sectors of the communities to come up withcertain ways of identifying themselves and making public have theobvious benefit of their actions.Therefore, the differentvehicles of social stratification also led to significant developmentin the Western nations.

SocialChanges

Inthe course of the industrial revolution, differentsocial changes werebrought about by the activities of the era. There was a significantrise in the population of people as well as the creationof new urban centers that served as central points for differentactivities. On the other hand, the urban areas had poor livingconditions that hadan association withthe lack of usefulbuilding materials and low-class building designs (Lenski,2013).The factory owners in the western world had manylaborers who received low wages, and as well regarded as a toolfor financial opportunities. The workers lived in poor houses, witheight to ten people sharing the rooms as well as fines were imposedon them when they got to their workplaces late (Emmenegger,2012).The revolution also brought about a maximization of the poor peopleto ensure that the produce was up to the required standards. Theaspect madethe factory owners to exploit the different laborers such as womenand children who often worked in deplorable conditions.

Thesocial changes in the age of industrial revolution have a greatimpact on the modern societysince the mutiny also brought about somearistocrats that demandedequality and changed the manner of conducting things. Through thesechanges, the social entity of the community hasbeen modified onthe required conditions. Therefore, the social shiftsin the society are as a result of the deplorable social conditions tothe public during the industrial revolution.

EconomicChanges

Theindustrial revolution in the society caused significant economicchanges. The economic alterations which wereexperiencedwere instrumental in changing the phase of the culturefrom traditional to modernized environments. The economic activitiesof various individuals changed from agricultural reliance to workingin the manufacturing industries. Theissue causedahighreliance onproduced goods compared to the agricultural products.On the other hand, the economy realized asignificantnumber of workers who were paid low wages and exploited to ensurethat they achieved the maximum output. Therefore, through the actionsof the different segments of the population, the creation of valueshiftedfromthe development of home goods to the acquisition of factory madeproducts(Pearson &amp Sharp, 2015).The society realized a new group within the organizationthat evolved into peoplein businessand companyowners. Theissue composesthe particulargroup of the communitythat employs the migrating people. Nonetheless, the productioncapacities increased aboutthe dramatically increasing demand forplantproducts.

Theeconomic changes of the era have a great impact onthe modern economic structure. There was an increase in the demandfor better services to the workers,and this led to a significant creation of a platform here theemployees could advance their needs. Therefore, the wage allocationsfor the staff increased with time (Pearson&amp Sharp, 2015).On the other hand, the creation of ahealthycommunity led to the upgrade of the living conditions and the openingup of the different avenues for employment even in the rural areas toease the congestion in the towns. On the other hand, the governmentshad increased GDPs due to the introduction of taxation for thedifferent organizations that were set up. Therefore, the economicchanges in the modern world have been introduced by those during theindustrial revolution.

SocialStratification

Theindustrial revolution led to an increase distance between thebourgeoisie and the proletariat. Provided that the political scene ofthe countries markedthe powerful and wealthy,the gapwidened,and laws were also introduced to govern the two different groups. Thedistance between the two groups marked an insecure revolution thatled to the separation of a settlementbetween the wealthyand the have-nots.Notably, in this era, there were shanty establishmentsmeantfor the workers and laborers in companies. These settlements wereprone to intrusion and in most cases shared by the employees(Lenski,2013).The rich however had exclusive settlements where they could have thevariousinfrastructures they required. While the laborers had low wages, thefactory owners enjoyed huge returns and could afford luxuriousliving. Nonetheless, the elite community had a great determination inthe political scene of the countries.

Theprevious stratification determines the social groups within themodern societyin the industrial era. The periodmarked a huge gap between the poor and the rich as well as a greatoppression of the poor. Nonetheless, the modern society advocates forfairness,and this has led to the creation of laws which look into how laborersare treated and even paid. Aboutthis, there are different changes which have been noticed such as theelite proletariat who have the chance to seek leadership positions.The proletariat also hasgood living conditions and security in the different areas where theylive. Thus, the changes in the agrarian revolution havehad a lead in the modern society.

Legitimizationof Social Stratification

Withinthe modern western world, variousinitiatives areundertaken to legitimize the social stratification. There is awidespread belief among the people that those who are in the upperclass have a right of being in the positions (Lenski,2013).Nonetheless, the elitepoliticalclass isalso seen as having made it to their positions rightfully anddeservedrecognition for their actions. The process enhances the developmentof a society whereby there are activitieswhich are undertaken toensure thatthe inequalities in the society arerecognizedfrom the level of education to interactions. Theissue hasbeenfacilitatedby the establishment of exclusive clubs and products that areusedby the wealthyand some ofthe ordinarypeople (Pearson&amp Sharp, 2015).Thus, the process of legitimization of social stratificationencourages the peaceful coexistence of the social classes in thesociety. On the other hand, the model is attributed to have created aneed for constant change within the community.

Conclusion

Inconclusion, the social stratification noticed in the modern timesbegan as a result of agrarian and industrial revolutions. Theserevolutions determined the manner in which interactions wereconductedand the creation of establishments to segregate the bourgeoisie andthe proletariat. Therefore, the institutions evolved to become moreaccommodative to enhance the growth of the society and accommodatemore people (Emmenegger,2012).The practices that wereconductedin the communities increaseda generation of aparticularelite community in the society that determined market prices and lawswithin the society. On the other hand, the various drivers of socialstratification in the industrial era and similarly the modern societyinclude social changes, social segmentation,and economic changes. These features changed the traditional model ofthe communities to a modernized model where classes arenoticedand appreciated.

References

Emmenegger,P. (Ed.). (2012). Theage of dualization: the changing face of inequality indeindustrializing societies.OUP USA.

Lenski,G. E. (2013). Powerand privilege: A theory of social stratification.UNC Press Books.

Persson,K. G., &amp Sharp, P. (2015). Aneconomic history of Europe.Cambridge University Press.