In1453, the Byzantine Empire collapsed after fighting against theOttoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire ended up taking control ofConstantinople. Subsequently, the Ottoman Empire blocked Europe’saccess to the Silk Road. This act affected the Euro-Asian trade.Later in 1492, Christopher Columbus made his maiden voyage tomainland America. His journey marked the start of the exchangebetween Europe and the Americas. The trade resulted in the exchangeof products such as potatoes, tobacco, corn, and spices. It alsoresulted in the spread of ailments like measles, smallpox, and theflu. These diseases killed 95 percent of the native inhabitants.During the turn of 1517, Martin Luther initiated the Protestantreligion because he grew tired of the rampant corruption within theCatholic Church. Protestantism was the first major breakaway religionand is currently the largest religion grouping in America (Lockard,2008).
Between1600 and 1602, the British East India Company (BEIC) commenced workin Asia. BEIC quickly rose in prominence and wealth due to trade,tothe point that it became the British government’s biggest financer.It also aided in British colonialism efforts. By the year 1607,colonists established Jamestown in Virginia as the first Englishvillage in America. Their presence increased the spread of diseasesand conflicts with the locals. However, Jamestown also became atrading post. In the year 1609, Galileo Galilei made his firsttelescope which he used to observe the moon’s craters, Jupiter’smoons, and to determine that the earth rotates around the sun. Further, Galileo marked a new era of observational astronomy thatinspires people up to date. Most people in the 14th and 15th centurybelieved that Earth was the universe’s center point. Galileoreversed that assumption. Also, in between 1618 and 1648, the powerstruggle between Protestants and the Catholics turned into apolitical war that lasted for thirty years (Lockard, 2008).
Come1682, and Peter the Great began expanding Russia’s territories tocover more sections of Europe. The expansion was driven by Russia’sdesire to widen its trade with Europe. Peter the Great is the personwho expanded Russia’s map up to the Baltic Sea, Caspian Sea and upto the Black Sea. In 1688, Kings James II was removed from power inwhat is known as the Glorious Revolution. King James II’s removalalso resulted in the development of a constitutional monarchy inEngland. Before the Glorious Revolution, the monarchy had absolutepower. Currently, the monarch’s powers are limited by the law. In1690, the Mughal Empire became the largest empire in India. However,in 1707, after the death of Aurangzeb, the empire fell. This weakensthe Indian’s resistance to British and French colonists (Lockard,2008).
Lockard,C. A. (2008). Societies,networks and transitions: A global history.Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin.