Wellness Education Program- Combating heart diseases and stroke


WellnessEducation Program- Combating heart diseases and stroke

Heart-relateddiseases are part of the leading cause of deaths among populations inthe US. Stroke is also among the top in the list of the killerdiseases in the country. These cardiovascular disease examples tendto be among the most widespread diseases that are costly when itcomes to treatment and overall management. These diseases amount to aconsiderable portion of the health care expenditures on an annualbasis, about $320 billion (Healthy People 2020, 2016). The mostfortunate thing that is evident when looking at the heart diseases isthat they are preventable among the vulnerable populations. Some ofthe risk factors that are modifiable when looking at the heartdiseases include hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, diabetes,cigarette smoking cessation, physical inactivity, obesity andunhealthy diets. When the risk factors are left unattended, theyresult in changes in the heart and the blood vessels, a scenario thatleads to cases of heart attacks, strokes and even heart failures(Health People 2020, 2016). It is, therefore, imperative that therisk factors are addressed early on in the bid to prevent thedevelopment of chronic heart conditions. Controlling the risk factorsthat are associated with heart diseases and stroke tends to be achallenge for the populations in the US given that in the presenttimes, they are still linked to the development of CVD which is anational epidemic (Health People 2010, 2016). When looking at thefacts and the figures, research findings have revealed thathypertension in the US affects one adult in every three and out ofthese, only a half are in a position to manage the disease (HealthyPeople 2020, 2016). High sodium intake is linked to the developmentof heart diseases and CVD, and yet, 90% of the American adults gobeyond their recommended intake limit of sodium (Health People 2020,2016). Much can also be said about all the other risk factors aswell. Dealing with the principles and concepts of the development ofheart disease and stroke in the susceptible populations is importantas evidenced in the section below.

Principlesand concepts of disease prevention and health promotion

Understandingthe place of cardiovascular diseases in the society today isremarkable because diseases do not occur in isolation rather, theyare influenced by attributes that are drawn from the physical,political and social environments. Under these topics, issues fromthe following sections may be considered: maternal and child health,educational awareness, availability of nutritious foods, physicalactivity education, high quality working conditions, communitysupport and access to quality and affordable health care, areconsidered. The healthcare professionals that are tasked with thedevelopment of health programs for heart disease and strokemanagement must identify the emerging issues in the vulnerablepopulations for there to be proper monitoring and improvement inmatters that are related to the cardiovascular health.


Thevulnerable population that will be targeted by this particularwellness program will be the Latino and the Native American adults.With the background information that these two groups of the USpopulation suffer the most regarding high morbidities that arerelated to socio-economic and physical inactivity, they form the bestcase study (Mendez-Luke et al., 2015).

Strategiesfor educating a population about health promotion and diseaseprevention

Thestrategies for educating the Latinos and Native Americans on theimportance of taking charge of their cardiovascular health willinvolve the provision of information concerning the risks and thedangers of CVD to the wellbeing of an individual. The strategiesemployed would take note of the incorporation of the usage oflectures, workshops, seminars, courses, classes and even webinars. Bythe utilization of these activities, information dissemination willbe facilitated. The strategies will commence by promoting theparticipation of the target population throughout the programprocesses of the plan. Completion of windshield assessments will bedone in the region covered by the target population (Oregon), in thebid to identify the most critical community needs, the priorities,and the resources that are available to the community. During theseassessments, the target population can provide information that willhelp the healthcare planners to know what to incorporate in thecourse of the CVD program. Using the examples of educationalactivities, the knowledge of participants concerning the areas ofcardiovascular health will be promoted. The educational strategieswill also provide arrangements for the implementation of the CVDprogram where curricula integration will be incorporated and thusensure that the target population participates in settings that theydeem as being convenient. The method for conducting education willinvolve the use of presentation materials as well as audiovisuals,and translation facilities for participants that may have linguisticbarriers. The staffs that are involved with the program will have tobe continuously trained to ensure that deviation from the programmodel does not occur.

