Thisarticle is a guide for medical research and the author states that itcan be grouped into five phases, which include "performance,analysis, documentation, planning, and publication."In additionto organizational, financial, personnel and logistical questions, ascientific design study is the most significant aspect of planning astudy. The importance of study design is ensuring quality,conclusions reliability, and the ability to publish a study areusually forgotten (Bernd et al., 2009).Before the recruitment ofvolunteers, the design of the study has set the points for meetingthe objectives of the survey. Unlike to the errors made in theassessment that is statistical, errors in design are not easy tocorrect after the completion of the study. This difficulty is thereason the study design should be properly established beforestarting and needs to be specified in the protocol of the study(Maxwell, 2012).
Ina medical study, the question being addressed in the research is ofgreat significance for the planning of the study. The questionsshould be always well defined, and the objectives should always beclear. The question must be converted into a form that is measurableand can be evaluated. In any research, the following questions arevaluable: Why? Who? What? How? When? Where? How many? (Creswell,2013).
Thestudy population should be another focus in a medical research study.Hence, there is a group that is being targeted for the person this isbeing given clarification. The researcher does not have an interestin the population being studied and observed, but also whether thefindings can be transferred to the population being targeted(Creswell, 2013). This implies that, the procedures for thestatistical test must be utilized for generalization of the resultsfrom the whole population sample. The information to be included hereis the occupation of the participant follow up observation period,criteria of inclusion and exclusion among others.
Thetype of study can either be qualitative, quantitative, or mixedmethods. Before the researcher specifies the type of research, theyshould focus on the type of data they intend to use. It can either beprimary data, which implies original or firsthand information, orsecondary data, which is information from other scholars and theirfindings (Yin, 2013).
Theauthor of this article further states that the unit of observationlike the cell, cell system, genetic information, organ, organ systemand the population should be used. The instruments used in anyresearch should be reliable, and their validity should be considered.The plan for measurement should include the number of investigators,measurement conditions standardization and the type of scale used(Bernd et al., 2009).
Whenit comes to the calculation of sample size, the factors that aresearcher in medicine should consider is power, the level ofsignificance, difference and scatter or variance. It is important asit helps to estimate the number of units to be used for analysis ofthe primary question for the study (Creswell, 2013).
Inthis article, the author has tried to explain how to conduct amedical research and the areas they should pay more emphasis on tomake the research better and easier to complete (Maxwell, 2012). Thismeans that when a medical student is conducting research, it isimportant to pay attention to this guide. This is because the paperis logically organized and the author is objective and not biased.The fact that it uses recent scholarly articles makes it qualify as asecondary source of data.
Bernd,R., Prel, J.-B., & Blettner, M. (2009). Studydesign in medical research: Part 2 of a series on the evaluation ofscientific publications.Deutsches Aerzteblatt International. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2695375/pdf/Dtsch_Arztebl_Int-106-0184.pdf
Creswell,J. W. (2013). Qualitativeinquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches.Sage.
Maxwell,J. A. (2012). Qualitativeresearch design: An interactive approach: An interactive approach.Sage.
Yin,R. K. (2013). Casestudy research: Design and methods.Sage publications.