Benefitsof a health and wellness plan for the target population

Thebenefits of a health and wellness program for the Latino and NativeAmericans would serve the purpose of preventing the development ofchronic ailments that emanate from heart disease and stroke. Giventhat the primary challenge of the target population revolves aroundphysical inactivity, the wellness program will offer to the targetpopulation, the benefits of the overall physical activity of thebody. Information concerning the basics of regular activity on thebody will be provided by the program staff where informationregarding muscle strengthening and aerobic activities will bedisseminated. The benefits that the program users will accrue as aresult of active participation throughout the program implementationprocess will promote control of blood sugar, cholesterol, weight.Additionally, bad cholesterol will be kept at bay through indulgencein physical activity and overall, prevention of heart disease,cancers and type 2 diabetes will be noted. The program users will beencouraged to participate in the wellness plan if they are made awareof the benefits of being physically active, and how much they canenhance healthy living and longevity through the simple act that thewellness program requires. It is here that the plan will beintensively marketed to the target community.

Evidence-basedhealth promotion and disease prevention initiatives

Evidencedrawn from the windshield assessments and literature that isavailable, confirm the physical inactivity of the Latino and AmericanIndian communities in Oregon, and so health initiatives for thispopulation are identifiable. Decision-making that is enlightened canbe made after obtaining high quality and timely information on theefficacy of the preventive measures that are available to thewellness plan. Research studies available in literature andwindshield assessments revealed three thematic factors that wereassociated with ill health in some members of the target group.

Thethemes noted included interconnectedness of the social perspective,invisibility as well as trauma (Mendez-Luke et al., 2015). Under thesocial interconnectedness theme, it was noted that the socialenvironment that surrounds individuals in the community, determinedthe extent of healthy living, and physical activity per se. On theother hand, the invisibility theme identified that target populationcommunities were marginalized thus enhancing their vulnerability toill health. This population was not only underrepresented, but alsoappeared to be forgotten by the larger US society. Finally, under thetrauma theme, it was noted that some members of the target communityindicated that historical events in their families affected theirhealthy living and some examples include, alcohol and drug abuse aswell as violent instances. In such cases, the behavior of a member ofthe family affected that of another or the family as a whole. Traumas that were community-based added to the health problems of theNative Americans for instance where betrayal by the government of US,elimination from ancestral lands and forceful residential schoolingwere the keynote examples.

Withthe evidence presented health initiatives that would promote thehealth of the target population would have to be sensitive to thethemes that define the community in question. The health initiativeswill address the need for an intervention where in this case, theneed being the prevention of the development of heart disease andstroke in the vulnerable population by the enhancement of physicalactivity while looking at the socioeconomic level of the targetpopulation. The initiatives will pick up from what has been donebefore in the Oregon community. In the bid to determine what wouldwork and what option would not. A guide to the implementation of theinitiatives will be done while paying attention to cost-effectivestrategies (See Appendix 1, Roadmap for program planning).


TheLatinos and Native Americans have cultures that are rich withtraditional values. The wellness program will take note of thereligion, beliefs, food, self-determination, and demographics of thetarget population in the Oregon area. The Latinos in the area werenoted to be mostly Catholics. Some of the community members hadunique belief systems concerning ill health, where they believedsickness originates from witchcraft or sin. The American Indians, onthe other hand, were noted to be rooted to their Indian belief systembut were flexible to adopt some features of other religions likeChristianity, given that institutionalization of this community hadalready begun even before the missionaries settled in North America.Both groups had preferences for certain foods, and the preferenceswere different when an individual was under chronic pain management.The wellness plan will be sensitive to the areas of religion, beliefsand food preferences of the target community.

Integrationof Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

Boththe Latino and Native Americans have strong views on spirituality.The American Indian culture has beliefs that are linked tospirituality as much as they vary as per location and tribe. TheLatino community on the other had beliefs that poor health had linksto sin, imbalance or witchcraft. The Latino and Native Americancommunities appreciate the place of CAM where in this case,traditional medicines are considered for an individual to enjoyholistic health. The health imbalance which causes illness accordingto the belief system of the Latinos is that four humors come intoplay which includes phlegm, blood, black and yellow bile. Members ofboth communities view healing as a sacred process and so with that inmind, the wellness plan will incorporate this fact. The program mayalso include traditional medicines given that these communities haveapplied different kinds of traditional medicines in their treatmentregimens.

Integrationof linguistic considerations

Amongthe integrations that the health plan will take note of, is thelinguistic consideration activities. The first language of the nativeLatinos is Spanish while the Native Americans have languages thathave very long pauses. Silence, for the Native Americans, is highlyvalued and the interruption of the old, while they are speaking, isconsidered. The program staff, in the bid to make sure that theimplementation of the program takes effect well will incorporate theuse of translations, and some of the staff will be drawn from thecommunities. The use of audiovisuals will be utilized for the mostpart when trying to communicate a point to the target communitymembers.

Factorsrelated to health disparities in diverse and vulnerable populations

Healthdisparities in vulnerable populations arise from inequitablehealthcare have impacts drawn from the ethical, legal and economicperspectives. Most people of color, for instance, the Latinos and theNative Americans are noted to have limited access to care in the UScompared to the whites. Health disparities may yield unethical caseswhere premature deaths are observed to occur which would have beenprevented with the absence of healthcare disparities. The legalfactors that are available present weak constraints under the tortand so access to care remains impaired in vulnerable populationswhich are somewhat isolated from the broader US society. Thedisparities may result in economic losses that arise as a result ofincurring costs that are indirect and which are associated with poorproductivity, and deaths that are premature. Change ought to beimminent to deal with the economic, legal and ethical factors thatarise from health disparities. The medical practice changes have totake place, backed by law for there to be equal access to care.

Ethicalprinciples that can affect preventative care and health promotion

Havinglooked at the major ethical factor that emanate from health disparityin the vulnerable population of the people of color, premature deathsas a result of heart disease and stroke can be prevented by theincorporation of ethical principles. These principles constitute thefollowing: the commitment to doing good for the overall targetpopulation where in this case, the principle of beneficence isconsidered (Wilkes University, 2014). Commitment to causing no harmto the target population as described by non-maleficence is anotherprinciple to preventative care. Self-determination and the ability tomake decisions on the part of the user of preventative care isanother ethical principle that defines respect for autonomy (WilkesUniversity, 2014). Enhancement of fairness, truthfulness, and justiceare the other ethical principles that ought to be considered whendetermining the preventative care option that is chosen for apopulation (Wilkes University, 2014). When embracing the ethicalprinciples, considerations to the legislations and policies ought tobe considered.

Lawsand the Affordable Health Care Act

Theaims of the AHCA is to promote universal access to care throughshared responsibility, promotion of fairness equity, quality andaffordable care, improvement of the value of healthcare, strengthencare access and strategic investment in healthcare (Rosenbaum, 2011).The health policies that are incepted at the local, and state levels,ought to be in line with all the aims of the Act. In the promotion ofcare for heart disease and stroke, Latino and Native Americans inOregon, the policies at the local and state level must be in linewith the AHCA. All program plans must work hand in hand withofficials drawn from the local and state governments, to realize themantra of the AHCA.

Economicimpact of clinical prevention and health promotion related to healthdisparities for a population

Theeconomic impact of prevention and health promotion ensures thatproductive community that is both healthy and productive exists.Clinical prevention is also important when it comes to theimprovement of the value of healthcare spending by slowing thehealthcare costs which further reduces health expenditures in thelong run.


Thewellness program targeting cardiovascular health for the Latinos andNative Americans will be a step closer to preventing the developmentof heart disease and other related chronic ailments. Anevidence-based plan will help to provide the care that is needed bythe community members, and an approach that uses ethical conceptswill be used to promote the health initiative to the targetpopulation. At the end of the day, combating preventable diseases andfurthering the aims of the AHCA will take effect and thus ensure thatevery US citizen is carried along in the bid to realize the vision ofensuring a healthy America.


HealthyPeople 2020. (2016.). Heart Disease and Stroke. Retrieved November07, 2016, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx

Mendez-Luck,C. A., Bethel, J. W., Goins, R. T., Schure, M. B., &amp McDermott,E. (2015). Community as a source of health in three racial/ethniccommunities in Oregon: A qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 15(1),1–10.

Rosenbaum,S. (2011). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act:implications for public health policy and practice. Public HealthReports, 130-135.

WilkesUniversity. (2014). 7 Key Ethical Principles of Nursing. RetrievedNovember 07, 2016 fromhttp://onlinenursing.wilkes.edu/key-ethical-principles-of-nursing/



Roadmapfor program planning